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date: 18 October 2019

(p. xvii) List of Figures

(p. xvii) List of Figures

  1. 3.1 Feddersen Wierde, Germany 31

  2. 3.2 Reconstruction model of Feddersen Wierde, Germany 32

  3. 3.3 A view of Coolure Demesne crannog, Lough Derravaragh, Co. Westmeath, in the Irish midlands 35

  4. 3.4 Reconstruction of an early medieval crannog in Ireland. 36

  5. 3.5 Reconstruction drawing of a medieval fortified lake settlement dated to c.ad 1003–1040 at Charavines-Colletière, on Lac de Paladru, Isère, southeast France 39

  6. 3.6 Medieval fish weir at Boarland Rock 1, Fergus estuary, Ireland 42

  7. 3.7 Reconstruction of a medieval fish weir based on the one excavated at Bunratty, Co Clare, on the Shannon estuary, Ireland 43

  8. 3.8 Schematic model illustrating the range of potential strategies adopted in the exploitation, modification, and transformation of coast wetlands in northwest Europe 45

  9. 4.1 Landscape as it may have appeared during Paleoamerican times looking from a vantage point near Paisley Caves, Oregon, US 59

  10. 4.2 Examples of material items available for analysis during the Archaic and beyond 62

  11. 6.1 Ancient Maya wetland fields, Cacao Creek, Belize 86

  12. 6.2 Map of Mesoamerican wetland farming sites 86

  13. 6.3 Models of wetland field formation and use in the Maya Lowlands 90

  14. 6.4 Landscape diagram of the Blue Creek region 92

  15. 6.5 South American sites discussed in Chapter 6 95

  16. 7.1 Africa, showing major wetlands and archaeological and other sites 108

  17. 7.2 The early Holocene boat from Dufuna, Nigeria 112

  18. 7.3 Cultivation of fields immediately outside the walls of Jenné, Inland Niger Delta, Mali 114

  19. 8.1 Amuq plain, southern Turkey, showing the former Lake of Antioch and surrounding marshlands 127

  20. 8.2 The marshes near Warka, southern Iraq, with water buffaloes 130

  21. 8.3 Reed architecture at Kubaish in the marshes of southern Iraq 134

  22. 9.1 Position of major wetland sites in eastern Russia mentioned in Chapter 9 142

  23. (p. xviii) 9.2 Distribution of archaeological sites in and around the ShighirskyMoor (Russia) 144

  24. 9.3 Distribution of archaeological sites in and around the Gorbunovo Moor (Russia) 145

  25. 9.4 Stratigraphy of the Koksharovsko-Yurinskaya I site (Russia) 146

  26. 10.1 Geographic distribution of Neolithic sites between 6000 and 1500 cal bc in the lower regions of the Yangtze River, China 160

  27. 10.2 Changes of forest vegetations with times between 6000 and 1500 cal bc in the lower regions of the Yangtze River, China 162

  28. 10.3 Wooden pile dwellings excavated at the Tianluoshan site, China 164

  29. 10.4 A pile dwelling drawn on the lid of a pot found at the Xiantanmiao site, China 164

  30. 10.5 Dugout canoe excavated at the Kuahuqiao site, China 165

  31. 10.6 Plant seeds wet-sieved from soil samples at the Tianluoshan site, China 166

  32. 10.7 Farming tools at the Tianluoshan site, China 169

  33. 10.8 Integrated palaeoecological data from rice fields, dated between 5000 and 2500 cal bc, from the Tianluoshan site, China 170

  34. 11.1 Map of sites discussed in Chapter 11 177

  35. 11.2 Chronology of Japanese prehistory and environmental changes 178

  36. 11.3 Drawing and photograph of the basket filled with obsidian flakes found at the Yaoko-o site, Japan 182

  37. 11.4 The Uke (bamboo fish trap, 2500 BP) found at the Yamaga site, Japan 188

  38. 12.1 The distribution of wetland archaeological sites in the North Island of New Zealand described in Chapter 12 199

