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date: 17 August 2019

(p. 1349) Index

(p. 1349) Index

abortion
bioethics1143, 1146, 1150–1
citizenship1058, 1060, 1069, 1073, 1077
constitutionalization1057–77
constitutional law1060–4
counselling1059, 1070–2, 1075–7
criminalization1060–75
dignity and autonomy380–1, 387–8, 391–2, 1057–60, 1064–5, 1069–73, 1077
Europe1057–77
European Convention on Human Rights1237–8
foundational frameworks1064–71
fundamental rights387–8
gender415
identity771
indications legislation1060–4, 1066, 1068, 1071–5
judicial review808
periodic legislation1072–3
politics1060–4
privacy1066
protecting life/protecting women1073–5
protecting life/respecting women1075–7
religion1063, 1071, 1146
socio-economic rights1031–2
absolutism105, 637–8, 653, 659–60
access to information899–900, 1282
accountability
democracy1167, 1179–80
executive663–4
independence of the judiciary834, 839, 843, 855, 861
internal accountability861
internationalization of constitutional law1179–80
judiciary861–2, 865–9
parliamentary systems663–4
reparations1280
Ackerly, Brooke A1144
Ackerman, Bruce63, 103, 228, 320, 445, 559, 656, 679–80, 1345–6
Adenauer, Konrad475, 768
administrative procedures678–82
affirmative action990–2, 1124–40
constitutionalization1129–35
cultural rights1128
European Union1128, 1135–7
identification of disadvantaged1131–5
indirect action1125–6
non-constitutionalization and side effects1135–40
outreach1126–7
politically dominant, economically disadvantaged groups1129–31
positive discrimination1126–9, 1136
quotas1126, 1132–6
religion1125, 1130–1
side effects of constitutionalization and non-constitutionalization1129–40
tie-break rules1126, 1132, 1135
Afghanistan1270–1, 1289–90, 1297–8
Africa
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights933, 996–7
colonialism636–8
development636–8
impoverishment156–66, 168
presidential systems638, 644, 647
agencies673–8, 682–5
Agranat, Simon1340
Aguirre Anguiano, Sergei1097
Ahmadi-Nejad, Mahmud1290
Alexy, Robert725, 730, 741, 746
Allan, TRS1346
Allende, Salvador641
Allison, JWF316
al-Qa‘eda1296
Althusius, Johannes494
(p. 1350) amendment or revision of constitutions9, 420–1, 437–40
adjudication, theory of364
authority431
‘difficult amending system’ concept439
eternity clauses439
flexibility110, 421
fundamental change421, 437
implied limitations440
interpretation690, 698, 704, 708–9
judicial review440
limitations439–40
margin of appreciation364
popular initiatives433
process and meaning438–9
referendums438, 509
rigid or flexible constitutions110
sovereignty363–5
stability439
super-majority110–11, 438
unamendable provisions111, 437–40
American Convention on Human Rights933
amnesties, pseudo-amnesties or clemency1274–5, 1277–9
Anderson, Benedict758
Anderson, Elizabeth1139
animals and nature, dignity of384, 391–2
anonymity, super-injunctions and133–4, 206
Arab Charter of Human Rights985
area studies56–7
Arendt, Hannah265–6, 767, 949, 1011
Aristotle3, 35, 75–6, 171, 199, 214, 253, 406–7, 410, 549, 719, 756, 982, 986
armed forces see military service
Asia see also individual countries
colonialism636–8
development636–8
human rights17–18
impoverishment156–62, 165–8
presidential systems638, 647
values17–18, 157, 160
associative rights948–64 see also freedom of assembly; freedom of association
Ataturk, Kemal219
Austin, John363
Austin, Stephen F635
Australia
elections531–2, 539–40
executive564
freedom of expression892
interpretation694–6, 700–1, 703, 707, 709–17
judicial appointments710–12
mixed constitutionalism175
privacy974
separation of powers564
usages and conventions230
authoritarianism see illiberal regimes
autochthonous constitutions218–21
autocracies see illiberal regimes
Avino, Graig848
Bach, Gabriel1341
Bagehot, Walter652
Baines, Beverly65
Baldouin I, King803
Balla, Steven675
Banna, Hasan1296
Barak, Aharon724–5, 779, 781–2, 1339–41
Baranger, Denis270
Barendt, Eric106
Bastid, Paul472
Baubock, Rainer486, 1013
Beattie, John939
Beatty, David M725, 1330–1
Beauchamp, Tom L1145
Beaud, Olivier422–3, 426–7
Beccaria, Cesare938
Bednar, Jenna596
Beers, Daniel849
Belgium1241–2, 1249–50
Bellamy, Richard574
Ben-Gurion, David1340
Benhabib, Seyla992
Bentham, Jeremy285
Beran, Harry484–5
Bergasse, Nicolas940
Berlin, Isaiah284, 1346
Berlusconi, Silvio1261
Bernhardt, Rudolf1234
Beyleveld, Derrick1154
Bienenfeld, FR932
Bierling, Ernst Rudolf285
bills of rights
Bill of Rights 1689251, 466–7, 661, 950
Canada179–90
constitutional courts176–7, 179–80
group rights1107
(p. 1351) interpretation707–8
procedural justice339–41
South Africa1344–5
truth or consensus constitutions115
United States109, 119, 212–13, 273, 1344–5
Bingham, Tom1244–5
bin Laden, Osama1210, 1297–8
bioethics1142–60
abortion1143, 1146, 1150–1
beginning of life1148–9
biomedicine1145–6
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU1145
cloning1144–5, 1147
common European approach1145
dignity and autonomy1145–7, 1154–5, 1159–60
DNA1143, 1156–9
end of life decisions/euthanasia18, 1154–6
European Convention on Human Rights1143, 1145–50, 1155, 1158
Europe, end of life decisions in1154–5
freedom of science1147
human rights1142–50, 1155, 1158
human tissues and cells, extension of basic rights to1156–9
informed consent1150
jurisprudence of core questions1148–59
justice1145
national constitutions1146–8
normative bioethics1144–5
patents1152–4, 1158–9
privacy1157–9
procreative liberties, concept of1150–1
religion1146
reproductive rights1148–50, 1159–60
research on human embryos and embryonic stem cells1151–4, 1158–60
subsidiarity1145
Universal Declaration of Human Rights1144–5
Bismarck, Otto von125, 955, 1021
Black, Hugo901, 1038, 1334
Blackstone, William44, 207–8, 212, 551, 1086
Blais, Andre534
Bloch, Marc1287
Böckenförde, EW912
Bodin, Jean193–4, 203–4, 350, 354, 359
Bolingbroke, Henry St John208–9, 211
Bolívar, Simon634
Bomhoff, Jacco66
Bonaparte, Napoleon940
Bork, Robert348
borrowing, transplantation and migration13–18, 1304–26
autochthonous constitutions220–1
bias1320
chance borrowings1317, 1319
citizenship1010–12
consent1307
convergence1309–11, 1320, 1325–6, 1329
cost-savings1318
definition of constitution220–1
due process14–15
foreign law1317, 1321–5, 1328–30, 1346–7
functionalism1317–18, 1324
geographical proximity1319–21
globalization1305, 1325
interpretation13–14, 1305, 1309, 1319, 1321
judicial review1305, 1313, 1315, 1318–19
justification1321–5
language1320–1, 1325
legal education1305, 1317, 1320
motivations1317–19
non-borrowing1308
norms1312–15, 1317, 1319, 1321
object1313–15
patterns1319–21
private law1305–9, 1311–18, 1322, 1325
proportionality1315, 1320
public/private law distinction1311–13
rejection1306–7
reputational motivation1317, 1318
rule of law1322–3
terminology1306–8, 1329–30
timing1315–17
transnational constitutionalism76, 86
vertical and horizontal migrations1319–20
boundaries of constitutions221–6
Bracher, Karl Dietrich887
Bracton, Henry de242, 660
Brancati, Dawn604
Brandeis, Louis588
Brandom, Robert291
Brandt, Willy1260
Brazier, James E674–5
Brennan, William J959, 1334
Breslin, Beau137, 143
Brewer-Caraís, Allan Randolph55
(p. 1352) Breyer, Stephen457, 679–80, 682, 1323, 1332
Brezhnev, Leonid638
bricolage1079–80
Brilmayer, Lea487
Brinks, Daniel M167
Brown, Darryl942–3
Brown, Gordon468, 668
Brownsword, Roger1154
Bryce, James4, 506, 658
Bryde, Brun-Otto1337–8
Buchanan, Allen486, 1105
Buchanan, James342–3
Budge, Ian507
Burdeau, Georges278
Burger, Warren E44, 1086
Burgess, Michael581, 583
Burke, Edmund79–80, 662, 786–7
Bush, George W46, 451, 458, 565, 1153
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam984–5
Calabresi, Steven559
Calhoun, John C497
campaign finance539–43
Campbell, Naomi905
Canada
abortion1060–1
Charter of Rights and Freedoms179–90
citizenship1003, 1007–8, 1011, 1017
economic rights1049–51, 1053
elections532
equality and non-discrimination986–7, 994, 999
federalism594
freedom of expression895–6, 898, 903, 906
gender405–6, 408
identity761
interpretation694–6, 698–700, 707–17
judicial appointments711–12
judicial review798–9
language1106
notwithstanding clause713, 798–9
parliamentary sovereignty798–9
political parties538
proportionality723, 727, 743
Quebec495–500, 761, 1106
secession495–500
separation of powers552
Canes-Wrone, Brandice683
Capitant, Henri5, 10
Cardozo, Benjamin595, 787, 891–2, 1338
Carey, John559
Carré de Malberg, Raymond353–4, 362, 365, 503
Cartabia, M1042
Cassin, René956
censorship894, 900–2
certification, process of436–7
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU
bioethics1145
economic rights1052
equality and non-discrimination984, 997
European Convention on Human Rights1233, 1250
European Union1198, 1204–6
petition, right to949
Chase, Samuel698
Chávez, Hugo630
checks and balances
constitutionalism210–11
democracy254, 257–8
efficacy796, 805
executive567
guardians of the constitution800
internationalization of constitutional law1181–2
judiciary860–1
parliamentary systems561
procedural justice341–2
separation of powers211, 550, 574
state sovereignty351
