Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 16 June 2019

(p. 593) Index

(p. 593) Index

Aaron154
absolutism531
Abunda (Abundance), Lady90, 92, 172
Academy of the Lincei, Italy553
accomplices: clients as386;
hunt for192;
naming164, 206, 255–6, 302, 580;
registers of206
acculturation thesis60–1, 379–80
accusations: by children349; develop from private suspicions 285;
by elites7, 206, 301, 348–9, 355–6, 360–1, 388, 390, 450, 460, 531–2;
by exorcists256;
false29;
by family members362–3;
by local community/non-elites7, 17, 20, 56, 187, 190–2, 206, 207, 216, 290, 303, 306, 349–50, 360–1, 394, 395–6, 536–7;
by married women463;
by people with equal status350–1, 360, 517–18, 519;
private (under inquisitorial procedure)472–3;
by prosecutors and judges192, 314, 473;
public versus secret35–6;
random207;
reasons for decline in popular accusations442–4;
rejected by jurists244–5;
reluctance to make214;
by servants349;
by white magicians72;
by women and girls63, 397–8, 407
accusatorial procedure17, 236–7, 290, 383–4, 471–2, 474, 475
accused: elites as187–8, 192, 205, 207, 208–9, 211–12, 350, 360–1, 461–2, 465, 517, 538, 544;
lower classes as190–2, 207, 303, 348–9, 361, 387, 388, 415;
magistrates and judges as192, 349, 531;
servants as348, 349, 355–6, 361–2, 363;
strangers as349, 362
acquittals: by central courts439;
due to judicial reform440;
expectation of295;
natural causation as defence441;
refusal to accept401–2;
subsequent treatment6
Adamczyk, Joanna322
Ady, Thomas138, 572
aeromancy29
Aerts, Neelken240
Affair of the Poisons227, 229, 433, 483
affective spirituality583, 591
Africa287, 546
Africans: in Iberia280–1;
impact of culture of395, 408;
and witchcraft412, 413, 414, 422, 423–5, 426, 427
age: debate on63;
old women as suspects47, 63, 71, 77, 117, 132, 187, 196, 302, 383, 387, 397, 420, 439, 460–2, 563
Ågerup, Denmark24
Agostino dei Musi, see Veneziano, Agostino
agrarian capitalism508, 510, 511, 512–13, 516–17
agrarian societies509–11, 512, 518–19
agriculture: commercialization of510–11, 513;
crises181–2, 522–3;
crops25, 163, 173, 215, 501;
harvests181, 191, 196, 200;
Rhine-Moselle200
Agrippa of Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius235, 551;
Three Books of Occult Philosophy108;
Aix-en-Provence521, 579–80, 581, 585;
Parlement of220, 223, 230
Alberti, Leandro115, 252
alchemy26, 550, 552, 555
Alciati, Andrea79, 118, 251, 252
Alcoberro, Augustí272, 273
aldermen234, 238, 240, 243
Alexander V, Pope38–9
Alleshausen, Marchtal537
Alm, Ellen Janette377, 390
Alphonso de Spina: Fortalitium Fidei44–5
Alpine regions38–41, 43, 92–3, 161, 178, 220, 250, 252, 257, 524–5, 537;
influence of geography168–9
Alsace199, 200, 201, 211, 216, 227, 229, 523, 525;
decline in persecutions212–13;
Kramer in209
(p. 594) Altdorfer, Albrecht142
Altdorf, University of432
Älvdalen, Sweden380
Alver, Bente Gullveig387, 388
Amadeus VIII, Duke of Saxony32, 39–40, 42
America, British393–411;
beliefs in supernatural
forces394–6;
electoral reform405–6;
English governance of405, 406;
freedom of worship for Protestants405–6;
future research409–10;
malevolent neighbours398–400;
seventeenth century trials400–2;
women as witches396–8; see also Bermuda; New England; Salem
Americas71, 104
America, Spanish and Portuguese412–28;
Amer-indian, European and African models415–25;
converging traditions and regional patterns425–7;
parallels and differences412–15;
possession cases581; see also Brazil; Mexico; Peru
Amerindians: attacks by397, 404–5, 406;
contribution of demonology to persecution of73;
culture395, 412–13;
healers422, 426;
linked with the devil404, 413;
magic412, 413–14, 415–23, 427;
not segregated414;
not subject to Inquisition413;
treasure of421
Amsterdam, Netherlands232, 238, 244–5, 247, 513
amulets55, 322, 332
Anabaptists73, 233, 497–8, 500, 501, 503, 504–5
Andes413, 417–19, 421
Andover, Massachusetts404
Andros, Edmund405, 406
Angela of Foligno, Blessed583
angels: children protected by98;
contact with66;
magic invoking13–14, 15, 26, 27;
as part of nature106;
study of (angelology)71, 103
anger53, 191, 398–9
Angermünd, Germany30
Anglicanism405, 406, 437, 445, 556, 572
Anglo, Sydney70
Anhorn, Bartholomäus: Magiologia81
animals: blood of172;
changing into51, 54, 85, 176, 276, 343, 414, 416, 419, 423, 424, 426;
devil in form of274, 280, 290, 291, 345, 419, 424;
disease and epidemics200;
as familiars296, 312;
harm to24–5, 30, 55, 91, 166, 173, 175, 182, 191, 213, 231, 244, 319, 382, 501;
sacrifice of276 ; see also cats; cattle
Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury110
Anthony, St: temptations of154
anthropological approach60–1, 64, 65, 260–1, 269, 287, 313, 329–30, 335
Antichrist154, 486;
papacy as488, 491
anticlericalism504, 549;
French220–1, 222, 229, 231, 563
Antioquia, Columbia424–5
anti-Semitism40, 233, 331; see also Jews
Antwerp, Netherlands232, 245, 521
aoros128
Apafy, Mihály348
apocalyptical thought390–1
apologies: court-enforced323, 324;
to witch56
apostasy, crime of41, 74, 76, 78, 114, 176, 188, 194, 253, 278
appeals: automatic219, 220, 225–6;
Franche-Comté
system of203, 206–7, 211;
inadequate system in Holy Roman Empire6;
removal of right of (Sweden)533;
as right438;
treatment after success of6
appellate courts: Catalonia272–3;
France218–31, 431, 539–40;
Germany194, 431;
law faculties in role of431–2;
Netherlands243;
Poland325–6
apprenticeships, magical18, 20
Apps, Lara455, 456–7, 459, 464
aquellares274, 425
Aquinas, Thomas107, 109, 110, 236;
Summa Theologiae73–4
Arabic texts14, 15, 19
Aragon268, 269, 273, 274, 275, 281, 420, 481, 522, 524
archaeology367
archeographers368
Archives Cantonales Vaudoises: Ac 29 (manuscript)160, 163
Archivio della Congregazione per la Dottrina delle Fede (ACDF)253, 261
Ardennes200, 226, 229
(p. 595) Aristotelianism, scholastic105, 107–8, 110, 247, 550, 551, 552
Aristotle105, 107–8, 116
Arnhem, Gelderland234, 238
Arras, France43–4, 221, 228
arson gangs501, 503
Assessory Court (Poland)325–6
assimilationist models61
assizes286, 287, 290, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 541–2;
records286, 287, 290
astrology14, 27, 55, 254, 422, 550
atheism110–11, 153, 548, 572;
accusations of283, 293 ; see also Scientific Atheism
Attfield, Robin558
Aubrey, Nicole, see Obry, Nicole
Audiencia Real (Catalonia)272–3
Augsburg, Bavaria180, 183, 191, 192, 461, 463, 520, 521, 542
Austria180, 182, 184, 189, 338, 433, 434
autos de fe271–2, 276
autosuggestion19
avoidance: as countermeasure60–1
Axenfeld, Alexandre563
Azpilcueta, Martin de (‘Navarro’): Enchiridion279–80
Aztecs413, 416, 417
baba320, 362
Baba Yaga370–1
babies: danger to57, 463;
killing127–8, 129;
sucking
blood of37, 170, 173, 274;
unbaptized330; see also infanticide
Bacon, Francis549, 554, 555
Bacon, Roger137
Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe145–6
Baildon, England298
Bailey, Michael36
bailiffs: Netherlands234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 242–3, 245;
Russia363
Balanza (witch-hunter)281
Bald Mountain319
Baldung, Hans75, 142–3, 144, 147–8, 149, 151
Balthasar, Prince-abbot of Fulda186
Bamberg, bishopric of180, 183, 184, 187, 192, 194, 432, 465, 520, 534
Bam, Jacoba245
Bancroft, Richard, bishop of London293
banditry358
banishment6, 17, 222, 225, 235, 241–2, 316, 323, 324–5, 346, 359, 383;
to Brazil422–3
baptism: Anabaptist beliefs488, 503;
blasphemous98;
and exorcism493–4, 504, 578;
rebaptism489, 503;
renunciation of74, 385, 503, 588, 589
Baranowa, Zofia332
Baranowski, Bohdan327–8, 329
Barcelona: Inquisition272, 273, 430
Bargarran witches, Scotland316
Barren, Widow, of Woolwich296
Barstow, Anne Llewellyn451
Basel, Council of42, 44, 92–3
Basque region: assemblies (aquellares)274, 420, 425;
commissioners269, 540;
de Lancre and80, 230;
end of executions423, 430;
Labourd93, 229, 518;
miscarriages of justice and new guidelines430, 432, 477;
Navarre269, 271–2, 281;
Peru compared to418;
release of prisoners223;
storms524
Báthory, Sigismund348
