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date: 17 October 2019

(p. 920) (p. 921) Index

(p. 920) (p. 921) Index

Aabye, B. 803
ABA (acid-base-acid) treatments 604
abandonment 29, 904
deposits 737–8
of Kohika, New Zealand 207
of lake-shore dwellings 262
rituals 257
of terpen mounds 33
Aboriginal groups of Australia 211–12, 219, 223, 225
accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 589, 602–3
acid formation in wood 671–4
acid washes 604
acorns 712
Acosta, A. et al. 764
acoustic ground discrimination systems (AGDS) 438, 446
acoustic wave theory 434–6
Acquafredda di Redebus 786
Adams, R. McC. and H. Nissen 130
adaptation to change 15, 18, 727, 769–71
Adelaide plains, Australia 221–2
Aegean, amber from 782–3
Agassiz, L. 879
Ageröd V, Sweden 815
Aggregates Levy Sustainability Fund (ALSF) 456–7
agriculture 149–52, 233, 236–41, 242, 293
Ahrens, C. 867, 868
air photographs 471
al-Fidā, A. 132
Albania 17
Allen, H. 216
Allen, J. R. L. 470
Allen valley, UK 563
Alleshausen, Germany 286
Allumiere type amber 787–8
alluviation 562–3
Almkvist, G. and I. Persson 671
Altartate find, Ireland 317
Alvastra, Sweden 817
Amazon Basin 96
Amazon floodplains 749–58
amber routes 780–81
Ambrona site, Spain 766
Åmose area 14
Amuq plain, Turkey 126–7, 131–2
anacondas 392
Anasazi Tradition 66
Anatolia 124, 126–7
Anbangbang I rock shelter site, Australia 765
Andean Highlands 97–8
Anderson-Carpenter, L. L. et al. 578
ancient DNA 569–77
animal bones 339–54
animal carvings 315
animal remains 149, 163–5, 181
animals
domestic 4, 149, 259–60
farming 798, 816
Annagholty bog trackway, Ireland 361, 368
anthropological archaeology 72
anthropology 761–3, 766–74
anthropomorphic figurines 369–70
anthropomorphology of rivers 392–3
anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) values of wood 669, 674
antiquarians 876–7, 878
antler artefacts 339, 343–50, 351–3
preservation 895
antler hoes 149–52
Appelbaum, B. 667
Arabia 123
Arbon-Bleiche 3 site, Switzerland 283, 293, 295, 352, 503, 508, 576, 623, 847, 899
(p. 922) archaeobiological remains, aDNA 569–78; see also organic material
archaeobotany 497–510
archaeoentomology 515–31
archaeogenetics 569, 571, see also ancient DNA
Archaeological Institute of America 710
Archaeological Service 658
Archaeological Survey of Zurich 658
Archaeology Branch of British Columbia 326
Archaeology in the Severn Estuary (journal) 456
Archaic stage see Holocene period
architecture 285–7
of lake-shore dwellings 263
ard furrows 801, 804
Armstrong, H. A. and M. D. Brasier 540
Arnhem Land, Australia 217, 770–71
Arnold, B. 624
Arnoldussen, S. 739
Arnott, S. H. L. et al. 446
arrowheads 352
art 66, 863–4
Ice Age 60
artefacts, hydrating 489–90, 492
Aschbroeken Man 407–8
Assyrian kings 129
Atherley Narrows, Canada 76–7
Atlantic period 154
Atlit-Yam, Israel 125, 506
attenuation 436
Australia 211–25, 388
waterway transportation 389
Awazu submerged site, Japan 181–3, 546
axe haft 311, 312
axe handle head 307
Ayatskoe Moor, Russia 153
Azawad Basin, Mali 111
Bad Buchau, Germany 286, 623
Bad Nauheim, Germany 509
Bader, O. N. 143, 148, 149
bags 712
bajos 88
Baker Track, UK 366, 912
Balée, W. and C. Erickson 752–3
Ballard, C. 236
Bally Park, Switzerland 846, 864
Ballybetagh Bog, Ireland 548
Ballywillin Crannog, Ireland 524–5, 545–6
Baltic amber routes 780–82
Baltic oak 625–6
Baltic Sea regions 12, 14, 17, 811–23
bamboo fish trap (Uke) 188
Ban Na Di, Thailand 901
Barfield, L. 783
bark objects 313
Bartlett, Richard 274
basketry 313, 317, 676, 707–9, 712, 713
techniques 61
bathymetric LiDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) 443
Bayes, T. 608
Bayesian statistics 607–9, 610, 612, 727
Bayliss, A. et al. 609
Beach, T. et al. 90, 91–2
beaver dams 367
beavers 771
European 912–14
Beck, C. W. 782
et al. 780
Becker, B. 620
Beckett, S. 904
beetles 517–19, 521, 549, 896
behaviour of humans in the past 726–8
Belarus 14
Belgium, reclamation 46
Belgium Polders 458
Belize 89–90
Bell–Beaker period 256
Bennike, P. 404
bentwood objects 313
Beowulf 28
Bernick, K. 317
Bernstorf, Germany 783
Bers, E. M. 143
Besteman, J. C. 33
et al. 30
Bevaix, Switzerland 865
Bibi 8 site, Japan 191–2
Biederbost wet site, US 706
big game hunting 58–9
‘Big Shigirsky Idol’ 148
(p. 923) Billamboz, A. 291, 423, 619
Binford, L. 761, 774
biogenic sediments 812
biological remains, DNA 569–78; see also organic material
Biologisch-Archaeologisch Institut (BAI) 542
biomolecular degradation 493
bioturbation 85
Bird, C. and D. Frankel 223
bird's arrowhead 352
Birka, Sweden 822
Birks, H. H. 586
Biskupin, Poland 818–19, 869
Bjaeldskov valley, Denmark 820