Cheibub, José A669
Childress, James F1145
China128–9, 846, 848, 1110
Chirac, Jacques879
choice theory484–6
Choudhry, Sujit59, 62, 604, 1088, 1305, 1313, 1332
Cicero195–7, 200, 250, 549
citizenship1002–18
abortion1058, 1060, 1069, 1073, 1077
becoming a citizen, legal dimension of1005–16
birth place1005–8
borrowing1010–12
ceremonies and tests1013–14
convergence thesis1011
(p. 1353) cosmopolitanism1017
culture1009–10, 1012–16
dual nationality1010–13
elections532–4
equality1004, 1007–8, 1014–15
European Union1016–17
future1016–18
gender1007–8, 1015
group rights1100, 1119
habitual residence1007
identity1004, 1014
immigration control1014–17
integration1014, 1017
jus sanguinis principle (parentage principle)1006, 1008–10, 1017
jus soli principle (territoriality principle)1005–10, 1017–18
language1014
loss of citizenship1010–12
marital status1007
nation states, determination by1004
naturalization1005–6, 1012–16
parentage principle1006, 1008–10, 1017
religion1014–15
residency532–3
secession483–4, 487, 493
territoriality principle1005–10, 1017–18
civil and political rights
group rights1101–8
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights489, 930, 932, 943, 958, 984–5, 993–4
socio-economic rights1020, 1022, 1025, 1033
socio-political rights949–62
civil law and common law50–2, 55, 846, 850–2
civil servants see public service
classificatory work54, 55–8, 60
Clinton, Bill562, 680, 866, 1153
closed shops960–1
Cockburn, JS939
codified constitutions106
Coffin, Frank M726
cognitive constitutionalism202–4
Cohen, Linda R682–3
Coke, Edward930, 970, 1006
collective rights1043–6, 1048, 1050, 1052, 1103–5
Collier, Paul161
Colombia1030, 1033
colonization
Africa636–8
Asia636–8
decolonization91–2, 422, 431–2
development636–8
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of51, 1331
hegemony12
making constitutions422, 431–2
Middle East636–8
post-colonial constitutional model762–3, 765–6
presidentialism636–8
time91–2
common law and civil law50–2, 55, 846, 850–2
communitarian constitutionalism137, 142–7
Confucius135, 144
conscientious objection to military service920
conscription465, 920
consensus constitutions114–15
consequentialism62–6, 835–6, 839–40
conspiracy963–4
Constant, Benjamin4, 440
constant/static and living constitutions, difference between99–100
constituent assemblies423, 426–9
constitutional conventions652–3
constitutional courts7–8, 816–29
abstract review818, 823–4, 829
appointment and composition818, 824–5
centralization817–18
concrete review823–4, 828
constitutionalization827–8
contracts, constitutions as821–2
decentralized American model817–20, 823–4
delegation theory820–2
democratic transitions826–7, 829
design and functions820–5
diffusion817–20
doctrinal demands, self-reflection and expressive comparison68
European centralized model of review816–19, 823
(p. 1354) federalism821
functionalism67–8, 820–2
fundamental rights818–19, 821, 829
independence of the judiciary833
individual constitutional complaints823, 828
insurance model of judicial review820–1
inter-disciplinarity817
internationalization1174–6
Islam1298–300
judicialization of politics827
judicial review796–7, 807–13, 816–29
jurisdiction822–4
lawmaking827–9
legitimacy816–17, 819, 821, 825, 827–9
methodologies67–8
models817–20
negative and positive legislators819
ombudsmen823–4
origins817–20
parliamentary sovereignty796–9, 818, 820
parliamentary systems818–19
reasons for decisions825
scholars and courts68
separation of powers817–18, 828
constitutionalism189–215, 304–16
abdication, insulation through204–5
checks and balances210–11
cognitive constitutionalism202–4
communitarianism137, 142–7
corruption205–6, 210–11
counter-majoritarianism189–91
democracy94, 189–92, 200, 207–11, 215
drill and discipline194–8
dualism304–12, 314–15
emergency, states of443, 446–7, 452, 460
equality and non-discrimination987–8, 999
European Union's constitution1189–1205
form and substance of constitutionalism92–4
generic constitutionalism133–4
illiberal constitutionalism133–49
impoverishment153–68
internationalization1168–9
Islamic constitutionalism139–42
joint agency and corruption205–6, 210–11
judicial review212–14
legal constitutionalism170, 173–6
legislation, unconstitutionality of207–10, 212–13
liberal constitutionalism134–6
limited power, paradox of198–200
macro-constitutionalism175–6
methodologies75–97
micro-constitutionalism175–6
mixed constitutionalism137–8, 175
monarchical constitutions200–2, 204–5
parliamentary immunity193–4, 203–4
particular constitutionalisms133–4
political constitutionalism170, 173–5
proportionality291
pseudo-constitutionalism108
public international law, internationalization of1213, 1229
realism and idealism191–4
restraints190–6
secular constitutionalism138–40, 142, 267, 922–6
semi-constitutionalism109
state constitutionalism, legacy of1189–90
thin constitutionalism1195–203
total constitutionalism170, 172, 174–6
traditional constitutionalism87
transitional justice1270–86
transnationalism75–97
constitutionalization
abortion1057–77
affirmative action1129–35
capability approach155–6
constitutional courts827–8
European Union773
international organizations1219–22
internationalization1166
national and international constitutions130–1
partial constitutionalization1219–29
public international law, internationalization of1213, 1219–29
secession495–7
side-effects1129–35
World Trade Organization1217
constitutional law169–85 see also internationalization of constitutional law
abortion1060–4
bills of rights176–7, 179–80
(p. 1355) constitution and constitutional law, difference between111
definition of constitutional law170–3
European Union's constitution1188–94
horizontal effect177–81
judicial review177, 185
‘large/big-c’ constitutions170–3
legal constitutionalism170, 173–6
legal system, in169–85
macro-constitutionalism175–6
micro-constitutionalism175–6
mixed regimes175
political constitutionalism170, 173–5
positive rights181–5
private sphere177–81
rights versus structure176–7
‘small-c’ constitutions171–3
social and economic rights181–5
specific parts of legal system175–85
thin constitutionalism1195–203
total constitutionalism170, 172, 174–6
vertical effect177–80
constitutional rights
democracy253, 284–5, 289
freedom of expression892–3, 897–9, 904, 907
proportionality291–2, 297
rights and liberties288–97
rules291, 292–7
state sovereignty357
values and principles291, 292–7
constructivism26–8, 35–6
context55, 66–8, 71–2, 949–62
contracts, constitutions as821–2
Cooley, Thomas M217, 930
corporations383, 1037
corruption and bribery205–6, 210–11, 872
cosmopolitanism265–6, 383, 1017
Costa, Jean-Paul1243
cost-benefit analysis678–82
Cottu, Charles941
councils of state799–800, 806
counter-majoritarianism189–91, 258
crime112, 1275–9
abortion1060–75
amnesties, pseudo-amnesties or clemency1277–9
corruption and bribery205–6, 210–11, 872
due process935–46, 1276, 1278
fraud434, 534, 536–7
impunity1273, 1276–7
international courts361
international crimes1272–84
military courts1276
no punishment without law1279
pardons1278
proportionality719–21
prosecutions1275–9
sex crimes and gender398–9, 411–13, 415
sodomy, criminalization of44–5, 51, 970–1, 1081, 1083–8, 1335
state sovereignty361
transitional justice1272–84
Critical Legal Studies17, 233, 310–11
Croall, Hazel936
Cromwell, Oliver768
Cross, Frank675, 1023
culture
affirmative action1128
borrowing, transplantation, and migration1306, 1310, 1320–1, 1323–4, 1326
citizenship1009–10, 1012–16
dignity and autonomy376–7, 383, 394
equality and non-discrimination1000
ethnic groups1101–2
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of1329
gender403–7, 411, 414
group rights1101–2, 1105–6, 1108–14, 1123
human rights373–5
identity757–9
illiberal constitutionalism142–7
independence of judiciary834, 837, 840–50, 853
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights958, 984, 996, 1022
interpretation694, 709–14
naturalization1012–16
politics712–14
religion912, 916, 918
secession485
sexual orientation1088, 1096
universalism375
values and principles786, 790
Currie, David184
(p. 1356) custom
dualism1212
equality and non-discrimination984
gender400–1, 404, 412, 414
internationalization1212
jus cogens130, 524, 1213–19, 1224–5, 1277
transitional justice1284
UN Charter1218
Dahl, Robert465–6, 593
Dahlerup, Drude410
Darwin, Charles196
data protection973–4, 976
Davies, Malcolm936
Davis, Dennis167
Davis, DM1317
de Beauvoir, Simone1061
de Figueiredo, Rui596
de Gasperi, Alcide1261
de Gaulle, Charles424, 429, 435, 645, 821, 882
de Vergottini, Guiseppe270
death penalty
dignity and autonomy381–2, 394
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of15, 43, 50, 1334–5
juveniles15, 43, 50, 1334–5
declarations of incompatibility798, 1234–5
defamation662, 896–7, 904–5
defensive democracy see militant democracy
definition of constitution217–31
absolutism105
autochthonous, whether constitution must be218–21
basic laws100
borrowing220–1
boundaries of constitutions221–6
constitution outside the constitution224–5
descriptive constitutions226–7, 230–1