Bavaria180, 183–4, 189, 194, 435, 525, 532, 543, 573, 576
Bavent, Madeleine224
Béarn, France227, 281
beatings355, 359
Beaujolais, France222, 228
beggars192, 207, 348, 349, 517
Behringer, Wolfgang34, 167, 252, 258
Beier-de Haan, Rosemarie146
Bekker, Balthasar247, 436, 437, 445, 557;
De Betoverde Weereld (The Enchanted World)70, 82, 109, 247;
De daemonologia recentiorum auctorum falsa341–2
belief, decline of512
Bellarmine, Robert126
benandanti52, 60, 259–60, 261, 265
Benevento, walnut tree of37, 51, 91, 93, 95, 260
Benkö, Anna350
Bentley, Richard548, 557
Bergamo, Giordano da113;
Quaestio de Strigis70
Berg, duchy of180, 182, 184
Bergenhus, Norway389
(p. 596) Bergen, Norway386, 387, 389, 391
Bermuda393, 408–9
Bernardino of Siena37–8, 91, 250
Bernese Alps161, 168
Berwiński, Ryszard326–7
Besançon, Franche-Comté210
Bethencourt, Francisco270, 276, 277
Bever, Edward559, 570
biaiothanatoi128
Bible: on bewitchment (Galatians 3:1)490–1;
examples of transportation in114;
Exodus quote (22:18; ‘Thou shall not suffer a witch to live’)73, 338, 394, 437, 445, 455, 490;
illustrated editions152;
laws in341, 384, 531;
Lutheranism and488;
magicians in154;
Nicodemus492;
reformers’ emphasis on490–2;
role in faith104;
sceptical interpretations of437, 445;
story of Job112;
Ten Commandments587, 589, 590;
witch of Endor152, 153, 490;
women and496
Bibliothèque Nationale: Les Sorcières (exhibition)141
Biesel, Elisabeth481
Biewer, Reiner206
Bihar, Hungary335, 340–1, 346, 349
Binsfeld, Peter502, 523, 531;
Tractatus de confessionibus maleficorum et sagarum80, 188–9, 208–9, 316, 456, 502, 504
Biondi, Albano115, 259
birds: divination through28, 29
Bitonto, Italy256, 258, 263
Björnsson, Páll382
Black, Christopher264
‘black evangelization’421
black mass86, 94, 98, 227, 276
blacksmiths57, 63
Blåkulla (Dalarna) trials, Sweden89, 98, 375, 377, 379, 380, 533
Blankenheim, Germany94
blasphemy, crime of483
Blécourt, Willem de458, 459
blessings22, 55
Blocksberg, Germany8, 51, 81, 98, 150, 343
bloodsucking37, 73, 170, 173, 259, 274, 416, 418, 419
Bodin, Jean46, 93, 95, 149, 230, 284, 449, 540, 589;
De la démonomanie des sorciers78, 114, 188, 229, 342, 457, 499, 530–1
body: harm to21–2, 54–5, 173, 176, 231, 385;
misuse of127;
need for study of attitudes to372–3, 466;
parts of125–7, 129, 133;
potions made from92;
realistic depictions in art126;
and torture476;
unsexed132 ; see also cannibalism
Bogucka, Maria327
Boguet, Henri88, 93, 211;
Discours des sorciers80, 210, 211
Bohak, Gideon14
Bohemia487, 489, 533
Bologna, Italy250, 252, 253–4
Bonomo, Giuseppe259
Bonvin, Françoise176–7
Book of the Three Great Imposters110
books: consecration of18;
and magic14–16, 18–19;
seizures and destruction of18, 19
Bordeaux220, 223, 230, 431, 540
Bornemisza, Péter: About the Temptations of the Devil340, 343
Borromeo, Carlo, archbishop of Milan254, 579;
De Superstitionibus79
Borromeo, Federigo579
Bossy, John587
Bostridge, Ian314
Botheim, Ragnhild389
Boucoiran, France170, 171
Boudet, Jean-Patrice14
Boulton, Richard297;
A Compleat History of Magick, Sorcery, and Witchcraft283–4, 285
Bourneville, Désiré-Magloire562–3
Boyer, Paul403–4
Boyle, Robert315, 437, 548, 551–2, 553, 554
boys: as mediums29;
as witches455–6
Brabant, duchy of238, 239, 245
brain508–10, 525–6
Brainford (Brentford), Jyl (Gillian) of137, 138
Brandenburg, electorate of180, 183, 540, 545
Bratislava, Slovakia, see Pozsony, Hungary
Brazil412, 413, 419, 422–3, 427
Braudel, Fernand168
Brauner, Sigrid454
Brechin, Scotland307
(p. 597) Brenz, Johann340, 500
Bressuire, France169–70
brewing24, 54, 322, 323
Briggs, Robin86, 89, 95, 461, 590
Brigid of Sweden, St583
Brinkmann, Bodo147–8
Broad, Jacqueline558–9
broadsides189
broomsticks150, 343
Brown, Peter577
Brucker, Gene250, 259
Bruegel, Pieter, the Elder144, 150, 154
brujas (brujería)273–4, 275, 277, 414, 420, 424
Brussels221, 233, 245
Bucer, Martin129
Buda, Hungary337, 343
Buffy the Vampire Slayer139
Bugatis, Pierina259
Burckhardt, Jacob258
bureaucracies528, 529, 534, 546
Burgundy, duchy of44, 226, 229, 449, 502;
Parlement of223, 226, 229; see also Dijon, Parlement of
Burgundy, dukes of43, 44, 221, 232, 236
Burke, Peter59
Burnett, Charles14
burnings39, 182, 208, 449, 450;
after strangulation239, 240, 303;
Denmark384;
ended in Prussia434;
France225, 229;
Italy250–2, 262;
Netherlands235, 238, 239, 240;
Norway385;
Poland320, 322–3, 326;
Russia366;
Scotland303, 307;
prescribed by Sachsenspiegel236; see also executions
Burr, George Lincoln59, 549
Burroughs, George410
butter: abundance of320;
improving yield24, 459;
spoilt54, 237, 244, 318;
stealing175
Bydgoszcz, Poland321
Caesarius of Heisterbach27, 107, 110, 119, 586
Callaghan, Dympna123
Calvinism301, 307, 335, 340–1, 342, 343, 344, 346, 352, 445, 489, 492, 493, 495
Calvin, John488, 489, 492, 498
Calw, Germany185, 192
Campana, Guglielmo260
Canary Islands274–5, 278, 280
cannibalism36, 38, 40, 85, 172;
eating children161, 176–7;
runamicuc and418
capitalism: agrarian508, 510, 511, 512–13, 516–17;
individualistic64
Cardano, Girolamo551
Caribbean culture408
Carinthia465, 531–2
Caro Baroja, Julio141, 269, 271, 275
Carpzov, Benedict190, 194, 323, 338, 470
Cartagena, Columbia413, 424–5, 426–7
Cartesian theory, see Descartes, René
Cassini, Samuel de49, 111
Castañega, Martín de576, 578–9, 585, 590
Castile268, 269, 273, 274, 521
Catalonia269, 272–3, 274, 281, 430
Caterina di Giorgio24
Cathars38, 103, 167
Catherine of Siena, St583
Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia356, 358
Catholicism: affective spirituality583, 591;
Africans
and423;
anti-mystic backlash591;
attitudes to sabbaths98, 99;
campaigns to revive181;
concept of implicit versus explicit pact with devil384;
and decline in prosecutions438, 445;
and demonology75, 79–81, 339–40;
England289, 291;
and exorcism81, 292, 342, 493, 494–5, 575, 577, 578, 580, 581–2;
France224;
and gender455–6, 465, 495–6;
Holy Roman Empire183, 184, 186, 187, 189, 194;
and holy women582–3;
Hungary335, 342–3, 344, 352;
Netherlands233, 244;
Poland322, 325, 328, 330, 331;
propaganda against97;
Protestant anti-popery and127, 128–9, 291, 294;
and religious reforms485, 487, 488, 489, 491, 492, 502–3;
and Ten Commandments587;
treatment of heretical confessants262;
Tridentine reforms262, 263, 495, 500, 534;
witch-hunts blamed on550
cats95, 106, 174, 298, 343, 424
(p. 598) cattle24, 25, 30;
blessing323;
death of185, 319;
economic significance181, 244, 320;
magical resuscitation of261;
magical use of318;
poor milk yield30, 55, 175;
stealing milk from24, 173, 320;
washing with herbs318, 321
cauchu418
Celestina420, 421, 424
celibacy364
Certeau, Michel de141, 224
Cesalpino, Andrea108
chain-reaction witch-hunts4, 179, 184, 185–8, 195, 324, 375, 387, 432, 476, 482
Chamonix, Savoy165
chancelleries (Russia)357
changelings57, 76
Charcot, Jean-Martin562, 563, 567, 571
charity–refused model64–5, 287, 460, 511–12, 516, 517, 518
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor233, 338, 470, 489
Charles I, King of England and Scotland293
Charles III, Duke of Lorraine532
Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine212
Charles, Duke of Gelderland237, 239
charmers313
charms22, 55, 580, 586
Cherepnin, L. V.367
Chernetsov, A. V.369, 370
Chiesa, Giovan Battista585
childbirth57, 126, 191, 459, 463 ; see also lying-in maids; midwives; pregnancy
children: abduction of97–8;
accounts of sabbaths by96, 97–8;
as accusers349;
blood of172;
changelings57, 76;
deaths of71, 185;
eating161, 176–7;
empowerment in court proceedings398;
exhumed92;
exorcism of493–4, 504, 578, 591;
Holy Innocents126–7, 133;
illness71;
orphans245, 397;
possessed245, 397, 586;
as witches62, 72–3, 192, 196, 271, 455–6;
as witchfinders281;
as witnesses192, 196, 208, 379, 439 ; see also babies; infanticide
chiromancy29
Chouet, Jean-Robert436
Christian IV, King of Denmark386, 470
Christianity: cosmology51, 71, 154;
and the devil57, 87;
and exorcism and healing577;
and magic14, 15, 51, 52, 213;