  39. 12.2 A sacred hair-cutting site was located in the swamp beside Owarau Pa, Kauri Point, New Zealand 200

  40. 12.3 Site MA-1 at Lake Mangakaware, New Zealand 204

  41. 12.4 A contour map of Kohika (New Zealand) showing the excavations 205

  42. 12.5 An artist's reconstruction of the eastern side of Kohika (New Zealand) 206

  43. 13.1 Map of Australia with all the locations mentioned Chapter 13 213

  44. 13.2 Aerial view of wetlands, Northern Australia 216

  45. 13.3 Red Lily Billabong, Arnhem Land 217

  46. 13.4 Crocodile in wetlands, Northern Australia 220

  47. 14.1 Maps of sites discussed in Chapter 14 232

  48. 14.2 Multi-panel photo showing highland wetlands in their valley settings 234

  49. 14.3 Maps of various ditch networks through time at Kuk, New Guinea 238

  50. 14.4 Plan of mounded palaeosurface at Kuk, New Guinea 240

  51. 15.1 Aerial view of the Prise d’Eau archaeological zone at Chalain (Jura, France) 254

  52. 15.2 One type of foundation adapted to mechanically unstable lake sediments 255

  53. 15.3 Differing rhythms of occupation from one period to another 257

  54. (p. xix) 15.4 Clairvaux-les-Lacs (Jura, France), station II 260

  55. 15.5 The village of Cortaillod Est (Switzerland) during the Late Bronze Age 264

  56. 16.1 Underwater excavation of organic deposits around structural timbers at Ederline Boathouse crannog, Loch Awe, Argyllshire, Scotland 272

  57. 16.2 Approaching the early medieval Coolure Demesne royal crannog, Co. Westmeath, Ireland 273

  58. 16.3 A modern free-standing reconstruction of a crannog at the Crannog Centre, Loch Tay, Perthshire, Scotland 275

  59. 16.4 A modern Packwerk-type reconstruction at the National Heritage Park, Ferrycarrig, Co. Wexford, Ireland 276

  60. 16.5 An artist's reconstruction of Buiston Crannog 277

  61. 16.6 Excavations at Buiston Crannog, Ayrshire, Scotland 277

  62. 17.1 Sites mentioned in Chapter 17 284

  63. 17.2 Construction characteristics of wetland houses 286

  64. 17.3 Settlement layouts in wetland and dryland (Creglingen) sites 288

  65. 17.4 Marin–Les Piécettes, Lake Neuchâtel: the wetland site and its adjacent hinterland 290

  66. 17.5 Settlement dynamics: four examples of growing and shrinking 292

  67. 17.6 The Siedlungskammer of Sutz-Lattrigen (Lake Biel), western Switzerland 296

  68. 17.7 Development of settlement location and land use 297

  69. 18.1 Wooden vessel from Edercloon, Co. Longford, Ireland 308

  70. 18.2 Neolithic axe haft from Shulishader, Isle of Lewis, Scotland 312

  71. 18.3 A carved lacquered vessel made from Prunus jamasakura, early phase of the Late Jomon period 314

  72. 19.1 Different configurations of flowing stream weirs, tidal weirs, and longshore weirs 325

  73. 19.2 Diagram of a double-lead-and-enclosure weir/trap 327

  74. 19.3 Diagram of two wood stake weir types at Comox Harbour, Vancouver Island, Canada 329

  75. 20.1 Percentages of exploitation of animals in the Lake Zurich area (Switzerland) during the Neolithic 342

  76. 20.2 Examples of the strong selection of metapodials 344

  77. 20.3 Chisels made of red deer metatarsi 345

  78. 20.4 Examples of the most important and most frequent Neolithic bone and antler artefacts from lake-dwelling sites of the Circum-Alpine region 348

  79. 20.5 Construction stages of bracelets made of antler beam splinters 353

  80. 21.1 Trackway Edercloon 5, Co. Longford, Ireland, during excavation 362

  81. 21.2 Corlea 1, Iron Age road, crossing Corlea Bog, Co. Longford, Ireland 365

  82. 21.3 Reconstruction of Trackway XLII(Ip), Wittemoor, Lower Saxony, Germany 370

