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date: 21 May 2019

(p. 639) Index of Subjects

(p. 639) Index of Subjects

‘Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t, and f, following the page number. Footnotes are indicated by an italic n followed by note number’.

A-over-A constraint 223–4
adjectives
in anaphoric substitutions 245–7
in Haitian Creole 427, 452–3
modification, Chinese vs. English 330
noun-adjective order 360–1
parameters, in Chinese 346–7
parameters for 385–6
and semantic interpretations 215
adverbs 140
adverbial clauses, in sign language 511, 515
and backwards anaphora 231, 232
negative adverbials 443, 444–5
parameters, in Chinese 330, 332
American Sign Language (ASL) 509
and iconicity 523, 524–5
subordination 514–15
syntactic movement 517–18
anaphora 197, 200, 202
backwards 228, 231–2
and binding conditions 205, 519, 520
and explanatory adequacy 100–1
and one-substitutions 242–6
and parametrization 258, 315, 385, 395
reflexive 207
animal studies, phonology 528–30
concatenation 544
copying 543–4
grouping 530–6
pattern extraction 536–7
pattern extraction, non-adjacency 538–9
pattern extraction, rhythm 540–2
pattern extraction, sequencing 539–40
and ‘searching’ 543
Anti-Babelic principle 390
aphasia 486, 489, 500–3
and SLI 503–4
articles 149
omission 278–9, 288, 331
and parametrization 384, 385, 386, 395
Assamese, null subjects in 365
Austronesian languages
NT clusters 158–60
V-initial order 371
autism 59, 488, 489, 496–8, 506, 507
Autonomy of Syntax (AS) 49, 148, 152
and negations 139–40
and wh-constructions 136–9
auxiliaries
and formalism 133–4
fronting 233–9
and language acquisition 279–80
and linguistic typology 366
negative markers as 139
omission, in LIS 512–13
parameters, in Chinese dialects 337, 349–50
and poverty of the stimulus 102–3
Auxiliary Transformation (Affix Hopping) 134
backwards anaphora 228
in Russian 231–2
Bayesian Learning 229–33, 237
Binding Theory 9, 11–14, 115
and the P&P model 311–22
and pronouns, in sign language 519–22
biolinguistics 3, 129, 319, 491, 508
comparative, and language pathology 504–7
and Creole languages 406–7
and the ‘third factor’ principle 114, 118, 126
and UG 4–6, 12, 87
(p. 640)
birdsongs 38n1, 531–2
Borer-Chomsky conjecture 308
brain sciences 40–1
British Sign Language (BSL) 499–500
Bulgarian
parametrization 385, 391
and the wh-wovement parameter 315
Cartesian Linguistics (Chomsky) 78
critics 90–2
Descartes and natural science 84–90
Case theory 49, 51, 57–8, 122
Catalan Sign Language (LSC) 515
Chinese 310, 311
dialects, microvariation 335–8
Modern vs. English, macroparametric contrasts 328–33
Old vs. Modern, macroparameters 333–5
parameters, clausal, inflectional domain 347–8
parameters, and the null topic 313
parameters, and wh-movement 314
classifiers 317
learning of, and savantism 499, 500
numeral, and language distribution 362
overt, in Chinese 329, 333, 346, 348
predicates, in sign language 523–5
stranding, in Chinese dialects 335, 336, 349
clitics 58, 176, 275, 281, 288, 292, 318, 324
in French 444–5
in language disorders 495
and linguistic typology 364
omission 276–8
Communicative Task Urgency 145
Comparative Creole Syntax: Parallel Outlines of 18 Creole Grammars (CCS) 416, 426–7
competence, linguistic 6–7, 13, 72, 88, 235, 310–11
and animal studies 545
competence theory 67–8
and explanatory adequacy 107
and language pathology 487, 491, 492, 501, 504, 507
and music 19
computation
in animal studies 529–30, 533–4, 537–9, 543
efficiency 114, 117, 118, 119–23, 147, 201–2, 322, 393
phylogenetic, in Creole studies 424–30
semantic 192–6
Computational Representational Theory of Mind (CRTM) 47
conjunction 127–8
Construction Grammar 268, 269
contractions 133
Coordinate Structure Constraint 518
coreference 137, 208
and indirect negative evidence 228, 231