Bjerre, Denmark 19
Bjordal, C. et al. 668
Black Mountains, Wales 391
Blackwater estuary, UK 41
Blick (Swiss newspaper) 850
block-lifting 472
Blue Creek region 91–2
bluff sites 757
Blytt and Sernander 542, 587
Boas, F. 879
boats 111, 112, 163, 165, 388–9, 477
use in excavation 472–3
remains 658
submerged 132 see also canoes; waterway transportation
Bofeenaun crannog, Ireland 37
bog bodies 401–14, 820–21, 859, 898
bog bursts 372–3
bog finds 806–8
bog formation 812
bog offerings 817
bog trackways 360–61
bogs
disappearance 2
aDNA from 576
Bohlenweg XLII, Germany 366, 369–70
Bohlenweg XV, Germany 367, 368
Bolen points 63
Bolivia 96, 97
bone 176–9, 574
animal 339–54
deposition 369
preservation 895
tools 143, 147
Bonhomme, T. 222
Boomer system 438, 439
Bord na Móna bogs, Ireland 360
Boreal period 154
Bosch, R. 867
Botfeldt, K. et al. 676
boundaries, bog bodies in 409–12
Bourtangarveen, Netherlands 365
Boutanger Moor, Netherlands/Germany 363, 413
bovidae metapodials 341
bows 316, 814
Boxgrove, UK 473, 564
bracelets 353
Bramcote Green tracks, UK 366
Breasted, J. H. 886
Bremen Cog 670
Bremer Hansekogge 620
bridges 42
Brigg causeway, UK 369
Britain see UK
British Columbia (BC), Canada 74–5, 714, 715
Bronk Ramsey, C. 612
Bronze Age
farming regimes 796–800
house sites 739–44
Italian 780
settlements 16–17
bronze items 785
Brown, F. and Y. K. Brown 331
Brunning, R. 906
Bruseth, J. E. 485
brushwood 124–5
Bruszczewo, Poland 818
Bryce, D. 549
Bryusov, A. Y. 143, 149, 152
Brześć Kujawski Group 816
Buckland, P. C. 519, 520
buildings 190, 191, 205, 259, 260–61, 262
architecture 285–7
dendrochronology 623–4
functionality 287–91
layout 291–2
Buiston Crannog, Scotland 37–8, 274, 275–7, 278, 309, 315, 522–4, 898
bulking 669
Bulleid, A. 904
Bulverket, Sweden 34
(p. 924) Burger, J. et al. 572
burial sites 217, 391, 474–5
Burla, H. 896
burning of forests 233, 236
butter containers 311
buttons 784
Butzer, K. W. 116
Byram, R. S. 327, 328, 331
Byram, S. 710
Cacao Creek, Belize 86, 91–3
Caillavet, C. 94–5
cairns 391
Caldicot trackways, UK 366
Caldwell, M. E. 330
calibration curve 604–7, 610, 638, 640, 902
California, US 64
Campemoor, Germany 363, 423–6, 428–9, 431
Canada 71–80, 329
Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) 72–3, 674
canoe prow 666
Caple, C. 666
carbon dating see radiocarbon dating
carbon dioxide drying method 675
Cariaco Basin 638
Carmel coast 125
Carr, D. et al. 676
carved wood 313–14
carvings 315
Caseldine, A. 904
Castanea chestnut 546
Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut) 310
Çatal Höyük, Anatolia 126–7
catalogues 884–5
cattle 30, 152, 476, 816
Cauvin, J. 125
Cavers, M. G. 273–4
cedars 310
cellulose 667–8
Celtic fields 801–2
Central America 84–94
cereal chaff 498–501, 503, 504, 507
cervidae metapodials 341–3
Chairkina, N. M. 143, 144–5, 152
et al. 154
Chalcolithic artefacts 125
Chan Cahal Model 91
channel crossings 366–7
channel drains for excavation 485
Charavines-Colletière, France 38–40, 727
charcoal analysis 588
Charman, D. J. 550
et al. 587
charring of plant remains 499–501, 508
Childe, V. G. 869
children's books 830–31, 887
Chile 96
China 159–71, 768
chinampas model 89, 93–4
Chironomidae 531
chironomids 525, 549–50
Chirp system 438, 439, 446
chisels 340, 345–6, 350
chocolate flint 390
chronology of Russian sites 147–8
chronotypology 621
Circum-Alpine region 16, 17, 339, 343–54, 779
excavations in 255–6
lake-dwellings 38, 253–5, 256–65
Cladh Hallan, Scotland 411–12, 413, 900
Clairvaux-La Motte-aux-Magnins, France 262
Clairvaux-les-Lacs, France 260
clam gardens 330–31
Claplanhoo, E. 706–7
Clark, G. 543, 726, 897–8, 903
Clark, J. G. D. 387
Clarke, A. 218
Clarke, G. 763
cleaning of artefacts 490–91, 603–4
Clément, G. A.-E. 881–2
Clenchwarton, UK 46
climate 705
climate change 110, 122–4, 453, 659, 719–28
in China 161–3, 171
entomological evidence 519
in New Guinea 236
in Russia 153–4
studies 585–94
effect on trackways 372–5
climatic indicators 539–40
(p. 925) Clonycavan Man 409, 412, 898
Clovis sites 59–60
coastal areas
DNA from 576–7
in the Middle East 125
soils in 563–4
coastal deposits 527–30
coastal erosion 651–61, 721–2, 724
coastal marshes 40
‘coastal squeeze’ 721, 724
coffer dams 473, 484, 486
Colardelle, M. and E. Verdel 38–9
coleoptera (beetles) 549
Coles, J. 3, 691, 763, 859, 900, 904, 907, 909
and B. Coles 618, 839
collections of artefacts 875–7, 878–88
Collins, J. 838
Colombia 96, 97
Columbus, Christopher 67
Combot, Yves 831
combs 347
Comey, M. 310
communication 115, 261
with the public 840–41
communities 293, 734–5
Comox Harbour, Canada 327, 329–30
Concise, Switzerland 293, 346–7, 878