  83. (p. xx) 21.4 The Middle Bronze Age Eclipse track, Somerset Levels, UK 372

  84. 21.5 Late Bronze Age/Iron Age trackway (778–423 cal bc) crossing a bog at Cooleeny 31, Derryville Bog, Co. Tipperary, Ireland 373

  85. 21.6 Middle and Late Bronze Age brushwood and hurdle trackways at Derryoghil, Co Longford, Ireland 374

  86. 22.1 Map of rivers and lakes mentioned in Chapter 22 386

  87. 23.1 The Yde Girl 402

  88. 23.2 The Weerdinge Couple 402

  89. 23.3 The Haraldskær Woman 405

  90. 23.4 The Tollund Man 407

  91. 23.5 The findspot of one of the most recent bog body discoveries in the Uchter Moor, Lower Saxony, Germany 410

  92. 23.6 The Clonycavan Man 412

  93. 23.7 Skeleton of one of two composite bodies found at Cladh Hallan in South Uist, Scotland 413

  94. 24.1 Vertical sections of the imaginary part of resistivity resulting from inversion of SIP data acquired along profiles crossing embedded trackways 428

  95. 24.2 Results of GPR measurements along parallel profiles crossing a wooden trackway in the Darlaten Moor 430

  96. 25.1 Boomer SBP data and processed Chirp data 439

  97. 25.2 SSS data from Mombasa Harbour, Kenya 441

  98. 25.3 High-resolution multibeam and backscatter data, and the result of manual segmentation using QTC multiview 442

  99. 26.1 Estimated numbers of wetland monuments in England damaged or destroyed between 1950 and 2000 453

  100. 26.2 The Neolithic Walton Heath Tracks 454

  101. 27.1 A submerged forest at Splash Point, Rhyl, Wales, UK469

  102. 27.2 Northwest Europe showing the extent of now submerged land, which has been subject to intertidal conditions since the beginning of the Holocene 470

  103. 27.3 An Iron Age building at Goldcliff, Wales, UK 471

  104. 27.4 An Iron Age withy tie from Goldcliff, Wales, UK 471

  105. 27.5 Footprint track of a child aged 8–9 from Goldcliff East, Wales, UK 475

  106. 28.1 Excavation at low tide at Qwu?gwes (Washington, US) 485

  107. 28.2 Salt Springs excavation (Florida, US) 487

  108. 28.3 Windover excavations (Florida, US) 487

  109. 29.1 Examples of subfossil plant remains from waterlogged layers 500

  110. 29.2 Distribution of the bulky surface samples taken from the cultural layer of Arbon-Bleiche 3, Switzerland 503

  111. 29.3 Sieving with the wash-over technique 505

  112. (p. xxi) 30.1 Map of the UK and Ireland showing sites mentioned in Chapter 30 517

  113. 30.2 The Somerset Levels Project: Sweet Track Site TG under excavation 518

  114. 30.3 The now locally extinct beetle Prostomis mandibularis 521

  115. 30.4 Major structural features of at Buiston Crannog, Ayrshire, Scotland, UK 523

  116. 31.1 Pollen grains of Plantago lanceolata 548

  117. 31.2 Puffballs of Bovista nigrescens 548

  118. 32.1 Schematic sampling transect across a wetland basin to dryland margin used to create a palaeocatena 556

  119. 32.2 An Early Bronze Age barrow on the River Nene floodplain margin at Orton Meadows, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, UK 558

  120. 32.3 A well-preserved buried woodland soil 558

  121. 32.4 The buried-terrain map of the lower Great Ouse floodplain at Over Quarry in Cambridgeshire, UK 559

  122. 32.5 Thin-section photomicrographs 561

  123. 33.1 Comparison of ancient DNA success rates from different sites 573

  124. 33.2 Sampling of waterlogged-preserved bone samples 574

  125. 33.3 Example of extraordinary success rate of DNA amplification in individual waterlogged Prunus seeds from a Roman settlement at Eschenz (Tasgetium), Switzerland 577