and language acquisition 105–7
in sign language 514–15, 519–22
Creole languages 401
and case distinction 414–15
clausal domain 437–42
and complexity 417–19
and computational phylogenetics 424–30
Creole exceptionalism 405–7
‘creole’ term 402–5
ecology of language and complexity 416–17
vs. French, comparative method 419–23
and language acquisition 431–6, 456–8
nominal domain 450–6
and nonnative acquisition 423–4
patterns, in Gungbe vs. English 412–13
and Pidgin 407–8, 412, 414–15
simplicity issues 407–8, 411–17, 423, 426, 431, 440
TMA markers 409–10, 421, 427
verbal inflection 442–9
cross-linguistic variation, parameters 25, 312, 380, 381–3, 394
Cuban Spanish, velar epenthesis in 165
‘Derivation by Phase’ (Chomsky) 56, 113
Descartes 40, 45–6, 113, 222, 491
and natural science 78, 79, 84–91
descriptive adequacy 24, 44, 79, 81, 98–100
and parametric linguistics 378–9, 388, 397
Dutch 272
article omission 278, 279, 288
phonological system 272
(p. 641)
E-language 7, 75, 266
and adequacy 99–100
and language change 461, 469
English 24, 30, 42, 43, 69, 156, 163
and adequacy 99–100, 101, 108
Agree relations 13
auxiliaries 102, 133–4
‘definiteness effect’ 149
final voicing 178–9
inflectional morphology 442–3, 446–7, 448
learners of, and Principle C 228
linguistic change 462–3, 467, 476–7, 481–2
vs. Modern Chinese, macroparametric contrasts 328–33
null subjects 364, 367
Overt Pronoun Constraint 297–8
parameters 310–11, 313, 314, 317, 318, 343–4, 346–7
and Pidgin 412–13
rhythm, and language acquisition 272
RI phenomenon 275
SAI acquisition 280
semantic interpretations 283–4
wh-construction 136–9, 266, 281, 291, 314
who-questions 281–2
word order 142–3, 144, 274
epenthesis 156n3, 157
and NT clusters 160–1, 163
velar 164–6
ergative patterns 142, 145, 270, 328, 343
Estonian, null subjects in 366
Evenki, negation in 140
Evolutionary Phonology 157, 161, 162–3
and final voicing 166, 167, 174–5, 178
explanatory adequacy 14, 23–6, 97
and language acquisition 97, 101–8
and the Minimalist Program 110–11
and natural science 79, 80–1, 83
and parametric linguistics 378
Principles and Parameters 108–9
and simplicity 112–13
Extended Standard Theory (EST) 52, 108, 109, 253–4, 255
Extension Condition 119
Factorial Typology, and NT clusters 158–63
Faculty of Language, broad/narrow sense (FLB and FLN) 5–6, 13, 14–15, 505, 508
Failed Functional Features Hypothesis 302
Feature Economy (FE) 22–3, 29, 31, 326, 338
Fibonacci sequence 123–6
Final over Final Constraint (FOFC) 8, 473n22
final voicing 166–7
in Lezgian 177–8
in Old Latin 175
in Pahlavi 169–72, 173
in Proto-Indo-European 175
in Proto-Iranian 167–8
in Somali 176
and suffixed forms 173–4
in Turkish 172–3
in Welsh 175–6
formalism 129–31
and the Autonomy of Syntax (AS) 135–40
auxiliaries 133–4
criticism 134
and the ‘definiteness effect’ 149–50
and the Lexical Government condition 150–2
Wh-Criterion 132–3
French
clitic omission 276–7
vs. Haitian Creole 409–10, 411, 419–23, 444–56
wh-formation 280
Full Interpretation principle 121–2
functionalism 129–31, 141, 359n4
and Communicative Task Urgency 145
and the ‘definiteness effect’ 149–50
and ergative clause patterns 142, 145
formal linguists on 146–7
and the Lexical Government condition 150–2
and philosophy of mind 39–43
and prepositional phrases 143–4
and typology 358
Genetic Algorithm 257–9
German
bare nominals 336
and language change 467, 470, 481
learnability 291, 292, 298–302, 303
and the null-topic parameter 313–14
RI phenomenon 275
wh-elements 138, 280
(p. 642)
gerundive constructions, Chinese 332, 335, 351
Gold’s Theorem 250–3
Grammaire générale et raisonnée ou La Grammaire de Port Royal (Arnauld and Lancelot) 2, 3, 38, 90–2
Greek
and final voicing 178, 179
and language pathology 495
and pragmatic inferences 286
prepositional phrase structure 143