ethnicity219–20
fundamental laws100–1
hierarchy of norms103–4
modern constitutions100–5
national and international constitutions131
operative and sham constitutions225–6
popular consent and public power102–5
positive law102–3
religion104–5
revolutions102–5
separation of powers102
social contract102
sovereignty/supremacy218
stability of constitutions226–30
written/unwritten constitutions223–6
delegation366, 671–5, 820–2
democracy250–67
accountability1167, 1179–80
autocracies251–2, 254–6
Bill of Rights 1689251
checks and balances254, 257–8
civil society253, 256–9, 262, 265
constitutional courts826–7, 829
constitutionalism94, 189–92, 200, 207–11, 215
constitutional rights253, 284–5, 289
contestability of decisions258
cosmopolitanism265–6
counter-majoritarianism258
dangers and precautions256–64
deliberative democracy255–6
demos250, 252–3, 266
dignity and autonomy380–1, 388, 393
direct democracy252–3, 254, 366–7
dispersion of power258
economic rights1049–50
e-democracy264–5
elections258, 529–30, 535, 542–3
emergency, states of260–4
equality251, 253
European Union120–1, 668, 1179–80
experimentalism261, 264, 266
federalism587–8, 591
feminism253
franchise, extension of the251
fundamental rights119
gender400, 409
globalization265
group rights1104
histories of democracy250–2
human rights265–6
illiberal democracies657
impoverishment157, 160–6
institutions262, 265
international institutions/organizations265
internationalization of constitutional law1167, 1179–80
Islamic states256–7, 266–7
(p. 1357) liberal democracies116–22, 253–6, 1049–50
liberal non-democratic constitutions119–22
local democracy266
Magna Carta251
making constitutions430, 434
mass democracy429–31, 955–6
militant democracy538, 1253–68
non-liberal democratic constitutions122–4
parliamentarism251, 254–5, 653, 656–7, 666–7
parliamentary sovereignty251
pólis250–3
political extremism259–61
presidential systems629–31, 639–47
proportionality723, 735–6, 739, 741, 745–6, 749–51
public/private divide253
radical democracy122
referendums501, 505–9
religion256–7, 266–7
representative democracy253–5
revolutions118–19
rule of law258
secession483–7, 491, 493, 499–500
secrecy262–4
secular states266–7
self-determination487, 491, 493
social contract117–18
social democracy1041–3
socialist constitutions128
sovereignty366–7
state structure380–1, 388, 393
transitions1, 6–7, 46, 257, 266, 826–7, 1047–8
truth or consensus constitutions115
tyrannical majorities257–8
varieties of democracy252–6
Descartes, René938–9
descriptive constitutions106–7, 226–7, 230–1
design of constitutions446–51
despotic regimes see illiberal regimes
detention442, 452–60, 1235–6
development142–7, 156–62, 636–8
devolution577, 612, 615, 620, 1169–70
Díaz, Porfirio635
Dicey, AV4, 217, 224, 235–7, 239, 241–2, 247, 270–3, 276, 447, 459, 503, 624, 652, 656
Dickson, Brian904, 1346
Diderot, Denis194
differences/divergences16–18, 42, 48–9, 269–70, 404–9, 662–8
dignity and autonomy370–95
animals and nature384, 391–2
bearers of rights384
beginning, diachronical continuity and end386, 391–2
communitarianism142
concretization379–83, 391
content379–90
corporations384
cosmopolitan framework383
culture376–7, 383, 394
death penalty381–2, 394
definition390
democracy and state structure380–1, 388, 393
equality and non-discrimination371, 380, 388–9, 393–4
European Convention on Human Rights374–5
fundamental rights374, 379, 385, 387–8, 392–3
gender408
history375–8
horizontal effect384–5, 391
human rights371–5, 388, 391, 394–5
instrumentalism and objectivization378–9, 389–91, 394
international courts383
legal positivism371
legitimacy389–90
limitations and justification387–8, 392, 394
material preconditions of human life380
modern constitutional orders, in370–95
norms375–9, 383–6, 393
objective element of law384, 390–1
particularism and universalism393–5
personal integrity380
personal scope390–1
political order388, 392–3
positive duties and rights, procedural elements of385, 391
positive law371, 385
privacy968–9, 975
procedural elements385, 391
scope of dignity379–86
secular humanism393–4
self-determination372, 375, 378, 380, 390, 393
slavery371, 381, 385, 391
social expression of human worth380–1
social rights391
socio-economic rights1029, 1033
subjective rights383–4, 390–1
torture388, 392
UN Charter371–2
Universal Declaration of Human Rights371–2
universalism373–4, 384, 389–90, 393–5
disability988, 990, 997–8
Dixon, Rosalind67
DNA1143, 1156–9
doctrinal constructivism26–8, 35–6
Dorn, James343
Douglas, William O44, 901
Dreze, Jean168
Drobnig, Ulrich1338
droit administratif623–5
Drzemczewski, Andrew1241
dual nationality1010–13
Dubber, Markus935–6
Duchacek, Ivo580–1
due process929–47
adversarial due process930, 938–47
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights933
American Convention on Human Rights933
borrowing and transplantation14–15
clauses930–3
crime control model and due process model935–6
criminal justice935–46, 1276, 1278
economic rights1038
European Convention on Human Rights930, 932, 934, 943–4
European Union944
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of43–4, 52
global revolution943–7
history930–3
human rights930, 932–4, 943–4
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights930, 932, 943
International Criminal Court943–4
justice933–4, 947
Magna Carta930–2
procedural due process930–4
prosecutions1276, 1278
rule of law934, 944–5
sexual orientation43–4
substantive due process931
truth commissions1286
Universal Declaration of Human Rights932
values and principles785, 787–8
Duguit, Léon5
Dupré, Catherine1237, 1341–2
Durkheim, Émile912
Duverger, Maurice646
Dworkin, Ronald29, 244, 293–4, 297, 320–2, 343, 459, 868, 780–1, 1331
Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union555, 638–9, 1047–9 see also Cold War; individual countries
Ebert, Friedrich874, 886
economic rights1036–53 see also socio-economic rights
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU1052
collective bargaining1044–6, 1048, 1050, 1052
due process1038
Eastern Europe, new democracies in1047–9
enforcement1025–7, 1030–3
Europe1037
European Convention on Human Rights1037, 1050, 1052
European Union1051–2
expropriation1038–43
freedom of association1045, 1049–50
labour rights1037–45, 1049–53
liberalism1037–9, 1049–50
neoliberalism1037
new democracies1047–9
objections1023–5
private property1037–43, 1052–3
(p. 1359) public interest1038, 1048
public policy1037
relief1025–7
social democracy1036, 1041–4, 1048
social or welfare state constitution126–7
stronger forms of rights and relief1030–3
trade union rights1043–7, 1048–52
transnational corporations1037
weak rights/weak review1027–30
Weimar Constitution1039–41, 1047
economics91–2, 143–4
e-constitutions421
efficacy795–815
checks and balances796, 805
constitutional courts796–9, 804–5, 807–13, 825–6
design795–6
guardians of the constitution800–5, 813–14
head of state as co-guardian of constitution803–5
judicial review796–9, 805–29
legal character of constitutions106–7
legislation, preparation of799–805
non-judicial methods799–805
parliamentary sovereignty796–9
parliament as guardian of the constitution800–3
promulgation of legislation803–5
refusal to sign bills803–4
rule of law237–8
writing795–6
egalitarianism336, 343–4
Eichenberger, Reiner581
Eisgruber, Christopher788
Elazar, Daniel580, 603
elections529–43
age restrictions531–2
alternative vote876, 879
ballotage876, 878–9
bicameral legislatures530
campaign finance539–43
citizenship and residency532–4
date of elections652
democracy529–30, 535, 542–3
designing elections530, 876–81
d’Hondt formula876–7
Downsian logic878–9
European Union533–4
executive530
federal states531–4
first-past-the-post529, 876
franchise, extension of the251
fraud534, 536–7
freedom of expression892
gender409–10
group rights1114–19, 1122
identification laws535–7
legislative elections, designing876–7
legitimacy879
local elections533–4, 880
majorities, manufacture of876
making constitutions433–4
mental capacity532
one-person, one-vote530
parliamentary systems529–30, 880–1
political parties537–9, 876–81
presidential and semi-presidential elections529–30, 553, 559, 877–82
prisoners’ right to vote534–5, 999
proportional representation529, 538, 876–7
right to participate531–7
Sainte-Laguë method876
sovereignty366
trade unions, contributions from542
unicameral legislatures530
Elizabeth II, Queen637
Elkins, Zachary65
Elster, Jon190
Ely, John Hart465, 867, 1339
embryos and embryonic stem cells, research on1151–4
emergency, states of442–61
civil society262
constitutionalism443, 446–7, 452, 460
control orders457
democracy260–3
derogation model451–60
design of constitutions446–51
detention442, 452–60
equality and non-discrimination984
executive442, 445–58, 566–7
habeas corpus442, 453, 458, 460
human rights454–6, 459–60
internal emergencies449
judicial review450, 457, 459
judiciary442–4, 446, 449–50, 452–9
legality443, 451–2, 455–6, 460
legislative powers566–7
(p. 1360) liberalism443–4, 452
martial law447, 451
militant democracies260–2