Congo-Kinshasa 113–14
Connaway, J. 323–5, 331
conservation see preservation
construction methods 274–5
Contact period 219–21
containers 313–15
contamination of artefacts 602–4
context of wetlands 311
control drying 675
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance 687
Cook, C. and D. W. Grattan 671
Cook, Captain James 202
Cook, G. T. et al. 612
Coolure Demesne Crannog, Ireland 35, 273, 278, 524–5
Coope, G. R. and P. J. Osborne 515
Coope, R. 906
cooperage 314–15
Coorong region, Australia 218, 220
copper-working 36
coppicing 371
coprolites 60, 62, 504
Coquille Indian Tribe Cultural Resources Program (CITCRP) 710
Coram, T. 914
Corcelettes, Switzerland 653–4
Corlea 1 Iron Age road, Ireland 364–5, 367
Cortaillod, Switzerland 263–4, 897
Cosgrove, R. 218
craft production 32–3
Cranborne Chase, UK 563
Creglingen Frauental, Germany 288
Croes, D. R. 317
Croinis crannog, Ireland 278
Crone, B. A. 275, 278, 523
Cronyn, J. 675
crop processing 30–32, 498
Cross, R. E. 273
Crown Lagoon, Australia 218
Crumley, C. 753
Cuddie Springs, Australia 214
cultivation 239–41
cultural change vs. climate change 590–94
cultural markers, earth mounds as 222
Cultural Resources Department (CRD), Squaxin Island Tribe 711
cultural sensitivity 316–17
culture-area scheme 72
Cunha, E. da 758
Cuno, J. 876
Dagstorp, Sweden 817
Dale, D. 111
damage of artefacts, deliberate 307
Damendorf Man 409
Danger Cave, Utah, US 61
Danube, burials on 391
Darlaten Moor, Germany 424–6, 428–9, 431
Dätgen Man 409
dating 726–7
of sites 897–8
of trackways 902–4 see also radiocarbon dating
(p. 926) Daugherty, R. 706–7
De Geer, G. 633
de Maret, P. 116
De Navarro, J. M. 780
Dean, J. S. 621
deer antler 343, 345–50, 351–3
deer bone 176–7
deer hunting 387
degradation of wetlands 693
deltaic coasts 721–2
dendrochronology 3, 256–7, 259, 609–12, 617–28, 819
study of trackways 372, 902–4
Denevan, W. 95, 98, 757
Denmark 12, 15, 19, 307, 316, 324, 795–6
trackways in 42–3, 363–4, 368
waterway transportation 389
Denny, P. 107
deposition
from abandonment of houses 737–8
deliberate damage of artefacts 307
and trackways 368–9
Derraghan More, Ireland 365
Derricourt, R. 114
Derryoghil, Ireland 374
Derryville Bog, Ireland 43–4, 360–61, 373, 520–21, 545
Desor, E. 864, 879
destruction of wetlands 658–60, 688–91, 721–4
detection techniques 433–47
determinism 837
developer-funded fieldwork 451
developments in palaeoecology 544–6
dewatering 484–8
diatom-rich layers 634
Dieck, A. 403, 406
Differential GPS (DGPS) 437
Digerfeldt, G. 586
disaggregation 515–16
Discovery Programme 458
Dispilo, Greece 258
ditches for drainage 237–9
divers 473
Dmitriev, P. A. 143
Doggerland 13, 912–14
dogs
domestic 149
remains 207
dolphin-drive fishing 186
domestic artefacts 315
domesticated animals 4, 149, 259–60
Dong Son boat coffin 896
Dörflinger, C. 881, 882
Douglas, A. E. 617, 619
drainage 87, 94, 237–9
for excavation 485
Drucker, P. 705–6
Drumkeeragh body 405
dry caves 61–2
drying of wetlands 721
drying treatment for waterlogged wood 674–5
dryland settlements 296–8, 899
Dudka, Poland 15
Duff, Roger 199
Dufuna, Nigeria 112
Durham, B. 75
Dutch archaeology see Netherlands
dynamic settlements 734, 735
dynamicity 294
dynamics, understanding of 726–8
earth mounds 217, 221–4
earthenware finds 180
earthquakes 204
Earwood, C. 311, 313, 317
East Anglia fenland, UK 27
Eckstein, D. 619
Eclipse trackway, UK 371, 372
ecology 762–3
of hunter-gatherers 771–2
economics 836–7
Ecuador 96, 97
Edercloon trackways and platforms, Ireland 307–8, 362, 367, 368, 369
Ederline Boathouse crannog, Scotland 272, 278
Eding, D. 143
Edson, T. 207
education 847–8
through open-air museums 861–72
eel canals 771–2, 774
eels 220
(p. 927) Eger, A. 132
Egil's Saga 33
Egolzwil 2, Switzerland 896
Egolzwil culture 259
Egypt 110, 112, 388
Ehenside Tarn, UK 311
Eilean Domhnuill, Scotland 273
electrode polarization 422
elephant bone 176–9
Elias, S. A. 530, 531
Elisenhof, Germany 30, 32
Ely, East Anglia 27
Embleton, G. 871
Emmer-Erfscheidenveen Man 408, 412–13
emporia 821–3
England 311, 313–14; see also UK
English Heritage 451, 453–7, 691, 907
English Heritage Wetlands Strategy 694–5
Environment and Heritage Service 272
environmental change 18, 769–71
environmental conservation 691–2
environmental evolution 11–12
environmental indicators 539–40
Erdtmann, G. 542, 547
Erkelenz-Kückhoven well, Germany 911–12
erosion of shorelines 651–61, 721–2, 724
error estimation 636–7, 639
Ertebølle Culture 12
Esarhaddon (Assyrian king) 129
Eschenz, Switzerland 577
Estonia 14, 18, 34
estuarine deposits 527–30
ethnicity 293–4
Eton Rowing Lake site, UK 366
Etton landscape, UK 562, 564
