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date: 09 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article starts by presenting a discussion of how Marshall and contemporary researchers have defined the social rights of citizenship. It also summarizes the existing measures of social rights. The discussion of measurement issues necessarily revisits the definition of social rights because how scholars measure social rights often clarifies how they define social rights. Moreover, the determinants of social rights and the impact of social rights on governmental redistribution, poverty reduction, employment, and gender equality are explored. It is shown that high short-term unemployment replacement rates, sickpay generosity, and parental leave have positive effects on both employment variables, while high long-term unemployment replacement rates and high employment protection laws (EPL) have a negative impact on both variables.

Keywords: social rights, citizenship, governmental redistribution, poverty, employment, gender equality, employment protection laws

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