negative republicanism261–2
operative and sham constitutions226
parliamentary sovereignty451
parliaments443–4, 446, 450–1, 460, 566–7
political extremism261
practice446–51
proportionality456, 459–60
Rechsstaat444
rule of law245, 443–5, 451–2, 456, 459–60
security services263–4
Special Immigration Appeals Commission453–7, 460
state sovereignty444
suspension-as-legalization458–9
terrorism264
Weimar Constitution446–8
written constitutions443, 445, 451
Engels, Friedrich124
England see also United Kingdom
citizenship1006
Crown, legal concept of the280–1
definition of constitution100
due process930–2, 938–43
Glorious Revolution101, 549–50
independence of the judiciary549
Instrument of Government101
monarchical state278–9
petition, right to950
popular sovereignty101–2
referendums503, 510
religion909–10, 923–4
separation of powers549–52
state, conception of the270, 272
supremacy101
entrenchment121–2, 226–30
Eötvös, József4
Epp, Charles714
Epstein, Lee1318–19
equality and non-discrimination982–1001
affirmative action990–2, 1124–40
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights996–7
age997–8
Arab Charter of Human Rights985
arbitrariness986–7
binding force1000–1
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam984–5
Canada986–7, 994, 999
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU984, 997
children and families1000
citizenship1004, 1007–8, 1014–15
constitutionalism987–8, 999
content of right986–93
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)402, 409, 986, 1000
culture1000
custom984
democracy251, 253
difference984–8
dignity and autonomy371, 380, 388–9, 393–4
disability988, 990, 997–8
diversity987–8, 992
dominance988
egalitarianism336, 343–4
emergency, states of984
equal access995–6, 1000
European Convention on Human Rights985–9, 995
European Union991–2, 995, 997, 1000, 1136–7
generations concept995–6
group rights1100, 1105–7, 1110–14, 1120, 1122
human rights291, 983–5, 988–9, 993–1000
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights984–5, 993–4
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights984, 996
justice982
key guarantees983–5
language993–4
minorities611–12, 988–9, 991–4
neutrality of state320–9, 331–2
political representation992–3, 999–1000
positive discrimination1126–9, 1136
prisoners’ right to vote999
private actors1000–1
proportionality730, 732–3, 753
rationality986–7, 990, 994, 998
secession1105
sexual orientation989, 997–9, 1091–2
social or welfare state constitutions124–6
social rights994–6
socio-economic deprivation993, 997, 1000
socio-economic rights1022
status of right985–6
test994–6
transsexual, intersexual and transgender persons998–9
Universal Declaration of Human Rights983–4
Erasmus, Desiderius992
erga omnes obligations1213, 1215–19, 1224–5, 1227
Eskridge Jr, William N682
Esmein, Adhémar5, 503, 940
Ethiopia, impoverishment in162–5, 166, 168
ethnicity see race and ethnicity
EU law see European Union
Europe see also European Convention on Human Rights; European Union; particular countries
abortion1057–77
bioethics1154–5
constitutional courts, centralized model of816–19, 823
economic rights1037
end of life decision1154–5
federalism276–7
institution, state as an280
parliamentarism653–4
petition, right to950
scholarship, development of CCL25–36
‘seizing the Crown’ metaphor30–1
social rights347
state, conception of the271–2, 282
state sovereignty274–7
transnational constitutionalism765
European Convention on Human Rights see also European Court of Human Rights
abortion1237–8
Belgium, status in1241–2
bioethics1143, 1145–50, 1155, 1158
caseload812, 944
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU1233, 1250
dignity and autonomy374–5
due process930, 932, 934, 943–4
economic rights1037, 1050, 1052
equality and non-discrimination985–9, 995
European Union1233, 1250
exhaustion of local remedies812
fair hearing, right to a932, 943–4, 1210
France, status in1237–41
freedom of assembly952–3
freedom of association958–60
freedom of expression900
Germany, status in1236–7
identity769–70
implementation1233–42
internationalization of constitutional law2, 1168, 1174–5
judicial review31, 812
liberty and security, right to932
living instrument principle1146
lustration laws1282
marriage, homosexuals and1091
military, homosexuals in the1081, 1083–5
no punishment without law1279
privacy967–9, 975–7
proportionality723, 731–2
prosecutions1279
public international law1210, 1227–8
public law (ius publicum Europaeum)35
religion916–18, 920–1, 926
scholarship, development of31
sexual orientation1081, 1083–7, 1091
sodomy, criminalization of1086–7
sovereignty361, 1236–7
status in national systems1233–42
UN Security Council resolutions1228
United Kingdom, status in1234–6
European Court of Human Rights1231–50
Belgium, status and implementation of judgments in1249–50
decentralized enforcement1227
France, status and implementation of judgments in1248–9
Germany, status and implementation of judgments in1246–7
independence of the judiciary364–5
internationalization of constitutional law2, 1166, 1178, 1182
militant democracy1256, 1260, 1262, 1265
pilot judgment procedure1244
precedent1243
(p. 1362) secularism1256, 1265
status and implementation of judgments1242–50
United Kingdom, status and implementation of judgments in1244–6
European Union see also Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU; European Union's constitution
affirmative action1128, 1135–7
agencies676–7
bioethics1145
centralization802
citizenship1016–17
constitutionalization773
democracy120–1, 668, 1179–80
due process944
economic rights1051–2
elections533–4
equality and non-discrimination991–2, 995, 997, 1000, 1136–7
European Convention on Human Rights1233, 1250
Europeanization within European Legal Area31–6
federalism587, 589, 591, 594, 599–600
gap-filling by European Court of Justice9–10
gender1136–7
internationalization1166, 1171, 1173, 1180–2
judicial review570, 803, 811
motto774–5
national and international constitutions130–1
parliamentary systems665–6, 668, 802–3
proportionality720, 732
public international law1209–10, 1212–13, 1219, 1222–3, 1228
public law18, 35
regulatory state681
state sovereignty351–2, 357–61
subsidiarity802–3
supremacy367–8, 570
terrorists and asset-freezing1209–10, 1212–13, 1219, 1222–3, 1228
transnational constitutional model765
European Union's constitution1185–207
anthropological dimension1200
area studies57
big ‘C’ and small ‘c’ projects1186–90, 1194–7, 1204–5
centrality of law1200–2
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU1198, 1204–6
constitutionalism1189–1205
constitutional law1188–94
democracy-oriented constitutions120–1
enlargement1204
exhaustion of legal paradigm1202–3
formal sub-register1191, 1195–7, 1200
framing the modern constitutional polity1190–2
future1204–7
globalization1188–9
identity769–70, 773–5
ideological dimension1200–1
institutional register1191, 1199–200
instrumental dimension1200–1
integrative sub-register1191, 1198–9, 1200
jurisdictional sub-register1191, 1197–8, 1200
liberal non-democratic constitutions120–1
non-state polity1185–8
philosophical dimension1200
political register1191, 1200
referendums1186
rule of law-oriented constitutions120–1
socio-cultural register1191–2
specific, relational, and general1188–9
state constitutionalism, legacy of1189–90
structural dimension1200–1
thick constitutionalism1192, 1194, 1198–9, 1204–5
thin constitutionalism1192, 1195–203
written/unwritten constitutions1186–7
euthanasia18, 978–9, 1154–6
Ewald, William1311
exceptionalism1, 15, 39, 48, 52
exclusive or inclusive constitutions113–14
exclusivism47–52, 773
executive472–9
accountability663–4
administrative versus legislative regulation563–4
appointments and removal, judicial review of560–1, 562
branches of state621–3
checks and balances567
civil servants, hierarchical structure of625–6
(p. 1363) constrained parliamentarism556–7
droit administratif623–4
elections530
emergency, states of442, 445–8, 566–7
federalism562
foreign affairs565–6
forms of government657–60
group rights1117–18
hierarchical structure625–6
horizontal structuring553–67
hybrid or semi-presidential systems557–8
judicial review560–1, 569–71
judiciary568
legislative power553–67
making and unmaking governments663–5
ministers651–2, 654, 661, 663–4, 667–8
ministries and departments622–3
mixed government549–50
organization621–3
parliamentarism553–67, 621–3, 657–60, 663–4, 668–9
presidential systems553–67, 630
public authorities624–5
resignation664
semi-presidential systems553, 562–3
separation of powers553–67, 621–3
sexual orientation1081–2
Sozialer Rechsstaat623–4
subdivision of legislative and executive power562–3
unitary executive562
war powers466–9, 566
expressivism66–8, 71–3, 1079, 1086–92, 1094–7
expropriation1038–43
extremism and fundamentalism259–61, 538–9, 913, 1253–68
fair hearing, right to a457, 932, 943–4, 1209–11, 1276
Falcone, Giovanni853
families of law55–6
Fartunova, Maria1239–40, 1248
Favoreu, Louis8
al-Fayyad, Ishaq1294
Febvre, Lucien1287–8
federalism18, 576–608
benefits of central power588–92