Greenbergian universals 8, 30, 147, 356–8, 369–70, 372
Haitian Creole (HC) 406
clausal domain 437–42
and Comparative Creole Syntax (CCS) 427
genetic affiliations 409–10, 419–24
and language acquisition 456–8
nominal domain 450–6
‘simplicity’ issues 411, 414
verbal inflection 442–9
head parameter 81, 149, 311–12, 318, 319, 395–6, 541
English and Modern Chinese 343–6
History of Western Philosophy (Russell) 23
I-language 9, 10, 17–18, 25, 75
and adequacy 99–100
I-Creoles 457, 458
and language change 461–3
and learnability 264, 435
notion of 7
and ‘third factor’ principle 115–17, 119, 128
Inclusion Constraint 226–7, 228
indirect negative evidence
and Bayesian Learning 229–33
and one-substitution 242–7
and Principle C 228–9
Indonesian, NT clusters in 158
infinitives
in Creole 409, 410, 413, 414, 432, 439
root (RI) 275–6
and voice alternations in Pahlavi 170
Input Generalization (IG) 23, 29, 326–7, 338–9, 341
and Chinese parameters 346, 348, 353
inverse scope reading 282–5
Italian
article omission 278–9
and the Lexical Government condition 151–2
and pragmatic inferences 286
rhythm 272
RI phenomenon 275
wh-formation 281
who-questions 281–2
Italian Sign Language (LIS)
ellipsis 511–13
pronouns and binding 521–2
wh-movement 517
Japanese
and language acquisition 287
Overt Pronoun Constraint 296–8
parameters t318, 331, 395
sign language 519
wh-movement 314, 317
Kannada, and inverse scope reading 283–4
Kelantan Malay, NT clusters in 159, 160
Ladakhi 139–40
language acquisition 27–9
A-over-A constraint 223–4
and the actuation problem 466–74
in artificial phrase structures 239–42
Bayesian Learning 229–33, 237
and competence 7
and Creole languages 431–6, 456–8
and evolution of UG 10, 11
and explanatory adequacy 97, 101–13
and impairments 493–5, 499–500
Inclusion Constraint 226–7
and language change 459–60, 463, 466–74
and Leibnizian rationalism 21–3
and music 19
and natural science 81, 83
and one-substitution 242–7
parameter-setting 25–6
and poverty of the stimulus 221–2, 224–5, 247–8, 308–9
Principle C 228–9, 231–3
structure dependence and auxiliary-fronting 233–9
Tensed-S Condition 225–6
(p. 643)
language acquisition, first years 270–1, 287–8
article omission 278–9
clitic omission 276–8
inverse scope reading 282–5
pragmatic inferences 285–7
rhythm 271–3
RI phenomenon 275–6
transitional probabilities 273–4
wh-questions 279–81
who-questions 281–2
language acquisition, learnability 249–50
Genetic Algorithm 257–9
Gold’s Theorem 250–3
input guidance 264–7
and linguistic theories 267–9
Principles and Parameters theory 255–6
psychological feasibility 253–5
Triggering Learning Algorithm 259–61
Variational Learning 261–2
language acquisition, nonnative, role of UG 289
and grammaticality 290–4
nonconvergence on the target grammar 302–3
Overt Pronoun Constraint case 295–8
pre-1980s theories 290
processing 303–4
word order and variation 298–302
Language Acquisition Device (LAD) 153–5, 157, 182–3, 266
Language Bioprogram Hypothesis 407, 411
language change
and acquisition 459–60, 463, 466–74
and grammar change 461–4
and grammaticalization 478–84
and parametric variation 464–6
third factors in 474
and the transition problem 475–8
and UG 460–1
language evolution 18, 32–4
convergent 27
and development of UG 14
and natural science 81
language pathology 486–7
aphasia 500–4
and comparative biolinguistics 504–7
impairment and communication 488–9
savantism 496–500
and UG 489–92
language variation 355, 368–70
global comparison 373–4
Greenbergian paradigm 357
microvariation 392
research methods 359–60
WALS features 363–8
Lexical Government condition 150–2
Lezgian, final voicing in 177–8
Linear Correspondence Axiom 112
linguistic intuitions 61, 64, 65
linguistic judgments 62–6, 68–71, 76
linguistic theory
and competence 6
and explanatory adequacy 23–4, 97–113
and logic 4
