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date: 24 June 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter introduces some of the phenomena that theories of natural-language syntax aim to account for. It briefly discusses the correspondence between the sentences of a language and the semantic predicate-argument relations that they express, indicating how that correspondence is encoded in terms of word order, phrase structure, agreement, and valence. It surveys some of the grammatical notations, syntactic representations, and theoretical approaches that have figured prominently in linguistic research and that have particularly influenced the development of natural-language processing algorithms and implementations.

Keywords: predicate–argument relation, grammatical function, agreement, ambiguity, valence, phrase structure, long-distance dependency, Augmented Transition Networks, Transformational Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Tree-Adjoining Grammar

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