benefits of local power586–8
circumstantial causation585
competitive federalism601
confederation581–2
conservation of powers principle591
consociationalism603
constitutional courts821
costs savings589
democracy587–8, 591
demos-constraint and status quo598–602
dual federalism276–7
elections531–4
Europe276–7
European Union587, 589, 591, 594, 599–600
executive562
expertise587
functional overlapping competing jurisdictions581
gender412–13
global governance606–7
group rights1112–14, 1121
inter and intra-jurisdictional difficulties589–92
internationalization of constitutional law1169–70
joint rule, multiple rule, and separate rule600–1, 607
judiciary568–9
methodologies71
origins of federal systems583–5
parliamentary systems561, 659, 802
policy and polity stability597–604
political parties596–7
presidential systems641
risk management587–8
secession486, 494, 496–9
separation of powers277
space89–90
state sovereignty274–7, 355, 359
subsidiarity585–6, 592–5, 607, 802
territory580–1, 603, 605
transnational governance577
unitary state274–7
Ferejohn, John682
Ferreres-Comella, Victor63–4, 181
Ferri, Enrico940
Feuerbach, Anselm11
Fillipov, Mikhail597
Findlay, KA942
(p. 1364) Finkel, Jodi844
Fisher, George941
flexible constitutions110–12
food and water167, 1027–9, 1031–4
foreign affairs206, 565–6
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of39–40, 43–51, 1328–47
background of judges1177
borrowing, transplantation, and migration1317, 1322, 1329–30, 1346–7
case studies1336–46
colonialism51, 1331
culture1329
death penalty for juveniles15, 43, 50, 1334–5
due process43–4, 52
exclusivism and universalism47–52
freedom of expression13
functionalism47
Germany1175–8, 1336–40
globalization1328–9
Hungary1341–4
internationalization1175–9
Israel1339–41
judicial review1332–3, 1339, 1346
jurisprudential aspects1333–6
legitimacy1330–3
migration of constitutional ideas1328–30
natural law1331–2
norms1330–3, 1346
observers and participants30–41, 43, 49
persuasiveness1329, 1333
proportionality1330–1
sexual orientation39, 43–52
sodomy, criminalization of44–5, 51, 1335
South Africa1344–6
translators43
transnational constitutionalism1346–7
transnationalization of interpretation1346–7
unenumerated rights43–4, 48–9, 51
United States1, 39–52, 1175–9, 1317, 1322, 1329–45
values and principles789–90
form and substance of constitutions92–4, 108–9
former Yugoslavia491–2, 495–6
Forsthoff, Ernst292–3
foundational or modifying constitutions108
France
abortion1237–8, 1061–4
agencies677
aggressive wars, prohibition of485
amendment or revision of constitutions363–5, 438–40
anticlericalism1265
burqa ban921, 1014–15
citizenship1004–9, 1013–15
constituent assemblies423, 426–9
Declaration of Rights of Man365, 435, 551, 911, 931, 939, 984
definition of constitution100, 102
democracy118–19, 251–2
due process931, 939
emergency, states of445, 451
equality and non-discrimination984, 993, 996
European Convention on Human Rights1237–41, 1248–9
executive472–3, 562–3, 565, 623–4
federalism577
foreign affairs565
freedom of association953–4, 956
hybrid or semi-presidential systems557–8
identity762, 763, 767–8
judiciary568, 571–2
law making563
legal education8
legal positivism5
liberal non-democratic constitutions119–20
making constitutions420, 423–40, 434–6
members of parliament, status of662
Napoleonic constitutions119–20
parliaments561, 563, 621–2, 653, 655–6, 662, 664
popular sovereignty366–7
President as commander-in-chief472–3
presidential or semi-presidential systems472–3, 553, 557–8, 645–6
Prime Minister557
privacy968, 974–5, 977
referendums503, 509–10, 512–14, 523–4, 526
regions619–20
regulatory state672
revolutionary constitutions3–4, 102, 420, 427–9, 436
(p. 1365) rigid or flexible constitutions111
secularism219, 924–5, 1013, 1256, 1264–5
separation of powers551–2, 568
socio-economic rights1020–2
stability of constitutions226
state, conception of the270
state sovereignty353–4, 358
territoriality613–14
trade unions956
unitary state610–11
war powers472–5, 479
Francia, Jose Gaspar de635
Franck, Thomas574
Franco, Francisco764, 769, 819, 847
Frank, Jerome934
Frank, Thomas8
Frankenberg, Günther15, 17, 66, 1263, 1331
Frankfurter, Felix716, 788, 933–4, 1333
fraud434, 534, 536–7
freedom of assembly951–3
European Convention on Human Rights952–3
freedom of expression951–2
historical background and constitutional foundations951
Human Rights Act 1998951
physical dimensions of assemblies and constitutional implications951–3
prior notification952
private spaces953
freedom of association953–64
closed shops960–1
conspiracy963–4
constitutional origins953–5
economic rights1045, 1049–50
European Convention on Human Rights958–60
factual state interferences961, 964
guarantees on international level957–8
guarantees on national levels956–7
historical conditions953–6
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights958
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights958
intimate and expressive associations961–2
legal design961
legally imposed membership961–2
modern mass democracy and society of organizations955–6
political parties955–7, 962
public service, restrictions for the962–4
restrictions961
scope959–62
trade unions955–63, 1049–50
Universal Declaration of Human Rights957
freedom of expression891–907, 1340–3
advertising896–7
Australia892
balancing899, 902–6
censorship894, 900–2
chilling effect905
clauses893–902
constitutional rights892–3, 897–9, 904, 907
constitutional significance891–3
defamation896–7, 904–5
elections892
European Convention on Human Rights900
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of13
freedom of assembly951–2
freedom of information899–900
hate speech895, 903–4
Holocaust denial903, 904
Human Rights Act 1998893
injunctions901–2
Internet907
interpretation892–3, 895–902
legitimacy891–2
limitations894–6, 900–7
national security902
obscenity896, 906
personality rights898–9
petition, right to949–50
political expression892, 896–7, 902, 907
pornography895, 906
positive rights897–9
press freedom893–4, 899, 905, 907, 978
prior restraint900–2
privacy893, 904–5
receive and impart information, right to894, 899
religion922
reply, right to898–9, 907
treaties892, 900
war propaganda895
Freidenvall, Lenita410
(p. 1366) Frey, Bruno581
Friedan, Berry1062–3
Friedrich, Carl504, 579
Fujimori, Alberto881, 1277
Fuller, Lon237–42, 248
function and identity18, 19
functionalism
borrowing, transplantation, and migration1317–18, 1324
case studies64–5
consequentialism62–6
constitutional courts67–8, 820–2
constitutionalism80, 84, 94
differentiation84
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of47
human rights64
identity17–18
independence of judiciary841
large-N studies55, 63, 65–6
methodologies17–18, 55, 60, 62–8, 72
positive and normative62–6
public/private divide312–16
scholars68
separation of powers549–51
sexual orientation1079–86, 1088–94
transnational constitutionalism80, 84, 94
fundamentalism and extremism259–61, 538–9, 1209–11, 1276
fundamental rights see also human rights
abortion387–8
constitutional courts818–19, 821, 829
dignity and autonomy374, 379, 385, 387–8, 392–3
illiberal constitutionalism134–5
liberal-democratic constitutions118–19
political order388, 392–3
positive law374
proportionality730, 753
radical democracy122–3
religion829
socialist constitutions128–9
state sovereignty357
supremacy110
theory of fundamental rights374
Galileo Galilei938
Gandhi, Indira167, 784
Gandhi, Rajiv167
Gardbaum, Stephen1320–1
Gardner, John222–3
Garlicki, Lech1232, 1244, 1247
Garofalo, Raffaele940
Garoupa, Nuno851
GATT1220
Gauri, Varun167
Gearty, Connor1234
Gellner, Ernest26
gender397–416
abortion415, 1058–67
affirmative action1128, 1130–1, 1135–7
citizenship1007–8, 1015
coercion and consent409–12
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women402, 409, 986, 1000
culture403–7, 411, 414
custom400–1, 404, 412, 414
democracy400, 409
difference and dominance404–9
dignity408
elections409–10
equality and non-discrimination402, 409, 985–91, 997–1000, 1136–7
European Union1136–7
federalism412–13
feminist movement253, 310–11, 1058–67
group rights1106–7
guarantees of equality399, 401–7
horizontal and vertical rights412
Islamic constitutions406–7
morality and politics413–16
parliaments399–400
politics400, 404, 409–16
positive law412
public international law408–9
public/private divide310–11, 403–4, 412–13
quotas410–11
relative freedom403–4
religion400, 404, 414–15, 1106–7
sameness and difference403–9
sex crimes398–9, 411–13, 415
sexual orientation408
terminology398, 404, 406–7
Gentile, Giovanni1255
Gerken, Heather605
Germany see also Weimar Constitution
(p. 1367) agencies677
Chancellor556–7
citizenship1010, 1014
Civil Law Code5
constitutional courts817–19, 823–4, 826, 828
constitutional law174–6, 179–82
constrained parliamentarism556–7
dignity and autonomy379–80
emergency, states of442, 446–51
e-petitions950–1
equality and non-discrimination985, 990, 992–8, 1000–1
European Convention on Human Rights1236–7, 1246–7
executive475–6, 623–4