Euphrates 133
European Archaeological Council (EAC) 459, 695–8
Evans, M. I. 123
evidence 4–5
evolutionary theory 877
examination of portable wooden objects 309–12
excavation 472–3, 705, 708, 710
in the Circum-Alpine region 255–6
dewatering 484–8
hydrating artefacts 489–90, 492
vs. preservation 459–60
preservation of artefacts 490–93
exhibitions 848
experimental archaeology 867
Ezinge, Netherlands 29, 30
faience 781–2, 783–4
Fairbairn, A. S. et al. 506
farmer-knights 38, 40
farmhouses 738–9
abandonment 737
farming 30–32
dynamic 734
early evidence in the Baltic region 816
floodwater 112–15
rice 188–9
farming regimes 795–6
Bronze Age 796–800
Iron Age 800–805
farming tools 169
Feddersen Wierde, Germany 30–32
Federsee, Germany 254–5, 258, 260–61, 368, 423, 426–9, 618, 620
Fellbach-Schmiden, Germany 509
Fengate basin, UK 559–60
Fenland Project 455–6
Fenland region, UK 18
reclamation 46
Fenlands Research Committee 543
Fergus estuary, Ireland 41, 42
fermentation in preservation treatments 674
Fiavè, Italy 307
fibre saturation point (FSP) 667
fibrework 676
figurines 369–70, 910–12
films 849
find frequency 806–8
Finland 14
fires 233, 236, 771
firing of swampland 218
Fischer, C. 409
fish traps/weirs 40–43, 76–7, 316, 323–33, 476–7, 624, 710, 814–15
fishing 74, 75, 110–11, 113, 149, 188, 815
dolphin-drive 186
freshwater 387–8
Flag Fen basin, UK 559–60
Fleurieu Peninsula, Australia 218
flint-retouching tool 352
‘floating gardens’ 94
‘flood pulse’ 750–51
flooding 87, 91, 96, 468, 721–2
entomological evidence 519
of the Nile 110
risks of 204, 207
floodplains 107
Amazon 749–58
floodwater farming 112–15
floors 200
Florian, M.-L. et al. 676
Florida, US 62–3, 703
flowing stream weirs 324–5
fluvial deposits 525, 527
fluvial practice 754
fly infestations 37
Fokkens, H. 476
Font, Switzerland 654–6
food production 38, 39, 75
China 163–71
food remains 498–9, 507–10, 815
food supplies 110–11, 114, 149, 763, 768, 771–2, 819
in freshwater 387–8
footprint tracks 13
Forel, Switzerland 654–5
forest formations 152–3
forest remains 179, 184–5
forests 161–2, 370–71
burning 233, 236
felling 797–8
submerged 474, 564
swamp 236–41
Formative Stage 65–6
fossil springs 109–10
Foster, R. and D. Croes 910
foundation deposits for houses 737–8
Foundling Museum, UK 914–15
France 254, 256–7, 260, 262
fish weirs in 41
history of palaeoecology 543
Franche-Comté, France 590–94
Frank, E. 618
Frankel, D. 223
Frattesina type beads 786–90
Fredengren, C. 37, 273
‘free farmers’ 33
free-standing platforms 274–5
freeze-drying 674–5
freshwater
burials 391
effect of climate change 721, 722–4
creatures 216
food supplies 387–8
swamp forests 109
transportation through 388–91
Friesack, Germany 814
Frisia 33
Fröslunda Bog, Sweden 16
frozen finds 79
funding 451, 460–61, 908–9
funerary rituals 474–5
furnishings 287
furs 822
future of wetland archaeology 839–41
Gams, H. 549
gardening 78
Gault site, Texas, US 60
Gdańsk 822
Gearey, B. R. and C. J. Caseldine 545
geoarchaeological studies 555–65
geometric spreading 435
geophysical methods 421–32
Germany 12, 19, 29–32, 254–5, 258, 260–61, 306, 423–4
bog bodies in 405–6, 409, 410–11
dendrochronology 620
history of palaeoecology 543
media coverage of pile-dwellings 850
reclamation 46
trackways in 363, 365, 367–8, 369, 375
Gerritsen, F. A. 735–6, 737
Geymayer, P. et al. 671
Giachi, G. and B. Pizzo 668
Gill-Robinson, H. C. 409
Girling, M. 516–19, 520, 902–4
glass beads 788
glass production 781–2, 783–4
Glastonbury Lake Village, UK 18, 313–14
Glenrose fish weir, US 327, 328
Gletterens, Switzerland 854
Glob, P. V. 406
(p. 929) Global Positioning Systems (GPS) 437, 472
global warming 719–28
Glock, W. S. 618
glycerol 675
Godwin, H. 361, 375, 455, 543, 903, 912
Godwin, M. 912
gold leaf 783
Goldcliff, Wales 13, 471, 472, 474, 475–6, 528–30, 660
Golson, Jack 199
Gorbunovo Moor, Russia 145, 146, 148, 149, 153
Gosden, C. and F. Larson 887
Gotland, Sweden 34, 315, 822–3
Gould, S. J. 539
Grand Valley Baliem, New Guinea 234
grasslands 239, 526
flooded 107
Grattan, D. 665
Grauballe Man 408–9, 821, 900
grave goods 61, 63
Great Cedar Swamp, US 765
Great Ouse floodplain, UK 559
Greece 258
Greene, N. 329
Gregory, D. and P. Jensen 668
Greifensee-Böschen, Switzerland 286, 288, 289
Greng, Switzerland 654, 655
Gross, V. 845, 881
Grosse Moor, Germany 369
ground-penetrating radar (GPR) 422–3, 429–32, 445
Guangfulin Culture 160
Guatemala 88–9
Guianas coastal plain 96
Gulf Coast of Mexico 87
Gunther, E. 328
Gwaii Haanas National Park, British Columbia 326
Gwent Levels, Wales 46
Gwisho Hotsprings, Zambia 111
gypsum precipitation 90–91
gyttja 812, 813, 815
Haarnagel, W. 30