  126. 34.1 Comparison between palaeoclimatic records established from lake sediment sequences in deep and littoral zones and in the Alps 588

  127. 34.2 Quantitative estimates of climatic parameters based on the Modern Analogue Technique 591

  128. 34.3 Comparison between the regional pattern of variations in climate as reflected by lake-level fluctuations 592

  129. 34.4 Comparison of the frequency of lake-dwellings per cultural phase north and south of the Alps 593

  130. 35.1 Detail of the calibration curve for radiocarbon 606

  131. 35.2 A single radiocarbon age BP calibrated using the INTCAL09 curve 607

  132. 35.3 Age ranges (at 68.2% and 95.4% probability) expected for calibrated radiocarbon dates with a ±30 yr standard deviation 608

  133. 35.4 The modelling of three 14C dates 610

  134. 35.5 Radiocarbon wiggle-match dating 611

  135. 35.6 WMD of a large oak timber from the site of Oakbank, a crannog on Loch Tay, Scotland, UK 613

  136. 36.1 Wetland archaeology crossing the history of shipbuilding 619

  137. 36.2 View at the eroded pile field of the Neolithic lake-shore site of Maurach-Ziegelhütte at Lake Constance (Switzerland), during the winter period of low water level 622

  138. 36.3 Sketch of timber supply and woodland management during the Neolithic (p. xxii) occupation of the lake shore at Lake Constance 626

  139. 37.1 An example of Lake Suigetsu varve sediments 635

  140. 37.2 Verification of Lake Suigetsu varve chronology 638

  141. 38.1 Fence on the Bronze Age site of Corcelette, Lake Neuchâtel ( Switzerland) 653

  142. 38.2 Protection work at Font, Lake Neuchâtel (Switzerland) 654

  143. 38.3 Erosion at Greng, Lake Murten (Switzerland) 655

  144. 38.4 Intervention at Sutz, Lake Biel (Switzerland) 657

  145. 38.5 Excavation of a late prehistoric structure in Goldcliff, Wales, UK 660

  146. 39.1 Partly finished canoe prow or tauihu recovered from Waikaraka estuary, Te Puna, New Zealand 666

  147. 39.2 Cell structure showing secondary cell-wall layers where decay mainly occurs 668

  148. 41.1 Locations and general phases/time periods of major wet sites on the Northwest Coast of North America 704

  149. 41.2 Ozette house excavations (Washington State, US) 708

  150. 41.3 Hydraulic excavation of Hoko River and Makah Elder Isabelle Ides (Washington State, US) 709

  151. 41.4 Four sides of toy war club 712

  152. 41.5 Crew running spatulas under soft basketry and carefully lifting it on a thin pedestal of silt onto a plywood platform covered with wet towel paper 713

  153. 41.6 Cedar root cross-warp basket found in an ancient acorn leaching pit at the Sunken Village wet site, Sauvie Island, Oregon, US 713

  154. 43.1 Potential cultural biography of a single-phase house site, assuming that the lifecycle of a house corresponds to that of its household 736

  155. 43.2 Overview of dated elements on a Middle Bronze Age-B house siteat Zijderveld, the Netherlands 742

  156. 43.3 Examples of different house-site biographies 743

  157. 44.1 Fisherman in canoe on a floodplain lake in the Lower Amazon 751

  158. 44.2 Houses on the floodplain in the Lower Amazon 752

  159. 45.1 Four scalar aspects of wetland archaeological research 765

  160. 45.2 Sandy Hill site in eastern Connecticut, US; and plan view of one of a series of suspected-pithouse features 766

  161. 45.3 A view of the Wyrie Swamp site excavation (South Australia) in 1973 767

  162. 45.4 The Roonka Flat site, Lower Murray River Valley of South Australia 769

  163. 45.5 Robbins Swamp is today the largest freshwater wetland in Connecticut, US 770

  164. 45.6 One of a series of stone structures, possibly dwellings or storage features, found in the Mt Eccles area of New South Wales, Australia 772