federalism561, 581–2, 600, 659
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of1175–8, 1336–40
freedom of association954–6, 959, 962, 964
freedom of expression891, 894, 896–7, 899, 901–2, 907
Holocaust denial771–2, 1339
Hungary1341–2
identity762, 763, 768, 771–2
internationalization1167, 1174–8, 1181–2
interpretation695–6, 701–3, 708, 710, 712–14, 1336–9
judicial review112–13, 797, 808–9
judiciary476–7, 710–11
law making801–4
making constitutions420, 424, 429, 432
members of parliament, status of662
militant democracy1254–64, 1266, 1268
military475–7
mixed constitutionalism137–8
NATO475–6
parliamentary systems556–7, 560–1, 659, 662–5, 667
political parties537–8, 874–5
President556–7
privacy967–8, 970, 972–3, 976, 978–9
promulgation803–4
proportionality721, 723, 727–30, 746
proportional representation538
public international law1337
Rechtsstaat4, 61, 351, 357, 444, 623–5, 730
regulatory state672, 678
separation of powers564
socio-economic rights1021, 1027–9
sovereignty358, 1236–7
state, conception of the271
territoriality614
total constitutionalism174–6
United States1336–9
values and principles778, 785
war465, 474–7, 479, 768
Wissenschaft (freedom of science)27–8
Ghai, Yash135, 165
‘ghost’ conjecture304–12
Gierke, Otto280, 615
Gilbert, Jeffrey938
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader458
Ginsburg, Tom65, 820–1, 825, 843–4, 847–8, 851, 1321
Glaeser, Edward851
Glendon, Mary Ann1331
Glenn, H Patrick86
Glorious Revolution101, 549–50
Gneist, Heinrich Rudolf615
Goebbels, Joseph1254
Goitein, Samuel1291
Goldberg, Arthur44
Goldsmith, Jack L606
Goldstein, Leslie602
Goldsworthy, Jeffrey65
Goodhart, AL7
Gorbachev, Mikhail638
Gosepath, Stefan988
Greaves, Harold582
Greenawalt, Kent64–5
Grier, Robert Copper469
Griffith, John936
Grimm, Dieter726–7, 734, 1337
Grodzins, Morton579–80
Groppi, Tania825–6
Grote, Rainer449–50
Grotius, Hugo278, 992
group rights1099–123
bills of rights1107
citizenship1100, 1119
collective rights1103–5
compelled identification and association1122–3
constitutive function1100
democracy1104
(p. 1368) diverse set of groups, rights demanded by1112–13
elections1114–19, 1122
equality and non-discrimination1100, 1105–7, 1110–14, 1120, 1122
executive1117–18
federalism1112–14, 1121
gender1106–7
indigenous peoples1101, 1103–8, 1112, 1123
individual rights1100–1, 1105–9, 1119–23
institutionalization1104–5
integrity1100–2, 1105, 1111, 1114, 1123
internal minorities1104–8, 1120
land1108
language1104–5, 1106, 1108–13, 1117
liberal and corporate approaches1117–18
national minorities1101–3, 1105–6, 1112, 1120–1, 1123
parliamentary systems1117
political representation1111, 1115–16, 1120–2
political theory1101–9, 1123
procedure for exercise of rights1104
public services, access to1109, 1110–11
regulative function1100
religious minorities1101, 1103–8, 1110, 1122–3
representation1113–19
secession1104–5, 1112–13, 1121
self-determination1104–5, 1117
self-government1105, 1109, 1113, 1123
specific groups, held by1102–3
territoriality1101, 1103, 1105, 1109, 1112, 1123
under-inclusiveness1120–1
guardians of the constitution concept112–13, 800–5, 813–14
Gunther, Gerald754
Gurvitch, Georges1042
habeas corpus442, 452, 458, 460
Habermas, Jürgen35, 219–20, 294, 339–40, 774, 1102
Hadfield, Gillian851
Hahm, Chaihark149
Halberstam, Daniel1113–14
Halbertal, Moshe1103
Hale, Matthew938
Hamilton, Alexander197, 206, 209–10, 212, 214, 468, 470, 566, 578, 632, 660, 1339
Harding, Andrew825–6, 824
Harlan II, John Marshall44, 788
Hart, HLA222, 223–4, 237, 362–3, 780, 933, 1339
Hastings, Warren786
hate speech771–2, 895, 903–4
Hawkins, William930
Hayek, FA246–7
heads of state
efficacy803–5
existence of a sovereign362–5
guardian of the constitution, as803–4
hereditary heirs803–4
promulgation803–5
refusal to sign bills803–4
representation of state279–81
separation of powers803–4
health, right to1021, 1026–7, 1030–1
Hegel, GWF218–19, 1309
Held, David606, 992
Hellegers, André E1144
Helmke, Gretchen845, 854
Henkin, Louis107, 160
Hesse, Konrad1337
Hickman,Tom459–60
higher or ordinary law109–10
Hill, Christopher1037
Hill, Jeffrey S674–5
Hirschl, Ran64, 140, 1305, 1318–19
historical background
associative rights949–62
democracy250–2
dignity and autonomy375–8
due process930–3
freedom of assembly951
freedom of association953–6
history of CCL2–9
horizontal structuring548–52
methodologies55, 58–60
migration of constitutional ideas58–60
militant democracy1254, 1256–62
presidentialism631–9
referendums512–13
transitional justice1271
Hobbes, Thomas35, 116, 178, 200, 234, 279, 351, 494, 913, 982
(p. 1369) Hobsbawm, Eric1255
Hoffmann-Riem, Wolfgang1337
Hogg, Peter699, 715
Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb286
Holmes, Oliver Wendell594–5, 716, 892, 1150, 1343
Holmes, Stephen244–5
Holocaust denial771–2, 903–4
homosexuals see sexual orientation
horizontal structuring547–74
Horowitz, Donald603
Hostettler, John939
housing1021, 1023, 1026, 1029, 1033
Howard, AE Dick60
Hugenberg, Alfred887
European Convention on Human Rights; fundamental rights; Human Rights Act 1998 (United Kingdom)
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights933, 996–7
American Convention on Human Rights933
antinomy of human rights373–6, 394
Arab Charter of Human Rights985
Asian values17–18
bioethics1142–8
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam984–5
culture373–5
democracy265–6
dignity and autonomy371–5, 388, 391, 394–5
due process930, 932–4, 943–4
emergency, states of454–6, 459–60
equality and non-discrimination291, 983–5, 988–9, 993–1000
freedom291
functionalism64
generations of rights995–6, 1020–2, 1034
global triumph of rights-based discourse1171–2
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights489, 930, 932, 943, 958, 984–5, 993–4
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights958, 984, 996, 1022
internationalization of constitutional law2, 1167–74, 1180–2
interpretation694, 704, 707, 713
judicial incorporation1168
justification290–1, 394
liberty and security, right to932
moral character290
national constitutions, in1167–8
national minorities612
positive law374
privacy967
proportionality745, 749–52
scholarship, development of30–1
secession489–91
socio-economic rights1020–34
theory of fundamental rights374
transitional justice1283–5
UN Charter1225–7
Universal Declaration of Human Rights371–2, 932, 956, 1022, 1144–5, 1171–2
universalism11, 62, 373–5
Human Rights Act 1998 (United Kingdom)
constitutional law171–2, 180
declarations of incompatibility798, 1234–5
emergency, states of454–6, 459–60
freedom of assembly951
freedom of association957
freedom of expression893
judicial review570
parliamentary sovereignty570
privacy975
remedial orders1235
status of judgments of ECtHR1244–6
human tissues and cells, extension of basic rights to1156–9
Humboldt, Wilhelm von11
Hume, David144
Hungary
dignity1341–2
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of1341–4
freedom of expression1342–4
hate speech and freedom of expression1342–3
judicial review1341
United States1342–4
Huntington, Samuel148, 1289
identity756–75
abortion771
acquiescent constitutions761
citizenship1004, 1014
culture757–9
difference and identity, balance between17
ethno-national identity136, 138
European Convention on Human Rights769–70
European Union759–60, 762–3, 765, 769–71, 773–5
exclusivism773
group rights1100, 1102, 1104, 1109, 1112, 1117–19, 1122–3
imagined communities758–9
internationally grounded model770–1
interpretation771–3
making constitutions766–71
methodologies17
militant constitutions761, 1260, 1263–6
minorities760, 764
models762–71
national identity14, 18, 46–7, 72, 136, 138, 483–4, 487–9, 758, 773
pacted transition model769
place and function760–2
post-colonial constitutional model762–3, 765–6
religion332–3, 760, 772
revolution-based model766–7
supranational constitutions773–5
transnational model769–70
United Nations770, 773
universalism772–3
war-based model768
illiberal regimes133–49
absolutism105, 637–8, 653, 659–60
category, as133–8
communitarianism137, 142–7, 148–9
constitutionalism133–49
cultural imperatives142–7
democracy251–2, 254–6
development priorities142–7
ethno-national identity136, 138
fundamental rights134–5
generic and particular constitutionalism133–4
horizontal structuring550–1
impoverishment161–2
independence of judiciary840, 846–8
liberal constitutionalism134–6
militant democracy1253–68
mixed constitutionalism137–8
non-liberal democratic constitutions123
parliamentary systems657
possibility and limits148–9
presidential systems630–1, 639, 642
religion136, 138–42, 148–9
rule of law234, 237–8
separation of powers551
typology138–47
immigration control1014–17
impartiality
borrowing, transplantation, and migration1230
independence of judiciary833–4, 838–9, 856–7, 862–5, 869–71
presidential systems630
impeachment654
impersonalisation of power279–80
impoverishment153–68
inclusive or exclusive constitutions113–14
independence of judiciary
accountability834, 839, 843, 855, 861
appointments842, 857
authoritarianism840, 846–8