and metaphysics 9
and the minimalist program (MP) 12
parameter-setting 25–6
linguistic typology 355, 375–6
areal features 361–2
comparative research 371–5
functionalism vs. formalism 358–9
Greenbergian paradigm 356–8
limited data research 363–8
research methods 359–60
trends in variation studies 368–71
World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) 356
Logical Form (LF) 11, 12, 50, 52, 128, 493
macroparameters 318–19
and Input Generalization 346
as microparameter aggregates 338–9
and minimalism 323–5, 327, 328
Modern Chinese vs. English 328–32
Old Chinese vs. Modern Chinese 333–5, 342
Mandar, NT clusters in 159
Mandarin
parameter comparison 335–8, 347, 349–54
RI phenomenon 276
Men of Ideas (BBC) 20
Merge 6, 12–13, 26, 52–3, 82–4
and adequacy 99, 112–13
and computation 119, 196
and formal explanation 131–2
and semantic order 186–7, 214–17
metaphysics
and theory of mind 39–40, 41, 43, 44–5, 46, 47
and UG 8–9, 17
microparameters 320–2
and hierarchical organization 341
and minimalism 323–5, 327, 328
variation in Chinese dialects 335–8, 349, 353
minimalist program (MP) 52, 53, 60, 146n6, 294n5
and development of UG 12, 13–14
and explanatory adequacy 110–11
and natural science 81–2
and parameters 25, 31, 322–8
and ‘third factor’ principle 115–17
and ‘treelets’ 268–9
Modularized Global Parametrization (MGP) 378, 380
morphemes
auxiliaries, and phrase structures 133–4
derivational, in Haitian Creole 421, 422, 437
and language pathology 502
and negation 140
parameters 384, 385, 386, 393, 394–5
and verb agreement 274–5, 276
and voicing 170, 175
morphosyntax
articles (RI) 278–9
clitics (RI) 276–8
in Creole languages 428, 437, 442, 446, 449, 456
crosslinguistic variation 380, f382–3
in language pathology 489, 493, 499
root infinitives (RI) 275–6
music, and language 18–19
natural science 77–8, 116
and Cartesian Linguistics 84–92
and UG 79–84
negation 30
and the Autonomy of Syntax 139–40
English and French vs. Creole 442–7
inverse scope reading 282–5
quantifiers, Chinese 329
and root infinitives (RI) 275
Niuean, word order in 371
No Tampering Condition (NTC) 119, 201, 204
nominal mapping parameter 185, 316–17, 318, 320
nonconfigurationality parameter 315, 318, 320
normative rule governance 66–8
and linguistic judgments 68–70
rule-following 71–6
nouns
article omission 278–9
count, in Chinese 333, 346–7
and language change 481, 483
noun phrases, in Creole 411–12, 451–3
overt classifiers, in Chinese 329
parameters 315–17, 384–5, 395–6
word order 143, 357, 360–1
NT clusters 158–63
null-subject parameter 264, 275–6, 312–13, 314, t318
Japanese 296
WALS features 363–7
null-topic parameter 313–14
observational adequacy 24, 98–100
Occam’s razor 12, 25
OCP (Obligatory Contour Principle) 161–2
Old Latin, final voicing in 175
one-substitution 242–7
Optimality Theory 124, 145n4, 156n3
Factorial Typology 158–63
and markedness 153–4, 157, 164
optional (root) infinitives (RI) 275–6
overt localizers, in Chinese 329, 333, 346
Overt Pronoun Constraint (OPC) 295–8
Pahlavi, voicing in 169–70, 172, 173
paradigmatization, and language change 483–4
Parametric Comparison Method (PCM) 26, 30, 317–18, 378, 379
and Determiner Phrases 380, f382–3
and dialectic microvariation 392
(p. 645)
parametric linguistics 377, 397–8
diversity and implications 381–7
and historical adequacy 388–92
horizontal transmission 392
levels of adequacy 378–9
methodologies 379–81
Modularized Global Parametrization (MGP) 378
parametric schemata 393–7
syntactic distance and implicational constraints 387, f388
variation, and language change 464–6
parsing 122, 144, 149, 151, 303–4
and learnability 258–62, 266–8, 537
passives 108–9
A-over-A constraint 223–4
in Chinese 332, 333
hierarchy of 341
Tensed-S Condition 225–6
philosophy 16–17, 37–9
and Cartesian Linguistics 84–92
and generative grammar 42–8