official role of51–2;
Orthodox356–7, 364, 365, 372;
and philosophy105;
Pico on116;
repression of magic62;
role of stories88;
sabbaths as conspiracy against84;
sabbaths as inversion of502;
threat posed by witchcraft41, 43, 48, 74, 167;
and torture440;
witchcraft as necessary correlative of116–17 ; see also Bible; Catholicism; God; Protestantism; Reformation
Christoph, Duke of Württemberg500
Church: archives263–4;
courts219, 221, 234, 240, 303, 322, 352, 357, 358, 469;
English289, 290;
and gender451;
and law reform472;
Scottish308 ; see also Christianity; clergy
churches: wall paintings152
Circe73, 152
Ciruelo, Pedro578, 579
cities519–22;
councils542;
courts542;
disease163;
elites348–9, 542;
France521;
German180, 183, 520;
Hungary338, 348–9;
Italy514, 521–2;
Netherlands513, 521;
Poland320;
population statistics514;
privileges514;
relationship with rural areas511, 512, 514–15;
Spain514;
and study of witchcraft515 ; see also urbanization
Clark, Stuart65, 69, 70–1, 86, 105–6, 120, 230, 454–5, 554–5, 559, 570, 587, 589
classical texts8, 73, 104, 105, 122, 152–3;
drama123–4
Clement VIII, Pope256
Clerc, Jean211
clergy: anti-witchcraft rituals by215;
attitudes to magic35–6, 395;
control over Church archives263–4;
executions of224, 225, 229, 495;
and exorcism26, 215, 577, 578–9, 580, 581;
inadequacies210;
influence on accusations of witchcraft275;
magic practised by19–20, 255, 262, 265, 278, 464, 581;
married364;
and necromancy26, 27, 28, 255, 265;
Reformed490;
sceptical35, 44, 479;
as shapers of popular opinion503–4;
training of262 ; see also anticlericalism
(p. 599) Cleves, duchy of180, 182, 234, 238, 499–500
Cluj, Romania, see Kolozsvár, Hungary
cognitive linguistics329
cognitive realism66–7
Cohn, Norman58, 60, 301
Colbert, Jean Baptiste225, 228
Collins, Anthony548
Cologne, prince-bishopric of80, 180, 532;
gives advice on torture237;
trials173, 184, 187, 542;
witch commission194
Cologne, University of46
commissioners, witch186–7, 194, 532–3,535–6
commissions of justiciary (Scotland)306
committees, witch-hunting204–5, 207, 215–16, 537, 539
communism334, 366–7
communities, local: as accusers7, 17, 20, 56, 187, 190–2, 206, 207, 216, 290, 303, 306, 349–50, 360–1, 394, 395–6, 536–7;
avoidance of action against witches214, 284–5;
barter economy399;
breakdown of old values of support511;
communalism538–9;
consultation of ‘cunning folk’ in394–5;
and costs of trials205, 214, 444;
denunciations encouraged by inquisitorial procedure473;
dynamics of190–2, 214–15;
effect of social and economic improvements442–3;
informal countermeasures214–15, 509;
link between independence and witch-hunts438;
mutual help399;
property issues191, 462;
reasons for decline in accusations442–4;
social relationships287, 314–15, 320, 399;
state of emergency380;
testimonies of neighbours167, 206;
witch-hunting institutions535–9, 545–6 ; see also towns; villages
‘community-focused’ model310–11
Como, bishopric of250, 251–2, 258, 498
compensation234, 235
‘compositions’234, 240
compurgation, trial by471, 472
Confessio Ecclesiae Debrecinensis340
confessions: accused come to believe in215;
by Anabaptists497;
as empirical evidence441, 479;
by free will243;
as indicators of popular belief260;
influence of torture on37, 40, 88–9, 203, 475–6;
influence on demonology88, 97;
Lausanne163–5, 169–70;
necessary for conviction193;
psychological element307;
question of reliability360, 441, 479;
reading at executions215;
regional variations215;
reliance on194;
as requirement for capital punishment475;
sabbath account as hallmark of41, 89;
Salazar’s investigations and empirical testing of120;
scepticism over117, 120
conflict model329
consciousness, altered66–7
conspiracy, presumptions of20, 39–40, 41, 43, 48, 50–1, 60, 67, 84, 103, 167, 169, 206;
political481, 482;
Reformation and491, 498, 500, 503;
in Salem402, 403–4
Constance, bishopric of174
Constitutio Criminalis Carolina193, 194–5, 203, 338, 358, 470, 474, 489;
Polish translation323
consubstantiation488–9
contagion, magical21, 22
Contreras, Jaime280
Coornhert, Dirck Volckertsz492, 493
Cornell University549
cosmology72;
Christian51, 71, 154
costs: of incarceration444;
of trials205, 206, 214, 242, 284, 444, 536, 539
Cothmann, Hermann533
Cotta, John572
Coudert, Allison554, 555
counter-magic135, 213, 214, 235, 265, 285, 291, 316, 401;
as natural method of control509–10
countermeasures, popular: active55–6;
passive55
(p. 600) Counter-Reformation126, 262, 264, 504
courts: central versus local203, 303, 306, 438–9, 539–40;
ecclesiastical219, 221, 234, 240, 303, 322, 352, 357, 358, 469;
England286, 287, 290, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 438, 541–2;
episcopal251, 254, 257;
Hungary338, 352;
Iberia268, 273;
ineffective systems186;
inquisitorial251, 254–5, 257, 259, 268, 273, 430;
Italy251, 254–5, 257, 259, 263, 430;
Netherlands233, 234, 242;
New England400, 533–4;
Poland321–3, 324–6, 439;
Russia356–7, 358;
Scotland303, 305, 306, 314;
secular251, 254, 257, 263, 268, 322, 338, 352, 356–7, 358, 377, 383–4, 400, 430, 469, 472, 482, 528, 530;
Sicily276;
Spain268, 272, 274, 275, 280, 430;
special533–4;
town and city325–6, 542;
village324–5;see also appellate courts
Coventry, England29
Cowan, Edward J.312, 313
Coward, William573
Cranach, Lucas142
Crane, Ralph134
Cranmer, Thomas289
Crato, Adam494
creation106
Crespet, Pierre: Deux livres de la hayne de Sathan et malins Esprits contre l’homme80
Creutz, Lorentz533
crime detection: through divination29
crimen exceptum210, 338, 475, 479
Cromwell family292
Cromwell, Thomas126
crops: destruction of25, 163, 173, 215, 501
crossroads57
Csehi, Andreas P.340
Csúzy, Zsigmond: Evangéliomi trombita342–3
Cuenca, Castile44, 273, 274
Cuevas, Fernando de422
cultural-linguistic interpretations65, 67
cultural realism66
cultural relativism65, 570
cultures: interaction of168–9
cumulative concept3, 33, 39, 84–5, 159, 169, 170, 177, 219, 231, 259, 268, 277, 283
cunning folk53, 56, 95, 292, 313, 316, 350–1, 394–5, 396;
men63, 137, 244–5, 452, 464;
women91, 135–8, 323, 350, 452–3
Cunningham, James316
Cunningham, John316
curanderos (curandeiras)278, 422
curses19, 21–2, 54, 69, 71, 314–15, 330, 479, 586
Dalarna, Sweden, see Blåkulla trials
Dale, Anthonie van572
Dall’Olio, Guido253
Dalyell, John Graham300–1
Daly, Mary451
Damhouder, Joos de230, 323
dance, witches’86, 94, 96, 99
Daneau, Lambert82, 230
Danielecka, Krystyna Gajowa318–21
Darrell, John292–3
Dauphiné, France41, 161, 168, 170, 220, 230
Davidson, Jane144
Davies, Owen313, 382
Davies, R. Trevor286
death: attitudes to126;
of children71, 185;
by magic21, 26, 27, 55, 257, 290, 319, 385; see also necromancy
death penalty: decriminalization and433, 434;
right of appeal438;
Russia361;
Spanish America414 ; see also executions
Debrecen, Hungary335, 340, 341, 344, 346, 347–50
decentralisation263, 325, 438
Decker, Rainer255, 261, 262
decline and end of prosecutions61, 429–46, 512, 545–6;
Denmark430, 432, 435, 443;
England294–5, 432, 434, 438, 445, 545–6;
France226–8, 431, 437–8;
future research445–6;
historiography435–41;
Hungary347–8, 430, 434;
Netherlands243–7;
patterns429–32;
popular accusations and442–4;
possession cases438, 590–1;
Rhine-Moselle region212–13;
Scotland311
decriminalization226–8, 319, 326, 347–8, 430, 433–5, 480
Dedieu, Jean-Pierre273
Dee, John13
(p. 601) Dekker, Thomas: Westward Ho! (with Webster)137;
The Witch of Edmonton (with Ford and Rowley)138
de la Vallée, Melchior212
de la Vega, Garcilaso417
Delcambre, Etienne476
Del Col, Andrea252, 255, 258
Del Rio, Martín46, 79, 209, 236, 246, 589;
Disquisitionum magicarum libri sex78, 80, 81, 189, 342
del Rosario Montenegro, Cecilia Rosalía425–6
delusion112–13, 117, 129, 499
Demandols, Madeleine de585
Democritus107, 112
demonization: as mindset576
demonology, learned44–9, 51, 69–83, 160–2, 188–9, 208–10, 576–7, 589–90;
defined69;
dissemination leads to increased belief in devil’s role57–8;
on divine permission111;
as entertainment209;