civil and political society, commitment in848–50
civil law versus common law846, 850–2
commitment theory844–5, 857
consequentialism835–6, 839–40
constitutional courts833
constitutional virtue, as567–8, 831–57
contested concepts and solution concepts835–8, 856–7
contexts846–52
corruption872
culture834, 837, 840–50, 853
European Convention on Human Rights364–5
functionalism841
institutions835, 843–6, 852–5, 857, 861–2
insurance theory840, 843–4
integrity834, 852, 854, 856–7
interpretation834
(p. 1371) judicial review843–4, 848–9
limits840–2
methodology835–42
norms835–6, 839, 848
presidential systems630–1
rule of law834, 845–6, 855
self-interest832, 844–5, 853–5
self-restraint807–8, 813–14, 847
separation of powers549, 568–9, 856, 864–5
tenure845
threats to independence834
value835–6, 838–40
India
affirmative action1131–5
amendment or revision of constitutions440
borrowing and transplantation14–15
food, right to167
identity766
impoverishment162, 165–8
interpretation694, 704, 707, 713
judiciary166–7
socio-economic rights1022, 1032–3
sodomy, criminalization of1088
values and principles784–7, 789
indigenous peoples1101, 1103–8, 1112, 1123, 1169–70
individual complaints807, 811–13, 823, 828
individual rights915–16, 919, 1100–1, 1105–9, 1043, 1119–23
institutions
democracy262, 265
design835, 843–6, 852–5, 857
group rights1104–5
impersonalization of power279–81
independence of judiciary835, 843–6, 852–5, 857, 861–2
international institutions/organizations265
new institutional economics91–2
perpetuation or institutionalization of power278–9
political parties875–6
rule of law235–8, 242, 247
socio-economic rights1024
state as an institution278–81
transitional justice1272–3, 1281–2, 1286
International Court of Justice (ICJ)1215–17
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights489, 930, 932, 943, 958, 984–5, 993–4
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights958, 984, 996, 1022
international crimes1272–84 see also international criminal courts
International Criminal Court (ICC)943–4, 1216–17
international criminal courts361, 943–4, 1216–17
international law see public international law
international organizations, constitutionalization of1219–22
internationalization of constitutional law1–2, 5, 7, 13, 1165–83
autonomous regions1169–70
checks and balances1167, 1181–2
constitutional courts1174–6
constitutionalism1168–9
constitutionalization1166
convergence and divergence1166–9, 1172–3
democratic accountability1167, 1179–80
democracies in transition1173–4
devolution1169–70
divergent practices1173–9
driving forces1170–3
European Convention on Human Rights2, 1166, 1168, 1174–5, 1178, 1182
European Union1166, 1171, 1173, 1180–2
federalism1169–70
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of1175–9
globalization1170–1, 1178
human rights2, 1167–74, 1180–2
indigenous rights1169–70
making of constitutions431–2
national and international constitutions129–31
non-governmental organizations1172–3, 1180
partial internationalization1176–8
persistent national reticence1178–9
prospects1182–3
public international law1209–29
regionalization1167, 1173–6
(p. 1372) rule of law1167, 1180–1
transnational constitutionalism1172–3, 1222–4
treaty-becoming constitutions1169–70
trends1167–70
Universal Declaration of Human Rights1171–2
World Trade Organization1171, 1182
Internet907, 950–1
interpretation689–717 see also foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of
amendments to constitution690, 698, 704, 708–9
bills of rights707–8
borrowing, transplantation, and migration13–14, 1305, 1309, 1319, 1321
case studies1336–46
context706
culture694, 709–14
‘felt necessities of the time’715–16
foreign law1328–47
freedom of expression892–3, 895–902
human rights694, 704, 707, 713
identity771–3
independence of judiciary834
judicial appointments and homogeneity710–12
jurisprudential aspects1333–6
legal culture709–11
legal education710–11
legitimacy693, 698, 1330–3
literal approach698
living instrument concept698–9, 701
methodologies689–716
migration of constitutional ideas1328–30
nature and age of constitution707–9
originalism691–2, 695, 698–9, 701–2, 706–7, 714, 716
political culture712–14
political power690
positivism691–2, 699–705, 710, 713
precedent696–7, 703, 709, 715
progressive or dynamic approach699
proportionality694–5
public policy696
purposive approach695, 701, 706
rule of law689–94, 706
separation of powers690, 716–17
structural principles696–7
textual interpretation694, 706
transnationalization of interpretation1346–7
uses of CCL9–10
values and principles779
Ipsen, Hans1202
Iredell, James212, 698
Ireland777
Islam1287–302
accommodation1291–2
Afghanistan1289–90, 1297–8
AfPak complex1289–90
al-Qa‘eda1296
Arab Charter of Human Rights985
burqa ban in France921, 1014–15
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam984–5
constitution and symbols1298
constitutional courts1298–300
constitutionalism139–42
constitutional order1287–302
democracy256–7, 266–7
domestic perspectives1298–302
gender406–7
human rights984–5
internal perspectives1290–1
international perspectives1290–8
Israel-Palestine1290, 1298
militancy1289–90, 1292, 1297
militant democracy1264–6
nation states1292–5, 1302
Organization of Islamic Conference1296
personal logic of Islamic/Middle Eastern law1291–3, 1300–2
pluralism864
political parties538–9, 958
public order142
sectarianism1290–2, 1298, 1301–2
secularism219, 786, 924–5, 1256, 1264–5
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States1288
Sunnis and Shi‘ites1290, 1293–8
terrorism1288, 1296
(p. 1373) theocratic constitutionalism139–42
three arcs of crisis1287–91
violence1289–90, 1292, 1294–7, 1302
war1291
Westphalian system1290
Israel
emergencies, states of567
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of1339–41
freedom of speech1340–1
independence of judiciary844
judicial review570–1, 1339
militant democracy1264
mixed constitutionalism138
Palestine1290, 1298
proportionality733–4
racist hate speech1340–1
targeted killings574
United States1339–41
values and principles781–2
written/unwritten constitutions106, 222
Italy
making constitutions430
militant democracy1255, 1261, 1264
referendums508, 510–14, 523–6
regions618–19
territoriality614
Jackson, John943
Jackson, Robert H564
Jackson, Vicki18, 1316, 1331–2
Jacobsohn, Gary67, 758–61
Japan
defence478, 479
elections542–3
executive478–9
identity768
self-defence forces477–8
UN peacekeeping operations478–9
war477–9, 768
Jasanoff, Sheila1146
Jay, John578
Jefferson, Thomas229, 340, 346, 437, 632–3, 572, 911
Jellinek, Georg5
Jennings, Ivor424
Jiang Zemin149
Johnson, Andrew633
Johnson, Chalmers156
Johnson, Lyndon B633, 882
joint agency205–6
Joppke, Christian1014
Joseph II, Emperor911
Jospin, Lionel879
judicial review
abortion808
abstract review805, 807, 808–9, 814, 818, 823–4, 829
activism808, 812–14
amendment or revision of constitutions440
borrowing, transplantation, and migration1305, 1313, 1315, 1318–19
centralized model570, 813–14
concrete review805, 807, 810–11, 823–4, 828
constitutional courts796–7, 807–13, 816–29
constitutionalism212–14
constitutional law177, 185
councils of state806
decentralization813–15, 817–19
efficacy796–9, 805–15
emergency, states of450, 457, 459
European centralized model of review816–19, 823
European Convention on Human Rights31, 812
European Union570, 803, 811
ex ante review805, 806–7, 808, 820–1
ex post review805, 807–15, 822
executive560–2, 569–71
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of1332–3, 1339, 1346
guardian of constitution, concept of112–13, 813–14
hierarchy of norms797
impeachment560–1
independence of judiciary843–4, 848–9
individual constitutional complaints807, 811–13
insurance model of judicial review820–1
international organizations1219–22
judges, appointment and selection of806, 818, 824–5
legislation30–1
minorities in parliament805
parliaments560–1, 569–71, 660, 796–8
preliminary reference810–11
reasons for decisions825
referendums514–27
(p. 1374) regulatory state671–3, 680, 682–4
scholarship, development of30–1
self-restraint807–8, 813–14
separation of powers569–71, 805–7, 813–14
stability of constitutions227
state organs, disputes between809–10
supremacy112–13, 570, 796–8
transitional justice1283–4
treaties, ex ante review of809
United Nations1221–2
weak-form185
judiciary476–7, 859–74 see also foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of; independence of judiciary; judicial review
accountability861–2, 865–9
advisory opinions571–3
checks and balances860–1
constitutional courts824–5
corruption872
discipline860
emergency, states of442–4, 446, 449–50, 452–9
executive568
federalism568–9
homogeneity710–12
horizontal structuring567–74
human rights1168
impartiality862–3, 869–72
impoverishment166–7
internal accountability861
interpretation710–12
judicial limitation clause740
jurisdiction and justiciability571–4
‘least dangerous branch’567–74, 660, 871
legislators, judges as747–8
legitimacy862–4, 866–9, 871–2
normative foundations862–71
observers and participants39–41
parliaments568