Haberle, S. 236
Haeapugua Swamp, New Guinea 234–5
Haevernick 788, 789
Hahne, H. 405
hair, sacredness 201
Hall, A. R. and H. K. Kenward 522, 529
Hallstatt plateau 612
hammers 149, 340, 345–7
Hampel 867
hands-on approaches 829–30, 861, 868, 870–71
Hannon, G. E. and M. J. Gaillard 586
Hansen, H. O. 867
Haraldskær Woman 405
Harding, A. F. and S. E. Warren 782, 783
Harper, J. R. et al. 75
Harris, A. 898
Harrison, W. 912
harvesting tools 802
Hausplatz concept 291
Hauterive-Champréveyres, Switzerland 259, 782, 788, 789
hazel trees 371
Hazelius, A. 863, 864
hazelnut 508
Hazzeldine Warren, S. et al. 473, 912
Head, L. 223
Heilbronn-Klingenberg, Germany 509
Heiltsuk community 331–2
Helm, O. 780
hemicellulose 667–8
Hemphill, B. 773
Hemudu Culture 159
Hemudu site, China 164
Henry, J. 885
herbaceous swamplands 108–9
heritage management 691–8, 907
heritage values 698–9
Herrenhof 30
Hessens, Germany 32
Hibbert, A. 904
Hiberno-Norse Dublin 310
Hidden Cave, US 774
Higashimyo site, Japan 180–81
Higgs, E. 894
Himmler 405–6
hinterland 295
Hisadome-Nihonsugi site, Japan 180
Hiscock, P. 224, 770–71
Hisn al-Tinat, Turkey 122
(p. 930) Historic Stage 67
historical archaeology 72
historical ecology 752–3
history of palaeoecology 541–4
history of techniques 836–7
Hjortspring bog, Denmark 821
hoards, finds 806–8
Hoffmann, P. 670, 674
Hogg, A. G. et al. 611
Høgseth, H. B. 311
Hohl, W. and H. Schlichtherle 423
Hohokam Tradition 66
Hoko River wet site 708–9
hollowed wood 313–14
Hollstein, E. 620
Holme-next-the-Sea, UK 475
Holmegårds Bog, Denmark 13
Holocene intertidal sites 474
Holocene period 60–64, 123, 161–3, 214–18, 222
calibration curve 606–7
Holy Cross Mountains, Poland 390
Horgen pottery 261
Hornstaad-Hörnle I, Germany 260–61, 286, 288, 291, 508, 623
horses 152
Hosch, S. and S. Jacomet 505
‘house sites’ 738–44
households 203–6, 293, 735–6
houses 74, 623, 735–9, 740–44, 897
architecture 285–7
functionality 287–91
layout 291–2
Housley, R. A. et al. 912
Huber, B. 619–20, 623
Hughes, R. H. et al. 107
human figurines 369–70
human management 131
human remains 61–2, 63, 186, 191
DNA 570
found at trackways 369
Humber wetlands, UK 16–17, 18
humic acids 604
Hunt, J. 867
hunter-fisher-farmer sites 816
hunter-gatherer intertidal communities 474
hunter-gatherers 110–11, 764, 766–74, 814
hunting 58–9, 63, 64, 74–5
hunting camps 387
hunting tools 58–9, 63, 216, 316, 814
hurdle trackways 371
Hutton, J. 539
hydraulic approach 489
hydraulic excavation systems 705, 708, 710
hydroelectric dams 124
hydrolysis 572, 575
Iba, I. 546
Ice Age 60
ice patches, DNA from 578
ice-patch finds 79
identification with prehistory 838
Ikejima-Fukumanji site, Japan 188–9
Illerup Ådal, Denmark 821
imitation of wooden artefacts 317
impregnation of wood 669, 670
in situ preservation 677, 691, 693
infield/outfield farming system 798, 802
Ingold, T. 753
Ingstad, A. S. 76
Inland Niger Delta (IND) 113–14
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 719–23, 727
International Council of Museums (ICOM) 863, 868, 870
intertidal zone 467–79
inundation see flooding
Iraq 122, 124, 127–8, 130, 134
Ireland 13, 15, 17, 18, 307–8, 310, 317, 457, 458, 478
bog bodies in 409
crannogs in 34–7, 269–80
dendrochronology 620
fish weirs in 41–3
funding 907
Irish Archaeological Wetland Unit (IAWU) 360, 457
Iron Age
farming regimes 800–805
plant remains 509–10
settlements 17–19
(p. 931) Iron Gates Gorge, Serbia 387
iron ore collection 366
irrigation 112–13, 129–30
Irwin, G. 893
island settlements 74 see also crannogs; terpen mounds
Isolino Virginia, Italy 258
Israel 122, 125
Italy 258, 262–3, 307, 506
Bronze Age 780
history of palaeoecology 543
Jankuhn, H. 405
Janusek, J. and A. Kolata 97
Japan 175–93, 310, 314, 316, 483, 712
history of palaeoecology 543
Jenné-jeno site, Mali 113–14
Jennings, J. D. 60, 64
Jensen, B. 675
Jessen, K. 548
jewellery 783
Johnsen, D. B. 328
Johnston, R. B. and K. A. Cassavoy 77
Jones, B. D. and D. T. Forrest 765
Jones, R. 224
Jones, S. P. et al. 674
Jori system 189
Junk, W. 750–51
Jura, France 256–7, 545
Kaeser, M. A. 621–2
Kafir Samir site 125
Kafue Flats, Zambia 107, 114
Kaharoa volcanic eruption, New Zealand 611–12
Kalø Vig I, Denmark 324
Kalstrom, A. 666
Kaminaljuyu site, Guatemala 88–9
Karsten, P. 404
Kate's Pad trackway, UK 365
Katzie First Nation 714
Katzie Site, Canada 78
Kauhanganui house 208
Kauri (Agathis australis) 669
Kauri Point swamp, New Zealand 198–201
Kauz, D. 875
Kaye, B. et al. 675
Kayhausen Boy 408
Keller-Tarnuzzer, K. 849, 851
Keller, F. 270, 457, 541, 585, 845, 864, 867, 877, 879, 881
Kelly, E. 409–10, 412
Kelly, R. 764, 765, 768
Kenward, H. K.