equated with psychology570;
evolution of70, 75–7, 103;
extent of influence195, 196;
extent of scepticism9;
French230;
and gender63, 454–8;
Hungarian339–43;
and magic71–3;
moderate writers75, 76, 77–8;
modern scholars’ neglect of70–1;
and politics530–1;
Protestant73, 75–6;
relationship with popular beliefs8;
relationship with trials165–6;
on sabbaths45, 46, 71; 85, 87, 88, 89–90, 93, 95–6, 97;
and science554, 555, 558–9;
Scottish313–14;
and the witch73–5
demons: belief in ability to control274;
blamed for
magical practices31, 35–6;
conjuration of420–1;
disguises93, 583;
divination and28, 422;
enlisting help of24;
exorcisms and215;
female458;
holy women and583, 584;
implicit versus explicit pact with36;
Kramer on46–7;
lesser57;
links with magical arts14, 15;
Lutheranism on494;
male magicians and90;
marriage to93–4;
necromancy and26–7;
Netherlands attitude to235–6;
papal directive on (1437)32;
as part of nature106;
question of corporeality108–9;
scepticism about107–10;
sexual relations with46, 70, 71, 73–4, 170, 332, 458;
in Slavic folklore330;
submissive (Russia)360;
treasure-hunting421 ; see also possession
Demos, John399, 400, 403, 462
Denmark382–4;
church paintings152;
compared to Italy377, 383–4;
decline of trials430, 389, 432, 435, 443;
and Iceland382;
lynchings480;
possible influence on James VI of Scotland304;
resistance to inquisitorial procedure474;
role of state policy388, 389;
sermons443;
trials377, 382–3, 384, 389, 390
des Bordes, André212
DesBrisay, Gordon308
Descartes, René/Cartesian theory109, 247, 436–7, 549, 551, 552, 557, 558
despair589
‘devil books’ (Teufelbücher)494
devil/Satan: Alphonso de Spina on45;
in animal form274, 280, 290, 291, 345, 419, 424;
belief in7;
blamed for magical practices30–1, 383, 395;
as causer of disease562;
charter kept by162;
as deceiver87, 243, 246, 298, 407, 437–8, 581;
elite preoccupation with influence of60;
Eve as ally of397;
experience of contact with66;
as human being345;
increasing fear of34;
Job and112;
lame/limping280, 420–1;
and Last Days500;
mechanical philosophy on437;
Netherlands scepticism over246–7;
nonconformity linked with492;
papal directive on (1437)32;
popular beliefs in56–8, 60, 313;
popular depictions of57;
powders supplied by213;
Protestantism and73;
role in everyday life394;
and sabbaths92, 93–4;
sexual relations with75–6, 93–4, 174, 308, 330, 343, 454, 458;
sodomy by281;
spiritualist view of493, 494;
takes advantage of weak-mindedness456;
temptation by176;
temptation of Jesus114;
Weyer on499;
(p. 602) devil/Satan, pact with/devil worship586–90;
in Alpine
Europe41;
Amerindians and404, 413;
Bermuda408;
Calvinist view of341;
as criminal offence194;
decline in charge of430;
England295, 296;
by exorcist578–9;
extent to which witches were accused of3, 4;
German cases174;
Hungary343;
implicit versus explicit36, 384, 414;
Kramer on46;
law and469, 483;
Lutherans and340;
by men421–2, 457;
Netherlands235–6, 240;
Norway385, 386, 390;
origins of concept33;
Portugal278–9;
as renunciation of Christianity74;
Russia359, 369;
Salem407;
Scotland304, 313;
written415, 421
dew-gathering318, 320, 321
diabolism, crime of470
diadochus stone27
dialogues162
Diana, cult of8, 57, 73, 112, 113, 171, 470
Dietholm, Oskar565
Dijon, Parlement of223, 225, 226, 229
Diodorus of Sicily104
Diogenes Laertius104
disasters324, 394; see also crops; harvests; weather
disclosure, risk of20–1
disease: spread of163, 442;
witches infrequently blamed for epidemics55; see also illness; plague
divine right of kings530–1
divination26, 28–30, 322, 350, 394, 415, 420, 421;
African424;
Amerindian416–17, 419;
to identify witches29–30;
suerte del cedazo422; see also fortune-tellers
Dolan, Frances123
Dôle, Parlement of203, 207
Dominicans91, 163, 209, 251–2, 579
donni di fuora (donne di fori)276–7
Dordrecht, Netherlands240
Doruchów, Poland433
Douai, Flanders227
Douglas, Mary384
drama: classical123–4;
early modern122–3, 125–9
Drayton, Michael136, 137
dreams29, 44, 87, 112–13, 117, 129, 215
Dresen-Coenders, Lène144
Duffy, Eamon15
Duke, Alice296
Dülmen, Richard van93–4, 145
Duni, Matteo263
Dürer, Albrecht75, 142, 143, 147, 151
Durian-Ress, Saskia147
Dürr, Magdalena191
Dutch Republic232, 240, 241, 243, 244, 429, 445, 491, 493, 505;
socio-economic factors512–13; see also Netherlands
Dworkin, Andrea451
Dysa, Kateryna328–9, 332
Easlea, Brian551
East Anglia, England99, 295, 512, 541–2
Echter von Mespelbrunn, Julius, prince-bishop of Würzburg502
economic change507, 510–15
Ehrenreich, Barbara451
Eichstätt, bishopric of183, 184, 194, 517–18, 523, 532, 534
‘eldritch’ writing315
elites: acculturation thesis and379–80;
as accusers and witch-hunters7, 206, 301, 348–9, 355–6, 360–1, 388, 390, 450, 460, 531–2;
attitudes to women450, 457–8;
concern over country’s image326;
drawn into witch-hunts186, 187, 192;
Netherlands245, 246;
New England409;
Poland323, 325–6, 328;
as prosecutors535–6;
relationships with popular culture58–62, 92, 284;
rights over serfs325, 328;
Russia355–6, 360–1, 362–3;
and scepticism190, 358;
Scottish301, 305–7, 315;
state and528;
support for trials190, 325–6;
theory that witch beliefs declined among435–8;
urban169, 542
Elizabeth I, Queen of England289–92, 293
Ellwangen, prebend of180, 184, 186–7, 194, 432, 503, 520, 534
Emison, Patricia146
emotions197, 398, 399
empiricism109–10, 120, 285, 286, 379, 388, 508, 516, 548, 549, 555, 556
Endor, witch of152, 153, 490
(p. 603) England174, 283–99;
background and historiography283–9;
Civil War127, 128, 286, 293, 294–5, 438, 541–2;
courts286, 287, 290, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 438, 541–2;
decline of prosecutions294–5, 432, 434, 438, 445;
decriminalization430, 433;
early Stuarts and Interregnum292–5, 524;
Elizabethan289–92;
end of trials545–6;
governance of New England405, 406;
influence of Scottish panic in316;
judicial scepticism479–80;
legal procedures474, 479–80;
little mention of sabbaths99;
low conviction rate284;
male witches458;
mechanical philosophy437;
medieval289;
pamphlets479–80;
post-1660295–8;
pretence of witchcraft as continued crime433;
regulation of local justice438, 439;
Restoration551–2, 556, 557–8, 572;
resurgence of trials294–5;
rural witchcraft516;
socio-economic factors511–12, 515, 516;
statutes129, 289, 293, 298, 470, 483, 500;
Thirty-Nine Articles500;
urbanization515;
usefulness of case studies288–9
English, Deirdre451
Enlightenment61–2, 67, 102, 110, 228, 285, 435, 436–8, 590;
Dutch572;
Polish326;
Russian358;
and science549, 555, 558, 571
enmity: due to magic22–3, 26;
as motivation53
envy53, 73, 191
Epicurus107, 112
Episcopi (canon)44, 45, 47, 73, 93, 112, 113–14, 116, 117–18, 175–6, 446, 469–70
Erasmus of Rotterdam: Exorcism579
Erastus, Thomas189
ergotism402, 570
Erictho127, 128, 129, 152
Errores Gazariorum (anon)42, 92, 93, 161, 162, 164
Espaze, Martiale170, 171
Essex, England286, 287, 289–91, 293, 295, 296, 452, 462, 511, 516
Esslingen, Germany185, 500, 533
Estes, Leland569
Estonia449
estries90
ethnic diversity: Hungary339, 346;
Spanish America421, 424, 426
ethnic minorities361, 386
ethnographers269, 364–5, 367, 368, 369
Eucharist: Protestantism and488–9; see also host
Eugenius IV, Pope32–3, 39
Euripides123
Evangelical churches579, 581
Evans-Pritchard, Edward E.329, 508
Eve364, 396, 397, 398
evidence: admissibility of297, 479;
confessions as441, 479;
difficulty of producing242, 243;
empirical44;
failure to produce (in accusatory procedure)236;
lack of295;
of maleficium66;
reliability of401;
at Salem407;
spectral407, 480;
standards of193, 401, 440–1, 479–80;
value placed on314
evil31, 75, 413–14, 509
evil eye54, 69–70, 106, 276
Ewen, C. L’Estrange286, 287, 290, 291, 293
Ewich, Johann79
executioners: fees205;
suspect nature of63;
torture by203, 237, 238
executions: of Anabaptists497;
British America393, 400, 407, 408;
of clergy224, 225, 229, 495;
of complainants236;
Denmark383, 384;
England290–1, 294, 295, 296, 297, 541;
estimates of numbers of5–6;