Kant and Chomsky 20–1
Leibniz 21–3
and linguistic judgments 62–6, 68–71, 76
metaphysics 17
modularity 17–19
and normative rules 66–76
philosophy of mind 39–42, 60
and grammatical organization 53–60
Phonological Form (PF) 11, 12, 13, 201, 483
and impairment 493–4
phonology 527–8
and Fibonacci patterns 123–4
and language change 471–2, 480–1
and markedness 163–80
NT clusters 158–63
phonetics as a third factor 126–7
rhythm 271–3
transitional probabilities 273–4
UG and LAD 153–5
phonology, animal studies 528–30
concatenation 544
copying 543–4
grouping 530–6
pattern extraction 536–7
pattern extraction, non-adjacency 538–9
pattern extraction, rhythm 540–2
pattern extraction, sequencing 539–40
and ‘searching’ 543
phrase structure 10
artificial, and structure dependence 239–42
computational efficiency 119–22
English auxiliaries 133–4
Fibonacci sequence 124–5
and language acquisition 101, 237, 240–2
parameters 315
see also word order
phylogeny 10, 15, 18
in Creole studies 424–30
and linguistic typology 361, 362
and parameters 378, 389
Plato’s problem 308–9, 311, 323, 341, 491
poka-constraint 232
polysynthesis parameter 315–16, 318–19, 324, 332, 340, 341, 343
Portuguese (European) and clitic omission 277
possessives
Chinese dialects 350–1
parameters 384, 386, 396
poverty of the stimulus 47, 102–7, 111, 237–8
Primary Linguistic Data (PLD) 6, 11, 25, 29, 31, 33, 289–90
and Creole languages 434, 457–8
and language change 466–9, 473–4
and nonnative language acquisition 289–303
and phonological patterns 154–6
and poverty of the stimulus 222, 224
and the P&P model 310, 311, 318, 327, 339
Principle C 146, 228–9, 510
and backwards anaphora 231–2
violation of 520–2
Principles and Parameters (P&P) 25–6, 81, 83, 255–7, 307–8, 354
Chinese, clausal and inflectional domains 347–8
Chinese, lexical and phrasal domains 343–7, 348
Chinese dialects, mesoparametric variation 349–54
and explanatory adequacy 108–9 (p. 646)
in Genetic Algorithm 257–9
head parameter 311–12
hierarchical organization 339–41
input-guidance, treelets 265–8
macroparameters 318–19
markedness constraints 338–9
microparameters 320–2
and the Minimalist Program 322–8
Modern Chinese vs. English 328–33
nominal mapping 316–17
nonconfigurationality 315
null-subject parameter 312–13
null-topic parameter 313–14
Old Chinese vs. Modern Chinese 333–5, 342
Parametric Comparison Method 317–18
and Plato’s problem 309–10
polysynthesis 316
relativized X-bar parameter 317
in the Triggering Learning Algorithm 259–61
and UG 311
in the Variational Learning model 261–2
wh-wovement 314–15
pro-drop property see null-subject parameter
pronouns
backwards anaphora 228, 231–2
and binding, in sign language 519–22
clitic omission 276–8
and coreference 105–6
indefinite, language variation 374
null-subject parameter 312–13
Overt Pronoun Constraint 295–8
and semantic reference 203–4
Subject Pronoun Copy 514–15
Proto-Indo-European, and final voicing 175
Proto-Iranian, and final voicing 167–8
Punjabi, and null subjects 365
Puyo Pungo Quechua, NT clusters in 159, 160
quantifiers 135, 316, 326, 482
and negation 282–5, 329–30
reciprocals, in Chinese 331
recursion 6, 12, 80, 88, 155, 184, 187, 218, 383, 531, 536
and Creole languages 456–8
and sign languages 513–14
reference, and semantics 197
binding conditions 205–8
and inclusiveness 201–2
and pragmatism 200
and quantification 198–200
referentiality, philosophical issues 54–7
reflexives, and semantic reference 206–8
Relativized Minimality 103, 119–20
Relexification Hypothesis 406, 424
rhythm
cross-species studies 540–2
and language acquisition 271–3
root infinitives (RI) 275–6
Ross Constraints 68–9
Russian, backwards anaphora in 231–2
SVO order
and explanatory adequacy 100–1, 112
in first language acquisition 274, 281
and linguistic typology 370–1
savantism 496, 498–500