and A. R. Hall 526, 529
et al. 515, 522–44
Kepel Fish Dam, US 328
kettle bogs, bodies in 413
Khok Phanom Di, Thailand 901
Khotinsky, N. A. 152–3
et al. 154
King Movement, New Zealand 207–8
Kite, M. and R. Thomson 675
Klaver, J. 217, 222, 224
knight-farmers 38, 40
knives 350
Kobusiewicz, M. 390
Kodera site, Japan 189–90
Kohika, New Zealand 203–7, 676, 895
Koksharovsko-Yurinskaya sites, Russia 145–7, 148, 149
Kollmann, J. 859, 867
Kooijmans, L. P. L. 733
Kopytoff, I. 735
Korekawa, Japan 175, 542
Kosintsev, P. A. 149
Kostrzewski, J. 818–19
Kroll, H. 508
Kuahuqiao Culture 159
Kuahuqiao site, China 163, 165, 167
Kubaish, Iraq 134
Kuk Swamp, New Guinea 237–41
Kuniholm, P. 621
Kurumidate site, Japan 190
Kusado-sengen-cho site, Japan 190–91
Kyoto government 190
L’Anse aux Meadows, Canada 76
La Bellaca 2 site, Argentina 764
La Belle investigations, US 484
La Draga, Spain 258
La Marmotta, Italy 258
lacquer production 187
(p. 932) lacustrine varve sediments 633–41
Lagerås, P. 812
Lagerheim 542
Lago de Atitlan, Guatemala 88
Lago di Bargone, Italy 565
lagoons 215, 218
Lake of Antioch 131
Lake Āraiši, Latvia 34
Lake Biel, Switzerland 295–6, 656–7 see also Lake Bienne623
Lake Biwa, Japan 181–3
Lake Bolac, Australia 215
Lake Bracciano, Italy 258
lake burials 391
Lake Chalain, France 656
Lake of the Clouds, US 639
Lake Constance, Switzerland (and Germany) 297, 622, 624–6, 656, 658
Lake Dümmer area, Germany 365, 375
lake-dwellings see lake settlements
Lake Geneva, Switzerland (and France) 657–8
Lake Gregory, Australia 212
Lake Holzmaar, Germany, varve chronology 639
lake levels 585–8, 591–4, 652
Lake Luokesas, Lithuania 18, 562, 820
Lake Mangakaware, New Zealand 203, 204
Lake Mikata, Japan 183–4
Lake Mungo, Australia 213
Lake Neuchâtel, Switzerland 256, 259, 263–4, 623, 624, 652, 653–6, 658
Lake Ngaroto, New Zealand 202–3
Lake Nojiri, Japan 176–9
Lake Nussbaum, Switzerland 18
Lake Pfäffikon, Switzerland 878, 879
Lake Powidz, Poland 819
lake settlements 15–16, 17, 18, 34, 38–40
in the Circum-Alpine region 253–5, 256–65
dendrochronological analysis 618, 620, 621–2, 628
diaspora 876, 878
aDNA from 576
early discoveries 541–2, 877
glass from 783–4
interest in 878–86
long-distance trade 779–91
myth 832–4, 845
soil sampling in 560–62 see also crannogs; pile dwellings
Lake Suigetsu, Japan 606, 634–9
Lake Tandou, Australia 214
Lake Titicaca, South America 96–8
Lake Valgjärv, Estonia 18, 34
Lake Varese, Italy 258
Lake Vättern, Sweden 817
Lake Victoria, Tanzania 111
Lake Zug, Switzerland 658
Lake Zurich, Switzerland 623, 877, 897
lakes 392–4
food supplies in 387–8
saline 109
transportation 388–9
Lance Wad project 459
land-bridge between Britain and Europe 913
landscapes 753–4
Langdon, S. J. 327, 332
et al. 328
Langstone Harbour Survey 472
Lanman, C. R. 880
Laroque, I. and R. I. Hall 549
LARP (Live Action Role Playing) 871
Laténium museum, Switzerland 869
Latvia 14, 34
Lawrence, M. J. and C. R. Bates 446
Lawson, A. 907
layout of settlements 291–2
leather 675–6
leilira 216
Lejre, Denmark 867–8
Lemonaghan, Ireland 44
Lengyel culture 816
Lepenski Vir, Serbia 387, 393
Lepofsky et al. 330–31
Leuschner, H. H. et al. 628
Leuzinger 829, 832
Levantine sites 125
levees 751
Lévi-Strauss, C. 739
Liangzhu Culture 159–60
lifespans
of settlements 291–2
of sites 899–900
of trackways 367–8, 906
lignin 667–8
(p. 933) Lima and Alencar 757–8
Lindahl, T. 572
Lindow bodies 407, 900
Linear Pottery culture 816
Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture 506–8
Lipchinsky phase 148
Lisheen Mine Project, Ireland 360–61
Lithuania 14–15, 562
Little Qualicum River Site, Canada 77–8
Little Salt Lake Weir, US 327
living-history 871–2
Ljubljansko Barje, Slovenia 543
Llanos de Mojos, Bolivia 96
local communities 734–5
locating archaeological sites 724–5
Loch Arthur Crannog, Scotland 278
log boats 477
long-distance trading 779–91
longhouses 32
longshore weirs 324–5
looters 877
Los Buchillones 486
Losey, R. 332
Lough Boora, Ireland 273
Lourandos, H. 218, 223
Low Magnesium High Potassium (LMHK) glass 782, 783–4, 788–9
Lower Tilemsi Valley, Mali 113
Lubbock, J. 877, 879
Ludwig, H.-D. 114
Ludwigshafen settlement 289
Lurton, X. 434
Lüscherz culture 261
MacDonald, G. 710
Macquarie River, Australia 217
macrofossils 547–8
macroremains 498–504
magazines 853
magnetometers 441–3
Magny, M. 374, 545
Magor Pill medieval boat 477
Maharski Prekop, Slovenia 543
Majiabang Culture 159
Makabil site, Yalahau region 93
Makah Indian Tribe 706–9
Mali 111, 113
Mallowan, M. 122
Malta Convention 907
management strategies 692–8
Manaus 752
mangrove forests 109
mangrove swamps 215–16
mangrove wood trade 115
Maori culture 197, 198–207, 666–7
mapping 471–2
mapping surveys 557–9
Maqiao Culture 160
Marajó 754
Marin–Les Piécettes settlement, Switzerland 289–90
maritime archaeology 433–47
marsh formation 131–2