Finland380;
Francophone Europe518;
German territories182, 184, 187, 520, 542;
Hungary336–7, 344, 346;
Iceland382;
last429;
by local community468, 480–1;
Netherlands235, 236, 238, 239, 240, 243, 245;
no justification in scripture437;
Nordic countries375–6;
Norway384, 386, 389;
opposition to81;
Poland and Lithuania318–19, 321, 322–3, 324, 329;
Portugal278;
reading confessions at215;
Rhine-Moselle region201–2, 211;
Russia358–9;
Scotland302, 303, 307, 310, 438, 536;
Spain223, 268, 271, 272, 273, 274, 430;
Spanish and Portuguese America414, 417;
Spanish Inquisition and414;
stonings225, 274;
Sweden379;
Swiss Valais39;
of witchfinders226
(p. 604) Exeter, England296
exhibition catalogues143, 145–6
exorcisms18, 110, 575–91;
baptismal493–4, 504, 578, 591;
Bermuda408;
Catholicism and81, 292, 342, 493, 494–5, 575, 577, 578, 580, 581–2;
competition between Catholics and Protestants292;
and decline of possession cases590–1;
and diagnosis of possession584–5;
duration580;
English injunctions on293;
France223–4, 494–5, 521;
and healing577–8;
of holy women583–4;
Hungary342;
Jacobean rite126;
judicial aspect580–1;
language of72;
licit versus illicit579, 582;
modern591;
necromancy and26;
origins of term580;
probative583;
as Reformation propaganda493–5;
of suspects211, 238, 242;
systemization of579;
testing efficacy of119;
by witches382
exorcists: clergy as26, 215, 577, 578–9, 580, 581;
condemnation and suspicion of292–3, 575–6, 578–9, 580;
and devil worship588;
notoreity of256;
rise of577–82
experimentation, sceptical112–13, 118, 119, 120, 418
Eymericus, Nicholas19, 470
Fairfield County, Connecticut409
fairies52, 57, 66, 99, 132, 276–7, 312–13, 315, 345
faith: crisis of104;
supplemented by reasoning111
familiars54, 66, 127, 296, 312, 319, 470
families: accusations within362–3;
of witches53, 207, 332, 459, 462
famine181, 244, 442;
in 1430s162–3, 191
Fanger, Claire13
Faust, Dr Johann77
feasts39, 87, 96, 319, 345; see also sabbaths
Feicken, Hille496
Feijoo, Benito275
Felix V, anti-Pope, see Amadeus VIII
feminism63, 122–3, 142, 143, 264, 450–3, 454, 464, 586
Ferber, Sarah87
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor338
Ferdinand I, King of Hungary337–8
Ferdinand Karl von Hohenems, Count543
Fernel, Jean565
Ferrar, Vincent38
fertility, anxiety about55, 460
fertility cults59–60, 88
fetishism126, 129
feudalism325, 327–8, 330–1
Feugeyron, Ponce39, 40, 42, 92
Feyerabend, Sigmund82, 494
Fiano Romano, Italy251
Ficino, Marsilio109
fifteenth century beliefs32–49
Fifteen Years’ War346
Finance, Didier531
fines234, 240, 323, 324
Finland380–1, 449, 483
Finnmark, Norway316, 375, 376, 377, 386–7, 389–90, 391
first-time offenders257, 262
Fischart, Johann79, 82, 95, 188
fits (convulsions)397, 402, 405, 444
Flade, Dietrich208–9, 315–16, 465, 544–5
Flanders241–2, 245;
High Court540
flight, witches’: from Brazil to Portugal423;
broomsticks150, 343;
by donna di fuora276;
empirical experiments on claims on112–13, 118, 120, 418;
Episcopi canon on73, 175–6;
experienced during trance state66;
and gender458;
as illusion92;
learned demonology on51, 71, 74, 78, 98;
by night witch53;
not mentioned by Kramer74;
ointments for88, 96, 110, 112–13, 115, 118;
origins of beliefs in8, 33, 60;
paintings of43;
Peru426;
popular beliefs51, 414;
by runamicuc418, 419;
to sabbaths85, 89, 92, 96;
scepticism over44, 175–6;
shamanistic416;
by strega170–1
Flint, Valerie15
Florence, Italy250, 256, 258
folkloric approaches66, 286, 313, 326–7, 364–5, 387
‘Following the Witch’ stories88
food: accursed320;
anxiety over513, 515;
shortages181
Ford, John138
Forma processus judicii criminalis seu praxis criminalis338, 342
fortune-tellers135, 176, 235, 350, 359, 371, 401, 408, 521; see also divination
(p. 605) Foucault, Michel142, 567
Fouquet, Nicolas225
France218–31, 268;
agrarian economy516–17;
anticlericalism220–1, 222, 229, 231, 563;
appellate courts218–31, 431, 539–40;
Cartesianism436–7;
cities521;
crime of sacrilege483;
decline in prosecutions431, 437–8;
decriminalization226–8, 433, 434;
demonologists230;
divine right of kings531;
edict (1682)219, 227, 483;
future research228–31;
gender228–9;
increase in trials221–4;
lynchings480;
possessions and exorcisms223–4, 494–5, 521, 581, 582, 590;
royal justice220–1, 226–7;
sabbaths93, 220, 230–1;
torture219, 221, 223;
Vaudois41, 43, 92;
Wars of Religion200, 222;
witchfinders from281; see also Basque region; parlements
Franche-Comté, province of199, 200, 201, 202, 228, 525;
Boguet in210;
decline in persecutions212–13, 430;
Dôle Parlement appeal system203, 206–7, 211;
torture204
Franciscans91, 250, 251, 342, 579
Francis, Elizabeth290, 291
Francken, Frans, the Younger144, 145, 149
Franck, Sebastian492
Franconia181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 189, 195
Francophone regions199, 204, 207, 215, 518
Frankfurt, Germany180, 542;
book fair189
Frazer, James59–60
Frederick William I, King of Prussia434, 545
Freiburg, Germany143, 147
Freud, Sigmund567, 571
Fribourg, diocese of, Lausanne40
Friesland, province of233, 241, 242
Frisius, Paul: Von dess Teuffels Nebelkappen76
Friuli, Italy257, 258, 261, 265, 277
Fründ, Hans39, 92, 160–1, 162
Fuchs, Paul von441
Fulda, abbey of180, 184, 186, 192, 534
Gábor Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania347, 348
Gabrina degli Albeti23–4
Gaelic culture311–12
Gage, Matilda Jóslyn450–1
Galicia280
galleys: as punishment226, 228, 255, 276, 277
gambling421, 522
game (gioco, Italy)172, 260–1, 264
‘games’91
Garaude, Andrée169–70
Gardam, Jane139
Gari Lacruz, Angel274
Gaskill, Malcolm461, 481
Gassner, Johann Joseph570–1, 591
Gaufridy, Louis86, 87, 96–7, 223, 229, 580, 585
Gdánsk, Poland320, 322
Gelderland, Netherlands233, 234, 235, 237, 238, 240, 241, 242, 244, 245
gender19–20, 47–8, 62–3, 449–66;
Anabaptists and496, 497, 498;
England288;
France228–9;
future research466;
Hungary352;
Iberia276, 281;
in images of witchcraft143–4;
Italy264;
learned demonology and63, 454–8;
literary criticism and122–3;
New England409–10;
Nordic countries378, 379, 380–2, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389–90;
Poland331–2;
Russia356, 361, 362–4;
and sabbaths85 ; see also feminism; men; patriarchy; women
generational conflict462
Geneva (city)436, 437, 445, 495, 498, 501, 521
Geneva, Lake163, 168, 169
geography, physical168–9, 200, 524–5
geomancy29
Georges de Saluces, bishop of Lausanne42, 169
German Historical Museum, Berlin: ‘Witchcraze’ (exhibition)146
German lands6–7, 172–5, 179–98, 199, 204, 206, 215;
age of accused460–1;
agrarian crises181–2, 522–3;
background180–2;
bad weather181–2, 183;
Catholicism183, 184, 186, 187, 189, 194;
chain-reaction hunts185–8;
chronology and geographical distribution182–5;
climate of fear188–90;
committees462, 536–7;
community dynamics190–2;
decline in prosecutions431–2, 435, 439;
(p. 606) German lands (cont.)exorcisms582;
faculties of law189, 193, 194, 195, 431–2, 434, 478;
future research195–7;
high courts540–1;
influence in Hungary343, 344;
legal procedures192–5;
Peasants’ War200, 488, 496;
Poland compared to327;
possession cases494;
prosecutions ‘from below’536;
prosecutions of women20, 449, 455–6, 457, 458, 460–2, 463, 466;
role of princes and officials531–2, 534, 535;
socio-economic factors517–18;
torture187, 193, 194, 195, 439, 465, 475–6, 534;
towns and cities520, 542;
town councils537;
weak administrations535;
witch commissions186–7, 194 ; see also Holy Roman Empire; Rhine-Moselle region
Gerson, Jean36, 162, 470, 578, 583
Gheyn, Jacques de, II144, 146–7
ghosts52, 56–7, 128, 312, 315, 330
Giacomo della Marca31
Gifford, George138, 292, 491
Gilje, Nils390–1
Gilles de Rais26
Gillot, Claude145, 151
Ginzburg, Carlo60, 85, 172, 259–61, 264
girls: exorcisms of582;
New England possessions397, 398, 407, 462;
as witchfinders281
Glanvill, Joseph109, 284, 297, 437, 551–2, 553, 555, 558–9
Glisson, Francis573
God: concept that magic requires permission of74, 75, 103, 110–12, 394, 438, 446;
denial of167, 176;