scalar implicatures (SI) 285–6
semantics
and computation 192–6
and iconicity, in sign language 525
inverse scope reading 282–5
and language change 470, 481–2
and reference 105–7, 198–209
and syntax 214–17
theory 49, 52–4, 56
‘third factor’ in 127–8
and truth 209–14
and word order 186–92
sign language 509–10, 525–6
classifier predicate 523–4
hierarchical organization 510–13
and iconicity 524–5
pronouns and binding 519–22
subordination 513–15
syntactic movement 516–19
simplicity 79, 84
and Creole languages 407–8, 411–17, 423, 426, 431, 440
Descartes on 85–6
and explanatory adequacy 80, 112–13
Somali, final voicing in 176 (p. 647)
specific language impairment (SLI) 493–6
and aphasia 503–4
Sprachbund phenomenon 361, 428, 429, 431
Strong Minimalist Thesis (SMT) 12, 21, 26, 82, 83
subjacency 63–4, 67, 70, 254, 291
and wh-constructions 138–9, 303
Subject-Auxiliary Inversion (SAI) 102, 268, 279–81
Subject Pronoun Copy 514–15
subject-verb agreement 282, 366, 373, 438
subordination 138, 331, 437
in sign languages 513–15
Subset Principle 230, 251, 258, 263, 474n24, 484
suffixes
in Haitian Creole 409, 420, 421, 422, 446
and linguistic typology 357, 361, 384–6
parameters, in Chinese 336–7, 347, 349–50
and voicing 170, 172, 173–5
Swedish 275, 280, 314, 470
Lexical Government condition 151
syllable structure
animal studies 531–3, 537–9, 541, 544
Fibonacci sequence 123–4
Syntactic Structures of the World’s Languages (SSWL) 368, 376
Tensed-S Condition 225–6
theory of mind 40, 47, 80, 88
and autism 497, 499
Theta Criterion 121–2
‘third factor’ principle 114–18
and computational efficiency 118–23
constraints in animal cognition 546
and the Fibonacci sequence 123–6
and the functional explanation 147
and the Minimalist Program 115–17
tones
language distribution 361
and OCP sequence 161–2
Tongan, negation in 139
transitional probabilities (TP) 273–4, 529, 537–8, 542
Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAGs) 268
treelets 265–7, 268
Triggering Learning Algorithm 259–61
truth, and semantics 209
falsity and assertion 213–14
and internalism 209–11
Truth Value Judgement task (TVJT) 228, 286–7
Turkish
negation 140
verb placement 292
voicing behavior 172–3
Turkish Sign Language (TID) 515
Universal Grammar (UG)
and acquisition 27–9
in animals 527, 546
and biolinguistics 4–6
and comparative syntax 29–32
and competence 6–7
concept 2
development of 9–15
and generative grammar 7–8
and LAD 153–5, 182–3
and language change 460–1
and language evolution 32–4
learning, and poverty of the stimulus 247–8
and linguistic intuitions/judgments 62–6, 68–71, 76
and linguistic pathology 489–92, 504–6
and linguistic theory 23–9
and logic 3–4
and metaphysics 8–9
and natural science 79–84
and philosophy 16–23, 37–9
and Principles and Parameters theory 311, 325–6
and sign language 509–10, 511, 516, 519, 523, 525
‘third factor’ principle 114–27
Uradhi, velar epenthesis in 165
Variational Learning model 261–2, 468n12
VP-ellipsis 309, 513n4
WALS (World Atlas of Language Structures) 356, 361, 379, 416
data variables 363–8
Welsh 312, 321
final voicing in 175–6
(p. 648)
wh-constructions
and the Autonomy of Syntax 136–9
Chinese 329, 333
and language acquisition 279–82, 291
in sign language 516–18
wh-wovement parameter 314–15
Wh-Criterion 132–3
word order
articles 278–9
Chinese vs. English 329
clitics 276–8
Greenbergian paradigm 357
head parameter 311–12
and language disorders 502
and language variation 357, 360, 361, 370–1
nonconfigurationality parameter 315
Old vs. Modern Chinese 334
root infinitives (RI) 275–6
in sign language 511–13, 516–19
variation, and L2 acquisition 298–302
word order, semantics 191–2
argument structure 188–91
Merge and concepts 186–7
nominal mapping parameter 316–17
X-bar theory
and Fibonacci sequence 124–5
relativized X-bar parameter 317