marshland 124
in the Middle East 128–31
Mästermyr find, Sweden 315
Masters, P. M. and N. C. Flemming 125
Masurian lake settlements, Poland 819–20
Matsui, A. 483
Mawaki site, Japan 186–7
Maya Highlands 88–9
Maya Lowlands 89–93
Maya Terminal Classic Droughts 91
McClung De Tapia, E. 93–4
McHalsie, A. 74
McIntosh, S. K. 116
McMillan, A. D. and E. Yellowhorn 73–4
Meare Heath, UK 18, 519
medapodials 341, 344
media coverage 847, 849–53
medieval crannogs 35–8
medieval period 27–8, 29
Medieval Warm Period 97
Medioli, F. S. and D. B. Scott 550
Mediterranean area 16
Medwin, H. and C. S. Clay 434
megafauna 214
Mesoamerica 84–94
Mesolithic settlements 11, 814–15
submerged 12–14
use of wood 813–14
Mesopotamia 123, 127–31
Messikommer, J. 853, 879, 880–81, 895
Mestorf, J. 404
metalworking 36–7, 785–6
(p. 934) Meteren–De Bogen, Netherlands 743–4
Mexico 88, 93–4, 98
Gulf Coast 87
micromorphology 557, 562
microremains 498, 504
Middle East wetlands 122–35
Middle Guayas Basin, Ecuador 96
Middle Senegal Valley 113
midges 549–50
migration, seasonal 756–7
Migration Period 29
Minet al-Dalieh, Beirut 125
Mingies Ditch, UK 525–7
minimum intervention 667
mires 587
Mississippian Tradition 65–6
mitigation against destruction of wetland environments 690–91, 693
mobility 224, 756–7
Mobley, C. M. and W. M. McCallum 330
models of log cabins 867
models of pile-dwellings 846, 864–5,
Mogollon Tradition 66
Molenaarsgraaf, Netherlands 743
Møllegabet settlement, Denmark 12, 815
Mołtajny, Poland 820
Momijiyama No. 49, Japan 316
monastic settlements 44
Monks, G. G. 329
Mont St Michel Bay, France 41
Montale-Rangone museum, Italy 869, 870
Montelius, O. 780
Montgomery Creek Weir site 710
Monuments at Risk in England's Wetlands (MAREW) project 453
‘Moora’ 409
Moorman, B. J. 445
Morgan, R. 904–6
morphotypes 587
Morris, C. A. 311
Morrison, I. 271
mortuary ponds 63
mound building 217, 221–4
movement of people 294
Movius, H. 897
Moynagh Lough crannog, Ireland 36
Mt Eccles area, Australia 772
multi-ethnicity 293–4
multiproxy approach 589
mummies 404, 411–12
Munro, R. 270, 883
Muntelier, Switzerland 283
Murphy, P. 455
Murray Valley, Australia 222
Murray-Darling Basin, Australia 212–14, 218, 388
Murrumbidgee wetlands, Australia 219, 222, 224
museums 847–8, 853–4, 860–61
collections 884–6, 888
open-air 861–72
Mycenaean civilization 783
myth about lake-dwellings 832–4, 845
Nash, St E. 618
National Heritage Park, Ireland 276
National Monuments Service 272
Nature Conservation Service 658
Naumann elephant 176–9
navigation 437
Nekrasov, A. E. 149
Nendrum monastic tide mill, Ireland 478
Neolithic plant remains 506–9
Neolithic sites 11, 14–16, 147
Netherlands 29, 30, 32–3, 458, 733–44, 907
reclamation 46
trackways in 363, 365, 367, 371
New Guinea 231–43, 768
New Zealand 197–209, 459, 666–7
Newborough Fen, UK 558
Newton, R. G. and C. Renfrew 782
Nicholls, R. J. et al. 721
Nielsen, V. 802
Niger Delta 115
Nigeria 112
Nilsson, T. 586
Nimrud, Iraq 122
Norse remains 76
North America 703–15, 770
North Sea 910–12
Norway, trackways in 364
Novgorod, Russia 34, 822–3
nuts 64
Nydam Bog site, Denmark 307
(p. 935) Ó Floinn, R. 404
O’Brien, C. et al. 524
O’Sullivan, A. 15, 271, 278
oak timber 625–6, 628
Oakbank crannog, Scotland 274, 612–13
obsidian flakes 181–2, 199–201
occupation of wetlands in Europe 11–14
Oedenahlen, Germany 286
Oerlinghausen, Germany 868
Ohalo site, Israel 124
Old Croghan Man 409
Olmo di Nogara graves 782
ombrothrophic wetlands 721–2
Onat, Astrida Blukis 71
open-air museums 861–72
open excavation days 847
Oregon, US 710
organic material 492–3, 915
cleaning 603
preservation 540–41
ornaments 315, 352
Orontes Valley, Syria and Turkey 132
Orton Meadows, UK 558
Oruarangi site, New Zealand 199, 202
Osborne, C. G. 886
Osborne, P. J. 549
Ostrowite Trzemeszeńskie, Poland 819
Ötzi 850, 898
oxidation 671
Ozette Village wet site, US 705, 706–9, 763
Paazerje Lake region, Belarus 14
packaging of artefacts 491
Packwerk model 274–5, 276
paddles 814
Paisley Cave, Oregon, US 60
palaeocatena 557
palaeochannels 529
palaeoclimatology 585–94
palaeoecology 539–50
palaeoentomology 549–50
palaeoenvironmental analysis 452–3, 836
palaeogenetics 569 see also ancient DNA
Palaeolithic intertidal sites 473
Paleoamerican sites 59–60
paleochannels 366–7
palisades 818
paludification 812–13
Panova, N. K. 154
and T. G. Antipina 154
‘paper bog bodies’ 403, 406, 413
Papua New Guinea 241–2
Pará, Lower Amazon 753
Pardoe, C. 213, 222, 391
Paret, O. 255
Parker Pearson, M. 410
Parkinson, Sidney 202
Parsecko, Poland 34
paths 192
Peabody Museum, US 880, 882
peat
deposits 123
detection 446
digging 409
extraction 360, 363, 457
formation 153, 468–70
preservation of bog bodies in 820
samples 426, 427, 431
peatbog 146
peatlands 540
Peet, Revd S. D. 881
PEGCON programme 671
pendants 350–51
Peros, M. C. et al. 486