despair of mercy of589;
human relations with587;
involvement in ordeal process471, 472;
natural theology on556;
as only creator106;
as protector of witch-hunters531;
responsibility for weather176;
role in everyday life394;
wrath of384, 487, 531
Godelmann, Johann Georg194;
Disputatio de magis, veneficis et lamiis79
godliness291, 308, 395, 396, 397, 406, 489–90, 530
Goedereede, Netherlands239
Goldsbrough, Bridget298
Golser, Georg46
Goodare, Julian304–5, 306, 307–8
good women90–1, 92–3
Gostanza da Libbiano260
governments, see states
Gow, Andrew455, 456–7, 459, 464
Gowdie, Isobel301, 307
Goya, Francisco145, 148, 151, 275
Grabów, Poland433
Grandier, Urbain224, 225, 227, 229, 495
Greater, Johann81
Great Paxton, England443–4
Greatrakes, Valentine556
Greene, Robert: Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay137
Gregory IX, Pope110
Gregory XV, Pope257
Greve, Johann440
Grillando, Paolo: Tractatus de hereticis et sortilegiis eorumque poenis78–9, 95
Grillot de Givry, Émile141
grimoires382
Groicki, Bartłomiej323
Groningen, province of238, 240, 241, 242, 498–9
Guazzo, Francesco-Maria: Compendium Maleficarum79, 95, 151, 584
Guibourg, Étienne, Abbé227, 229
guilt, feelings of64, 398, 400, 460, 511–12
Guiomar (slave)424–5
Gunter, Anne292, 293
Gustav Adolf, Duke of Mecklenburg185
gynocide451
Haarlem, Netherlands236, 237, 238, 246
Habakkuk114
Habsburgs189, 337, 351, 489, 537;
decriminalization
measures433–4, 437;
and the Netherlands232, 233;
risings against346–7;
Spanish279
Hagen, Rune Blix391
Hague, The238, 245, 513
hair588, 589
Hale, Matthew297–8
Halle, University of432, 434, 440, 478
Hallewes124–5, 132
hallucinogenic substances88, 96, 110, 112–13, 115, 118, 418, 570
(p. 607) Hamelmann, Hermann: Eine Predigt zu Gandersheim79
Hansen, Joseph3, 33, 59, 84, 159, 258, 286, 550
‘harmful magic’: as material crime193 ; see also maleficium
Harsnett, Samuel126, 293, 446
Härting, Ursula144–5
Hartlaub, Gustav142
Hartley, Mary298
Hartlieb, Johannes: Book of All Forbidden Arts29
harvests: failures of181, 191, 196, 200
Harvey, William293–4
Hatfield Peverel, England290–1, 295
Hauff, Daniel185, 533
Häxornas Europa (ed. Ankarloo and Henningsen)376
Hayward, Rhodri571
healers213–15, 361, 561;
African422, 424, 426;
Amerindian415, 416, 418, 419, 426;
benandanti261;
Brazil422;
Celestina tradition420, 421;
charmers313;
Diana cult171;
exorcists as577–8;
failure as trigger for denunciation349–50, 361, 395–6;
female62, 264–5, 276, 302–3, 323;
feminism on450, 451, 452;
and herbs264, 323;
Iceland382;
linked with harming22;
loss of prestige350;
male422, 458;
New England394;
potions18;
privileged position of562;
reluctance to accuse452;
rivalries350;
shepherds as351;
use of relics133 ; see also medicine; physicians
Hecate8;
in literature123, 133–4, 138
hechicería273, 274, 414, 420
Heidelberg Catechism for the Reformed500
Heidelberg, University of189, 194
Heinemann, Evelyn462–3, 464
heks: as term378
Hell154
Helmstedt, University of432
Hemmingsen, Niels76, 304
Henderson, Lizanne312
Henningsen, Gustav269, 271, 272, 273, 276, 277, 376, 421
Henry VIII, King of England289
Henry, John554, 555
herbs: collecting318, 321;
ethnobotanical study of370;
for healing264, 323;
Medea’s knowledge of123;
South American422, 424;
for spells359–60, 370;
heresy5, 103, 166–8, 472, 497;
Council of Basel and42;
as crime483;
denial of belief in witchcraft as209;
gendered distinction48, 498;
Netherlands prosecutions for233–7;
‘new sects’38–9;
repentance257;
witchcraft as5, 36–8, 40–1, 46, 48, 74, 90, 159–60, 166–8, 253, 254, 401, 469–70, 498 ; see also Anabaptists; Waldensians
Hermannstadt, Romania, see Nagyszeben, Hungary
Hermeticism16, 259, 551, 571–2
Hermogenes154
Herrick, Robert122
Herschaw204
Hertfordshire, England291, 298, 516
Herzig, Tamar48
Hessen-Kassel, landgraviate of183
Hester, Marianne451
Heurnius, Johannes246
Heusden, Holland235
Heywood, Thomas: The Wise Woman of Hogsdon136, 137, 138
Histoires tragiques (pamphlet)97
Hoak, Dale144
Hobbes, Thomas109, 436, 437
Hobbins, Daniel162
Hocker, Jodocus (Hieronymus): Der Teufel selbs79
Hódmezövásárhely, Hungary344, 350
Hohenberg, county of184
Hohenlohe, county of183, 190, 474
Hole, Christina286
Holland, Henry292
Holland, province of232, 235, 240, 241, 246, 247, 542;
Court of233, 237, 238, 242, 243–4
Holmes, Clive305
Holstein, duchy of183, 185
Holt, John298
Holy Innocents126–7, 133
Holy Office253–4, 261, 262–3;
in Iberia268, 271, 274, 278 ; see also Roman Inquisition
(p. 608) Holy Roman Empire6–7, 180, 188, 199, 486, 498–9;
Constitutio Criminalis Carolina193, 194–5, 203, 323, 338, 358, 470, 474, 489;
decline in prosecutions and end of trials431–2, 545–6;
dwarf states538;
high courts195, 431, 540–1;
male witches455–6;
Peace of Augsburg489; see also German lands
holy water215, 237, 239, 321, 322;
defiled169
holy women265–6, 575, 576, 577, 582–4, 588, 589
Home Circuit, see assizes
homosexuality, ritual276
Hopkins, Matthew285, 295, 341, 432, 541–2
Horace73
host: desecration of86, 169, 321, 330, 331;
used in exorcisms582
household: boundaries462, 463;
economy54–5, 308
housewifery462, 463
Huberti, Adrian151
Huguenots494, 495
Hults, Linda143, 148, 149, 151
humanism104, 114, 209, 250
Hungarian Academy of Sciences334–5
Hungary334–54;
changes in boundaries337;
chronology339, 346–7;
decriminalization and late decline in trials347–8, 430, 434;
future research352–3;
history336–7;
learned demonology339–43;
legal foundation337–8, 342;
multi-ethnic population339, 346;
popular beliefs343–5;
recent research334–6;
resistance to inquisitorial procedure474;
rising346;
social context348–52;
statistics339, 346;
torture338, 342, 475
Hunter, Michael135, 554
Hunter, Richard565
hunters’ societies261
Huntingdonshire, England292
Hunt, Robert296–7
Hus, Jan489
Hussites103, 104, 169
Huszty, István: Jurisprudentia practica342
Hutchinson, Francis297, 557;
An Historical Essay Concerning Witchcraft283–4, 285, 293, 298
Hutchison, Keith554
Hutton, Ronald312
hydromancy29
hysteria59, 562, 569
Iceland377, 378, 381–2, 449, 458, 459
iconoclasm125, 126, 127–9, 495
iconography75, 144; see also imagery
illness: attributed to saints213;
attributed to witchcraft213–14, 319, 361, 382;
devil blamed for57, 562;
inability to explain400;
physicians’ failure to diagnose569;
psychosomatic214;
unusual55 ; see also disease; healers; medicine; plague
illusions26–7, 106, 114
image magic21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28;
puppets54
imagery, visual75, 141–56, 247, 275;
anonymous151;
biblical152, 154;
changing emphases of149–51;
dissemination of149;
exhibition catalogues143, 145–6;
as fantasy155;
feminism and143–4;
geographic variations in knowledge of151–2;
historiography141–5;
power of155;
realistic depictions of the body and martyrdom126;
scenes and scenarios154;
seen as marginal154–5;
witch of Endor152, 153
imagination116, 145, 146–7
impotence: inducement of24, 55, 73, 175, 348
incantations420–1
incarceration: abuse during255, 258;
costs of444;
death during278, 344;
life sentence257
Incas413, 417–19
Indians,see Amerindians
individualism64–5, 287;
possessive510, 526
infanticide36, 38, 40, 118, 127–8, 129, 161, 273, 274, 502;
by strega170–1, 500;
in literature126, 129, 130–1, 132–3;
midwives as witnesses452;
need for comparison of urban and rural cases520–1;
scepticism over176–7, 441
infant mortality rates442, 520–1
infertility55;
linked with suspicion of old women63
Ingerflom, Claudio Sergio371
Ingolstadt, University of189
(p. 609) Innocent VIII, Pope: Summis desiderantes affectibus (bull)45, 74, 177
Innsbruck, Tyrol19, 21–2;
Kramer’s prosecutions in20, 29–30, 45–6, 165, 174, 177, 487;
restraint urged184, 189
Inquisitions: Netherlands233;
papal (pre-1542)251–2;
inquisitorial procedure7, 17, 32, 35, 40, 41, 166, 472–4, 478, 482;
and charge of heresy167;
Hungary338;
and Lausanne trials163, 167;
opposition to118, 120;
as replacement for accusatory procedure236;
role of torture475;
Russia356
Institoris, Henry,see Kramer, Heinrich
Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture, Norway387
Institute of Ethnology, Hungary334–5
institutions, witchfinder: communal structures535–9, 545–6;
special administrations531–5, 545–6; see also commissioners, witch; committees, witch-hunting
Instructio pro formandis processibus in causis strigum, sortilegiorum et maleficiorum256–7
interrogation: of demons580, 582;
fixed questions163–4, 165, 167;
judicial questionnaires85, 88–9;
leading questions260, 360;
questions at early stages of trial process94;
reconstructing process of307; see also torture
intruder stories88, 91, 95–6, 97–8
inversion86, 215, 502
Ippolitova, A. B.370
Irsigler, Franz146
Isenburg-Büdingen, county of183, 184
Isidore of Seville25, 28
Isolani, Isidoro251–2
Israel, Jonathan557, 572
Italian-speaking territories170–2
Italian Wars (1494–1530)250, 252, 258
Italy249–67;
agrarian economy518–19;
background249;
benandanti52, 60, 259–60, 261, 265;
cases of collective possession521;
cities521–2;
compared to Denmark377, 383–4;
decline in prosecutions430;
decline of urban populations514;
demonization of magicians30;
future research264–6;
historiography258–62;
images of witchcraft151, 152;
increase in prosecutions34;
love magic521–2;
plague498;
records251, 252, 253, 260, 263–4;
Renaissance250–2, 258–9, 264;
role in development of witchcraft beliefs259;
strega170–1;
Todi case37, 91–2, 250, 259;
torture252, 255–6, 258;
trends in current studies262–4;
weather524; see also Roman Inquisition; Sicily
Ivanits, Linda370
Iwkowa, Poland324–5
Izzard, Ann443–4
Jacobson Schutte, Anne249
Jacobus of Voragine: Golden Legend577
Jacquier, Nicholas43, 45, 93, 113;
Flagellum haereticorum fascinariorum42
James VI, King of Scotland300, 303–4, 305, 313–14, 482, 531;
as James I of England293, 294, 304;
Daemonologie78, 304, 305
Jan van Leiden, King of Münster496
Jason123
Jehan de Bar27
Jena, Germany341, 342
Jesuits208, 224, 327, 342, 418, 489, 502, 503, 579, 581
Jesus Christ114, 488, 489, 492, 577
Jews: in Amsterdam247;
and exorcism578;
expulsions of233;
in Hungary339;
Iberian268, 270, 279, 576, 590;
link with heresy504;
and magic14, 154;
persecution of40;
in Poland331;
ritual murder charges502
Joan of Arc42, 220–1, 229
Job112
Jobe, Thomas551, 571–2
Johann VII von Schönenberg, archbishop of Trier502
Johansen, Jens Chr. V.377
John XXII, Pope30
John of Salisbury29, 112
Johns, Andreas370–1
(p. 610) Johnson, Mark329
Jonson, Ben122
Jorden, Edward565, 568, 569
Joris, David246, 492, 493, 499
judges: as accused192, 349, 531;
as accusers473;
of assizes541;
caught between competing local interests296;
central versus local438–9, 477;
continued belief in witchcraft435–6, 440;
as defenders of due process311, 479–80;
disgrace of294;
Imperial540–1;
and increase in acquittals440;
power of531–2;
reluctance to convict444;
role under accusatorial procedure471;
role under inquisitorial procedure473;
scepticism of118–19, 189, 190, 195, 297–8, 479;
and standards of evidence440–1;
training477;
uncertainty and consultation of other authorities173;
untrained536–7;
willingness to act on allegations17; see also magistrates
Judith496
Judoci de Rosa, Jacob244–5
Jülich, duchy of180, 182, 193, 234, 238
Junius, Johannes465
Jura region461, 476, 525
juries298, 474, 478, 479, 480, 541
Juxon, Joseph443
Kalisz, Poland323, 328
Kallestrup, Louise Nyholm377, 383–4
Kampen, Netherlands236, 237, 239
Karl Kaspar von der Leyen, archbishop of Trier212, 545
Karlsen, Carol143, 396–7, 398, 462
Kaysersberg, Geiler von: Emeis75
Kemp, Ursula452
Kent, England291, 293, 461, 516
Kieckhefer, Richard33, 36, 37, 43, 58, 91–2
Kirk, Robert315
Kirsch, Moselle region202
Kittredge, George Lyman285, 286
Kivelson, Valerie371
Klaassen, Frank14
Klaits, Joseph552
Klaniczay, Gábor334
Kleczew, Poland324, 325, 328, 331
KLEIO (computer programme)334–5
Klibanov, A. I.367
Klimkówka, Poland323
Klonowic, Sebastian331
knowledge: ‘humanistic crisis of’104
Knox, John313
Knutsen, Gunnar W.273–4, 380, 389
Koerner, Joseph Leo147
Kolberg, Oskar327
Kolb, Wolfgang532
Koller, Jacob185
Kolozsvár, Hungary335, 344, 349, 350
Kraków, Poland320, 326
Kramer, Heinrich45–8, 209;
admiration for holy women265;
advice sought by Nuremberg council17;
appointed papal inquisitor48, 74;
on ineffectiveness of torture118;
influenced by German traditions175;
prosecutions by20, 29–30, 45–6, 165, 174, 177, 487;
on sexual seduction by devil458;
on women47–8, 74; see also Malleus maleficarum
Krogh, Tyge384
Kvæfjord, Norway385
Kyteler, Alice90
Labarentin, Barbara478
Labourd, Pays de93, 229, 518
labourers200
Labouvie, Eva145, 458
la Calancha, Antonio de418
‘ladies from outside’276–7
Lady of the Game260–1, 264
Lake District, England125
Lakoff, George329
Lamashtu132
Lamb, Mary Ellen123
lamia73
Lancashire, England97, 138–9, 293–4, 516
Lancre, Pierre de72, 80, 85–6, 89–90, 149;
influences on78, 79;
prosecutions by71, 223, 230, 540;
On the Inconstancy of Witches80
landlords363, 366
(p. 611) Láng, Benedek14
Langenburg, Germany185, 432
language: Amerindian415–16, 419;
as cultural barrier199, 215;
distinctions between sorcery and witchcraft414–15, 420;
and exorcisms72;
knowledge of Latin20, 26;
secret magical72 ; see also linguistics; philologists
Languedoc, France220, 226, 281
Laon, France494
Larner, Christina143, 301, 303, 304, 305–6, 309, 310, 311–12, 313–15, 453, 461, 481, 519
Lasne, Jehanneta165
Last Days486, 489, 497, 500
Latimer, Hugh126
Latin language20, 26
latitudinarianism572
Latvia125
Lausanne, diocese of40, 41, 43, 47;
as paradigm based on trial records160, 161, 163–5, 166–7, 169–70;
regional alternatives to paradigm170–5
Lavater, Ludwig79
Lavenia, Vincenzo263
Lavrov, A. S.360–1, 370
law and legal procedures468–84;
accusatorial procedure17, 236–7, 290, 383–4, 471–2, 474, 475;
advice on193, 210;
biblical341, 384, 531;
broader criminal context481–3;
canon118, 469–70;
caution477–81;
civil118;
criminal procedure471–4;
decentralized193–4, 203;
decriminalization of witchcraft347–8, 430, 433–5, 480;
definition of crime of witchcraft469–70;
Denmark383–4, 385–6, 389, 432, 470;
diversity35;
due process311, 438, 477–81;
and exorcism581;
German182, 192–5;
Hungary337–8, 342;
Iceland378;
influence on numbers of prosecutions34–5;
judicial questionnaires85, 88–9;
limited impact of repeal laws434;
Magdeburg327;
need for comparative study of546;
Norway378, 385–6, 389;
patriarchal nature of453;
Poland and Lithuania321–6;
Praxis criminalis338, 342;
processus ordinarius193, 195;
reforms195, 203, 439–40;
Rhine-Moselle region202–4;
Roman35, 192, 194, 229, 236, 237, 471–2;
Russia356–9;
Saxon236, 322–3, 325;
Scottish314;
and torture193, 194–5, 203–4, 219, 221, 439, 440, 468–9, 474–7;
violations by magistrates194 ; see also courts; inquisitorial procedure
law codes509;
German182, 193, 194;
law, faculties of189, 190, 194, 203, 252, 431–2, 434, 440, 478, 540
Law of Moses384
lawyers97, 101, 205, 206, 242, 348, 441, 477, 478, 513, 540;
Russian lack of357
Laymann, Paul440
Lea, Henry Charles59, 258, 271
Lecco, Italy254
Lederer, David573, 576
Le Franc, Martin: Le champion des dames42, 92, 161
Legenda Aurea91
Leicester, England294
Leiden, University of243, 246
Leipzig: High Court540
Lemgo, Lippe182, 184, 185, 449, 533
Lennersand, Marie380
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor543
lèse majesté40, 194; see also treason
Levack, Brian144, 305, 306–7, 311, 314, 316, 504, 530
Levin, Eve371
Lex politica Dei341
Liechtenstein185, 543
Lilith132
Lima, Peru413, 420, 422, 426–7
Lindanus, Wilhelmus233
linguistics: cognitive329;
cultural-linguistic approach
to popular beliefs65, 67;
and folklore367; see also language
Lippe, county of180, 182, 183, 184, 185, 191, 517
Lisbon, Portugal277, 278, 280–1, 413, 423
literacy: of Anabaptist women497;
as source of suspicion363–4;
literature: early modern122–40;
medieval90–1, 124–5;
Russian369, 370;
Scottish315; see also books; classical texts
Lithuania, Grand Duchy of319, 321, 332 ; see also Poland and Lithuania, Commonwealth of