political question doctrine573–4
proportionality735–7, 740, 747–8
public prosecutors859–60, 866
removal568
separation of powers551, 567–74, 861–7, 871–2
sovereignty862–4, 869–71
state, conception of the273
statehood869
tenure859–60
training860
jurisdiction571–4, 589–92, 822–4, 1197–8
jus cogens130, 524, 1213–19, 1224–5, 1277
jus sanguinis principle1008–10
jus soli principle1005–8
just cause theory486–7
justice336–49
bioethics1145
due process943–4
egalitarianism336, 342–4
equality and non-discrimination982
libertarianism336, 342–4
politics and law19
procedural justice336–42, 344–6
proportionality741–2
republicanism344–9
social rights347–9
substantive justice342–4
transitional justice1270–86
Kaas, Ludwig887
Kahn Freund, Otto1041, 1310–11, 1331
Kahn, Paul115, 118, 1323
Kamenka, Eugene246–7
Kant, Immanuel12, 117, 262, 265, 287, 333, 357, 377, 389, 444, 464–5, 605–6, 983, 986, 992
Kantorowicz, Ernst280–1
Katz, Stanley135, 148
Kaye, Judith1092
Kelsen, Hans29, 113, 176, 360, 362, 435, 444, 503, 606, 657, 710, 796–7, 817–20, 827–8, 1257, 1261, 1277, 1298
Kennedy, Anthony45–8, 50, 52, 457, 1086–8, 1331, 1335
Kennedy, John F202
Kent, James930
Kentridge, Sydney705, 1345
Khamene’i, Ali1294
Khatami, Muhammed1290
Khilnani, Sunil166
al-Khumaini, Ruhollah1290, 1294–5, 1298
(p. 1375) King, Preston581
Klamt, Martin1258
Klug, Heinz705–6
Knight, Jack1318
Koch, Charles850–1
Kohl, Helmut476
Kommers, Donald60, 573–4, 702, 708, 710, 783, 785, 1065
Kompetenz-Kompetenz355
Koselleck, Reinhart80
Kötz, Hein96
Kramer, Larry596
Kriegler, Johann1345
Kuchma, Leonid880
Kukathas, Chandran1107
Kumm, Mattias181
Kymlicka, Will1102, 1104, 1108
labour rights1037–45, 1049–53 see also trade unions
Lambert, Édouard5, 10
Lamer, Antonio898
land1108
Landes, William682–3, 844–5
Landsman, Stephan939
Langa, Pius922, 1285
Langbein, JH939, 942
Langer, Máximo946
La Porta, Rafael845
Lassalle, Ferdinand128
Latham, John700, 915
Latin America
caudillos635, 641
due process933
executive and legislative power554–5
independence of judiciary844, 847, 849–50
launching constitutions425–34
non-liberal democratic constitutions123
presidential systems554–5, 558, 634–6, 641, 643, 645, 647
law, constitution as105–15
lawmaking and legislation
boundaries and overlap563–7
conflicts over policy564–5
constitutional courts827–9
efficacy799–800
emergency powers566–7
executive553–67
judges as legislators747–8
judicial review30–1
parliament, legislative function of665–7
preparation of legislation799–805
promulgation803–5
refusal to sign bills803–4
regions1173–6
unconstitutionality112, 207–10, 212–13
war powers566
Le Divellec, Armel656
Lee Kuan Yew, Harry157, 219
Lefort, Claude255, 1268
legal character of the constitution105–7
legal constitutionalism173–4
legal education8–9, 710–11, 1305, 1317, 1320
legality, principle of443, 451–2, 455–6, 460, 630, 1282
legal positivism4–5, 29, 371
legislatures see parliamentary systems
legitimacy
constitutional courts816–17, 819, 821, 825, 827–9
dignity and autonomy389–90
elections879
foreign law in constitutional interpretation, use of1330–3
freedom of expression891–2
interpretation693, 698, 1330–3
judiciary862–4, 866–9, 871–2
law, constitution as114–15
making of constitutions421, 422–6, 433
neutrality323–4
political parties537
politics and law19
presidential systems629
proportionality722–3, 725–6
reason or will115
secession484–5, 487–8
sovereignty362
truth or consensus constitutions114–15
UN Charter1226–7
United States115
Legrand, Pierre12–13, 1309–10
Leibholz, Gerhard1337
Lenaerts, Koen583, 585
Lenin, VI488, 494–5
Lenoir, Noëlle1238, 1248
(p. 1376) Lepsius, Oliver450
Lévi-Strauss, Claude1079–80
Levy, Jacob1105
Lewinsky, Monica562
Leyland, Peter824–6
libel662, 896–7, 904–5
liberalism
constitutionalism134–6
democracies116–22, 253–6, 1049–50
economic rights1049–50
emergency, states of443–4, 452
group rights1117–18
illiberal constitutionalism134–6
liberal-democratic constitutions116–22
liberal non-democratic constitutions119–22
neutrality318–20, 322–5, 330–1
procedural justice338–42
libertarianism336, 342–4
liberties see rights and liberties
liberty and security, right to932
lifespan of constitutions230
Lijphart, Arend603, 1116–17
Limbach, Jutta1236
limited power, paradox of198–200
Lincoln, Abraham469
Lindseth, Peter1261
Linz, Juan J558, 559, 669
living and constant/static constitutions99–100, 1146
Livingston, William579, 581
Llewellyn, Karl70
‘local habits’, finding constitutional meaning in785–9
Locke, John117, 135, 178, 191, 210, 234, 258, 279, 426, 443–4, 549, 660, 910–11, 913, 931, 938, 940, 982–3
Loewenstein, Karl6, 107, 114, 646, 1256–9, 1261
Loughlin, Martin279
Louis XII, King941
Luhmann, Niklas78
Lund, Michael484
lustration laws1281–2
MacCormick, Neil35, 239, 241, 351–2
Machiavelli, Niccolò3, 193, 196–7, 205
MacIntyre, Alasdair290
MacKinnon, Catharine988
Macpherson, CB506
Magill, Elizabeth683
Magna Carta251, 764, 930–2
Maine, Henry117
Maitland, FW280–1
Majone, Giandomenico1202
majoritarianism
counter-majoritarianism189–91, 258
non-liberal democratic constitutions122
republicanism345–6
tyranny257–8, 502, 505–6, 656
making of constitutions1, 9–10, 13–14, 419–40
amendment process420–1, 433, 437–40
authority421, 425
‘by the rules’433–4
certification and ratification, process of436–7
committees435–6
constituent assembly422–30, 434–5
decisionist theory423
de-colonization422, 431–2
de-constituent acts423, 429
democratization430, 434
drafting process434–6
e-constitutions421
elections433–4
ex nihilio creation421–3, 426–33
flexibility421
fraud to the constitution434
identity766–71
international effort, constitution-making as an431–2
launching constitutions425–34
legitimacy421, 422–6, 433
mass democracy429–31
methodologies54–5, 68–9
mixed constitution making in times of mass democracy429–31
models of ex nihilo creation426–33
nation-state-building constitutions421–2, 431–3
post-conflict constitutions422, 432
power422–5
process and substance419–40
public participation419, 424–7, 433–4
referendum, emergence of the429–31
revolutionary constitutions3–4, 420–3, 426–31, 464, 440
(p. 1377) self-constitution423, 427, 435
stability421, 439
state sovereignty, state-building as an act of431
transition model422
Malaysia142, 1129–31, 1140
Mandal, BP1133
Mandela, Nelson1027, 1034
Marcos, Ferdinand638, 1280
Margalit, Avishai483, 1103, 1104–5
Marshall, John212, 277, 569–70, 573, 698
Marshall, TH1021–2, 1042
Marshall, Thurgood1334
martial law447, 451
Martinico, Giuseppe1232
Marx, Karl42, 124, 128, 136, 232, 247, 254, 310
Mashaw, Jerry675, 683
Mason, Anthony701
Massicotte, Louis534
Mathews, Jud1315
al-Mawdudi, Abu ‘Ala’1296
May, Allyson939
Mazowiecki, Tadeusz881
McCarthy, Joseph1255
McCrudden, Christopher1333
McCubbins, Matthew D674
McGarry, John1117–18
McGee, Robert484
McIlwain, Charles Howard195, 243, 930
McIntyre, William989
media
freedom of expression907
freedom of the press893–4, 899, 905, 907, 978
Internet907, 950–1
parliamentary systems666–8
Melton, James65
members of parliament, status of651–2, 661–3
Menem, Carlos1277–8
Merkel, Angela1014
Merryman, John552
Metcalff, Eric1244
methodology16–18, 53–72
challenges69–72
classificatory work54, 55–8, 60
consequentialism62–6
contextualism55, 66–7, 68, 71–2
courts67–8
differences across systems77, 84
European public law18
expressivism66–7, 68, 71–3
federalism71
form and substance of constitutionalism92–4
functionalism17–18, 55, 60, 62–8, 72, 80, 84, 94
hegemony17–18
historical approach55, 58–60
identity and difference, balance between17
independence of judiciary835–52
interpretation689–716
making constitutions54–5, 68–9
migration of constitutional ideas76, 86
national identity18, 72
norms16, 55, 70–1, 77–8, 88, 93
originalism16
post-national, post-territory, post-state84–92
self-reflection66–8
similarities and differences16–18
societal constitutionalism94–7
space79, 87–92
time79, 90–2
traditional constitutionalism87
translations70
transnational constitutionalism75–97
typologies75–97
United States16, 18
universalism60–2, 70
Westphalian system84–5
Meyer, Georg357
Meyer-Ladewig, Jens1247
Middle East and development636–8
militant democracy1253–68
authoritarianism and extremism1253–68
contesting and constraining militant democracy1266–8
emergency, states of260–2
emotionalism1257
European Court of Human Rights1256, 1260, 1262, 1265
historical background1254, 1256–62
identity761, 1260, 1263–6
Islam1264–6
negative republicanism1261–3, 1266–7
political parties and organizations538, 1263–4
(p. 1378) preventive state1255–6
religion1256, 1262, 1264–6
secularism1256, 1264–6
terrorism1255, 1262–3
varieties of militancy1262–6
military service
conscientious objection920
military courts1276
sexual orientation1080–6
Miller, David484, 1102
Miller, Jonathan221
Mill, John Stuart4, 49, 154, 165, 257, 483–4, 593, 652–3, 666, 892
Milošević, Slobodan940
ministers651–2, 654, 661, 663–4, 667–8
ministries and departments622–3
minority groups
equality and non-discrimination611–12, 988–9, 991–4
identity760, 764
indigenous people1101, 1103–8, 1112, 1123,