- Mathematical Foundations: Formal Grammars and Languages
- Finite-State Technology
- Statistical Models for Natural Language Processing
- Machine Learning
- Word Representation
- Deep Learning
- Sublanguages and Controlled Languages
- Corpus Annotation
- Text Segmentation
- Part-of-Speech Tagging
- Semantic Role Labelling
- Word Sense Disambiguation
- Computational Treatment of Multiword Expressions
- Textual Entailment
- Natural Language Generation
- Speech Recognition
- Temporal Processing
- Text-to-Speech Synthesis
- Machine Translation
- Translation Technology
- Information Retrieval
- Information Extraction
- Question Answering
- Text Summarization
- Term Extraction
- Web Text Mining
- Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis
- Spoken Language Dialogue Systems
- Multimodal Systems
- Natural Language Processing for Educational Applications
- Automated Writing Assistance
- Text Simplification
- Author Profiling and Related Applications
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Abstract and Keywords
This chapter introduces approaches to the processing of time-related constructs in natural language. It covers information extraction systems that can interpret time expressions and create a chronology of events in a narrative, as well as systems that can generate such expressions and render an ordering of events in a fluent discourse. Annotation schemes for marking up time expressions and temporal orderings are introduced, along with automatic methods for computing such annotations. The representation of annotated temporal relations in the interval calculus is described, as is the problem of inferring a consistent set of temporal relations for a narrative. The accuracy of humans and machine annotation is examined, and a question-answering application is discussed.
Inderjeet Mani is Associate Professor of Linguistics and Head of the Computational Linguistics Program at Georgetown University in Washington, DC. His books include the co-edited volumes Advances in Automatic Text Summarisation (MIT Press, 1999), and The Language of Time: A Reader (Oxford University Press, to appear), as well as an authored book Automatic Summarisation (John Benjamins, 2001). His work on evaluation includes assisting the U.S. government with the TIPSTER-SUMMAC text summarisation evaluation. In addition to text summarisation, Dr. Mani's current research includes temporal information processing and building ontologies.
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