(p. 612) Little Ice Age34, 163, 181, 200, 523–4
Littré, Émile562
local authorities38, 46, 61, 89, 98, 438, 535–9;
Rhine-Moselle region204–7;
Italy263;
Netherlands234;
Sweden380
localities: importance of335; need for study of 352
lodgers348, 349
Logroño, Spain: auto de fe271–2
Löher, Hermann: Hochnötige unterthanige wemütige Klage der frommen Unschültigen81
Lombard, Peter108
Lombardy91, 518
Longuich, Germany202
Loos, Cornelius209, 246;
The True and False Magic502
Lorenz, Sönke145–6
Lorraine, duchy of6, 86, 199, 200, 216, 476, 523, 525;
Change de Nancy (court)203, 209, 532;
chronology and scale of trials201, 202, 207;
decline in persecutions212–13;
French invasion225;
healers214;
later trials211–12;
male suspects465;
Remy and son in209–10, 532;
social tensions518;
torture203–4;
widows461
Lorraine, dukes of199, 202, 206, 212
lost items, finding29, 136, 323
Loudun, nuns of224, 495, 521
Louis XIV, King of France203, 225, 226–8, 431, 483, 540, 545
Louvain, University of580
love magic18, 22–4, 26, 173, 177, 270, 276, 323, 378, 383, 415, 420, 421, 586;
African424;
devil invoked in57;
Erictho and129;
urban521–2
Löwensteyn, Machteld144
lower classes: accusations by7, 17, 20, 56, 187, 190–2, 206, 207, 216, 290, 303, 306, 349–50, 360–1, 394, 395–6, 536–7;
as accused190–2, 207, 303, 348–9, 361, 387, 388, 415;
and elite culture58–62, 92, 284, 325, 328;
scepticism of101 ; see also communities, local; peasants
Lublin, Poland320, 321, 332
Lucan: Pharsalia126, 127, 129
Lucas, Marijke144
Lucca, republic of23, 253, 254, 258
Lucerne, Swiss Confederacy25
Lucian of Samosata18
Lucifer420
Luciferians38, 41, 166
Lucretius104, 107
Lud (journal)327
Lukaszewicz, Józef327
Lutheranism340, 343, 344, 352, 384, 386, 437, 438, 445–6, 454, 492, 493–4, 499, 500
Luther, Martin75–6, 454, 455, 488–9, 490–1, 493–4, 496, 498
Luxembourg, duchy of199, 215;
chronology and scale of prosecutions201, 202, 211;
decline in persecutions212–13;
‘Incubi Succubi’ (exhibition)146;
Provincial Council203, 207;
torture204;
witchcraft committees204, 205
lying-in maids191, 461, 463
Lyly, John: Mother Bombie135–6
lynchings9, 222, 226, 229, 263, 326, 429, 480–1, 509;
prevalent in Poland439
Łysa Góra, see Bald Mountain
Maastricht, Netherlands235
Macalpine, Ida565
Macbeth (Shakespeare)122, 125, 126–8, 130, 131–3, 134, 137, 300
MacCulloch, Diarmaid486
MacDonald, Michael567–8, 569
Macdonald. Stuart306, 313
Macfarlane, Alan58, 64–5, 286–8, 388, 460, 461, 462, 511, 512, 516, 517–18, 519
Mackenzie, Sir George478
Maczarka, Katarzyna329
madness, see mental illness
Magdalena de la Cruz584
Magdalena de’Pazzi, St583
Magdeburg Law327
magic13–31;
Amerindian412, 413–14, 415–23, 427;
ancient (revival of interest in)259;
angel13–14, 15, 26, 27;
astral14, 19–20;
attribution of powers behind35;
beneficent53, 66, 235;
books and14–15, 18–19;
Christianity and14, 15, 51, 52, 213;
clerical attitudes to35–6;
clerical practice of19–20, 255, 262, 265, 278, 464, 581;
as (p. 613) crime4, 483;
and cultural exchange14;
decline of61, 555;
demonologists on71–3;
and demons14, 15, 90;
factors contributing to suspicion of17–21;
and gender19–20;
as inherent human quality383;
Jewish14, 154;
natural14, 15, 437, 550, 551;
need for research into ways of dealing with alternative types of546;
perceptions of15–16;
popular belief in, and use of394–5;
public disclosure of private activities19;
risk of disclosure20–1;
ritual4, 13, 26;
science and14;
separation from religion509;
as source of income260;
specialist-client relationship17–18, 23;
stress on the diabolic nature of31, 35–6;
survival of61;
text-based36;
typical applications of21–30;
unclear boundaries235
magic circles27
magicians: biblical154;
blurred distinction from witches249, 265;
demonization of30–1, 57;
illustrations of153–4;
male4, 19–20, 90, 153–4, 249, 265, 415, 578, 588;
real guilt of262;
and secrecy72
magistrates: as accused192, 349, 531;
as accusers192;
attitudes of41;
continued belief in witchcraft435–6;
expected to follow law codes193;
relative independence of438, 439;
Roman Inquisition’s toleration of263;
Salem406–7;
untrained438;
violations of procedures194
Magnus, Georgius Fridericus: Disputatio physica de magia341
magoi15
Maidstone, England295, 296
Main, River180, 181
Mainz, electors of202–3, 212
Mainz, prince-bishopric of180, 184, 186, 187, 199, 201, 212
Maldonado, Francisca de420–1
Maldonado, Juan78
maleficium4;
alleged motivations191;
Amerindian418–19;
ancient509;
Aquinas on73;
burning for322–3;
crime of193;
decline in charge of430;
decriminalization of433;
Denmark383;
in England289–90;
gender and458–9;
German lands182;
increasingly linked with spirits/demons119;
informal systems of control of509–10;
investigation into possible natural causes439, 441;
as lèse majesté40, 194;
as lesser crime than diabolism470;
medieval beliefs in34–6, 73;
natural control of509–10;
popular fears of60;
Portuguese attitude to278, 279, 422;
Protestant attitudes to76, 445–6;
punished by Incas417;
real evidence of66;
replaces heresy as charge43;
Russia355–6;
secular courts and257;
seen as diabolic heresy36–8;
sorcery not associated with414;
standards of evidence for479;
study of witness testimonies335
Malinowski, Bronisław508
Malleus maleficarum (Kramer)17, 45–8, 70, 74, 165, 470, 487, 498, 510;
criticism of78;
definition of witchcraft102;
on Episcopi canon113–14;
on existence of demons107, 109;
feminism on450, 451, 454;
Hungary and340, 342;
and iconography144;
influence on demonologists71, 78, 115, 265;
known in Iceland382;
little influence in Netherlands236;
mythic paradigm in174–5;
Nider’s influence on75, 174;
Polish translation323;
on question of divine permission111–12;
reasons for writing177;
on role of the state530;
on witches’ flight176 ; see also Kramer, Heinrich
Malory, Thomas: Morte d’Arthur124–5
Malthusian crises517, 518, 522–3
Mammoli, Domenico259
Mamoris, Petrus93;
Flagellum maleficorum70
Mandelbrote, Scott556
Mandrou, Robert141, 218–19, 224–5, 226–7, 230, 552, 590
Mantua, Italy250, 258
Marchtal, ecclesiastical territory of537
Margita, Hungary340–1
Maria Padilla (wife of lame devil)280
Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress347–8, 433, 434, 437, 545
marks, devil’s110, 133, 224, 239, 256, 383, 588;
pricking for209, 295, 311, 314, 475
(p. 614) marriage: to demons93–4;
divorce129;
Protestant attitude to495
Marseilles, France223–4
Marston, John: Sophonisba129
Martha, St420, 421
Marthinsen, Birger Andreas377
Martinez, Joaquina275
Martin, Lauren308, 309–11, 312
martyrdom126, 583, 586
Marxist ideology334, 368
Maryland393
Mary, Virgin125, 174, 330, 420
Masini, Eliseo: Sacro Arsenale256–7
Massachusetts99, 430 ; see also Salem
Mather, Cotton89, 409, 534
Mattaincourt, duchy of Lorraine211, 215
Matteuccia di Francesco37, 91–2, 259
Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria189
Maxwell-Stuart, P. G.304, 308–9
Mazza, Gaetana263
Mazzolini, Silvestro, see Prierias, Sylvester
mechanical philosophy435, 436, 437, 549, 552, 558, 572
Mecklenburg, duchy of180, 183, 184, 185, 190, 195
Medea123, 152
Meder, David81;
Hexenpredigten97
medical scepticism101, 117–18, 119, 190, 224, 243, 246, 479, 513, 548, 563–6, 571–2, 591;
medicine561–74;
Dutch572;
early modern vocabulary of568;
need for new studies of197, 572–3;
remedies to restore sanity of witches118;
‘retrospective’562, 570;
Weyer and234, 499; see also physicians
medieval period32–49, 90–1, 289, 358;
Alpine trials38–41;
dissemination of witch mythologies42–4;
literature124–5;
scholarship44–9
Mediomontanus, Joannes C.340, 343
Mediterranean region270, 276, 280, 471, 518–19, 521–2
Meigerius, Samuel: De panurgia lamiarum, sagarum, strigum ac veneficarum76
melancholia64, 117–18, 197, 243, 246, 341, 499, 563
Méliusz Juhász, Péter340
Mello e Souza, Laura de422
Memmingen, Swabia496
men: African424;
Anabaptist497;
as artists148;
benandanti52, 60, 259–60, 261, 265;
concept of ‘enlightened’ masculinity457;
cunning63,