  165. 45.7 View of Stillwater Marsh, Nevada, US 773

  166. 46.1 Distribution of LBA Tiryns type and Allumiere type of amber beads 787

  167. (p. xxiii) 46.2 Main sites with Frattesina type glass beads 789

  168. 47.1 Simplified pollen diagram from Thy, northwest Jutland, Denmark 797

  169. 47.2 Local settlement area at Ås, southeast Thy, Denmark 799

  170. 47.3 Settlements in a raised seabed 800

  171. 47.4 T-shaped peat spade of wood, and paddle shaped spade for digging on dry land 801

  172. 47.5 Small irregular fields at the raised seabed at Bjerre Enge, and a section of ard furrows from the fields 801

  173. 47.6 Three harvesting tools from the Iron Age 802

  174. 47.7 The agrarian intensification during the Iron Age is reflected in the growth of the farmstead and its fenced area with economy buildings 803

  175. 47.8 Uncovered field from the raised seabed at Store Vildmose, Jutland, Denmark, and a small section of ard furrows 804

  176. 47.9 Store Vildmose with the gradual expansion of the raised bog 805

  177. 47.10 Find frequency of all Early Bronze Age hoards, of field hoards and of bog hoards from Zealand, Denmark 807

  178. 47.11 Depth of bog hoards from Zealand before and after 1890 807

  179. 47.12 Relationship between number of bog hoards 808

  180. 48.1 Map of sites mentioned in Chapter 48 812

  181. 48.2 Underwater photo of a dugout canoe lying exposed in the detritus gyttja at the submerged Ertebølle site of Ronæs Skov in Denmark 815

  182. 48.3 Reconstructed houses and fortification at Biskupin, Poland 818

  183. 49.1 A paradigmatic vision of a wetland habitat 830

  184. 49.2 Skan, a young chamois, discovers the lake-dwelling ‘civilization’ 831

  185. 49.3 A pile-dwelling as publicity illustration for the French Aiguebelle chocolate 833

  186. 49.4 The popular image of wetland sites 835

  187. 49.5 Cover of the pamphlet presenting the application of ‘Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps’ for UNESCO World Heritage 840

  188. 50.1 Pile dwellings in the Bally Park in Schönenwerd, Switzerland 846

  189. 50.2 An open-day at the excavation of the Late Stone Age settlement of Arbon-Bleiche 3, Canton Thurgau, Switzerland 847

  190. 50.3 Blick headline on 24 November 2006 850

  191. 50.4 The 1944 excavation at the Pfyn-Breitenloo site, Switzerland 851

  192. 50.5 Live interview with the archaeologist by the presenter during the programme Pfahlbauer von Pfyn 852

  193. 51.1 Archaeological open-air museums in Europe 862

  194. 51.2 A hunter returning home 864

  195. 51.3 Pile-dwelling reconstruction, Bevaix, Switzerland, in 1913 865

  196. 51.4 The lake-dwelling museum in Unteruhldingen, Germany, in 1928 865

  197. (p. xxiv) 51.5 The first Ufa Film of the wetlands 866

  198. 51.6 Research centre, Lejre (Denmark) 868

  199. 51.7 Dialogue with the visitor during a guided tour 870

  200. 51.8 Integration of different target groups through ‘hands-on’ exhibits 871

  201. 51.9 Learning by experimenting at the open-air museum 871

  202. 52.1 Carl Dörflinger, custodian (director) of the Milwaukee Public Museum, 1883–1887 882

  203. 52.2 Plate showing lake-dwelling tools from the publication of the Rhind Lectures 883

  204. 52.3 Catalogue frontispiece of a textile exhibit at the Chicago Columbian Exposition 885

  205. 52.4 Cover of children's book published at the end of the final phase of ‘lake-dwelling fever’ in the US 887

  206. 54.1 Excavation of the Neolithic Sweet Track (Drove Site) in the Somerset Levels, UK; and dismantling of the Sweet Track (Drove Site) 905

  207. 54.2 The Strata Florida figurine from Wales, UK 911