perspectives 838
Peru 97
Peschiera del Garda, Italy 785–6
Pestenacker, Germany 284, 288
Peterstone, Wales 306–7
Pétrequin, P. et al. 545
Pfahlbauer von Pfyn (‘Pile dwellers from Pfyn’) TV programme 852
Pfahlbaufischer 877
Pfahlbaumuseum, Germany 870
Pfahlschuhe (perforated plates) 285–6
Pfyn culture 261, 850–52
Phillips, C. et al. 912
Pieper, P. 408
pig farming 241–2
Piggott, S. 869
Pigorini, L. 869
(p. 936) pile dwellings 163–4, 307
dendrochronological analysis 618, 620, 621–2, 628
early discoveries 845
in the media 849–53
models 864–5
public interest 859–72
tourism 853–4
as World Cultural Heritage sites 854–5 see also crannogs; lake settlements
Pinger system 438
Pittioni 788
Planarch 2 project 458
planking for excavations 491
plant management 239–41
plants 497–510, 547–8
domestication 233
for food 165–71
radiocarbon dating 603
platform-habitat theory 834
platforms in wetlands 367
Pleistocene period 109–10, 212–15
Plets, R. M. K. et al. 446
Po Valley, Italy 784–6
Poland 15, 34, 458, 818–20
Polanowo, Poland 819
polyethylene glycol treatment (PEG) 670–74, 676, 677
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 570, 574–5
Polynesia 197, 208
Poole log-boat treatment 674, 675
poppy seeds 507, 508
population density 260
population levels 768
portable wooden artefacts 305–12
cultural sensitivity 316–17
types 313–16
Portland, Australia 218, 220
Post Track, UK 609
post-depositional formation processes 806
pottery 14, 65, 293–4, 781
Pournelle, J. 128–9, 130
Pr 31 trackway, Germany 363, 367
precipitation 586
Preclassic era 91
‘Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps’ project 660–61
prehistoric settlement dynamics 734
Prehistoric Times (Lubbock) 877, 879
preservation 283
of archaeological sites 689–98, 835–6
of artefacts 3, 72–3, 490–93, 897
in dry caves 61–2
in wet sites 62–3
of bog bodies 820
of bone 339
of aDNA 570–71, 572–3, 575
vs. excavation 459–60
of fibrework and basketry 676
of leather 675–6
of organic matter 540–41
of plant remains 499, 506
of waterlogged wood 666–75
of wooden artefacts 124–5, 132, 142–3, 306, 897
primers 574
Prince, P. 328
Prise d’Eau, France 254
private collections 861
proactive archaeology 451–2
Proceedings of the Antiquarian Society 879–80
profile columns 502–4
profiling methods 436, 437–8, 447
projects 454–9
prospecting 421
prospective fieldwork 699
protection
for archaeological sites 652–7, 660–61
for trackways 659
of wetland environments 690–91
proxies 589
proxy indicators 547
Pryor, F. 836
public interest 859–72
in bog bodies 898
in lake settlements 878–86
public participation in excavations 847
public perception 5, 829–41
publications 544, 830–31, 881–7
language 846–7
‘puddle toghers’ 366
(p. 937) puffballs 548
Pulli, Estonia 14
pulses 508
pumping systems 486
Purfleet, UK 564
putt weirs 41
Qatna, Syria 131
quagga 570
Quaternary research 542–3
Quinn, R. et al. 446
Quito, Ecuador 97
Qwu?gwes wet site, US 485, 711
radiocarbon dating 147–8, 601–14, 620, 640–41, 902–4
Radovanović, I. 387, 391
Raffles, H. 754
and A. WinklerPrins 754
Raftery, B. 457, 907
Raftery, J. 273
rainfall, decreased 723
raised bogs 43–4, 360, 404, 484, 802–5
raised field systems 87–8, 95–8
Ramsar Convention 696–8, 699, 909
Rau, C. 879
Raushenbach, V. M. 143, 149, 152
Ravning Enge, Denmark 42
Razboinichy Ostrov site, Russia 147
reactive archaeology 451–2, 457
Real Time Kinematic (RTK)-GPS 437
reclamation 44–6, 459
red ochre 59–60
Red Turkey Oil 676
re-enactments 871
Reilly, E. 520–21
Reinecke 788
Reinerth, H. 542, 585, 834, 867
religious practice 133
Rendswühren Man 402, 409
Renfrew, C. 783, 904
replicas 846, 864–5, 867
research aspects 764–6
research funding 451, 460–61 908–9
Rethinking Wetland Archaeology (Van de Noort and O’Sullivan) 725, 726
Reute-(Schorrenried) settlement 284, 289
reversibility 667, 670, 675
Reynolds, P. 867–8
Rhoplex-AC33 (acrylic emulsion) 490
rice farming 188–9
rice production 167–71
ridges of floodplains 751
ring dykes 46
Rio Bravo 91–2
Rippon, S. 44–6
risk management 771
Ristola, Finland 14
ritualism 474–6, 817, 910
river burials 391
river channel crossings 366–7
River Nile 115
hunting in 388
flooding 110
river systems, soils in 562–3
Riverina area, Australia 768
rivers 392–4
aDNA from 576–7
fishing in 388
for transportation 388–91
Robbins Swamp, US 770
Robenhausen site, Switzerland 878, 879–81, 884, 897
Robertshaw, P. T. 116
Robinson, M. 525, 526–7
rock art 392–3
Rohland, N. and M. Hofreiter 574
Roman Period plant remains 509–10
Romney Marsh Research Group 456
roofs 287
Roonka Flat site, Australia 769
root gardens 330
rootlet intrusion 603
Rosehill, Lord 879–80
Rosen, A. and N. Roberts 126
Roter Franz 408
Roth, W. 389–90
Rotten Bottom, Scotland 316
Rouillard, S. 911
Rowell, R. and R. J. Barbour 668
Rowland's Track, UK 519
Rushy Lagoon, Australia 215
Rychner-Faraggi, A. M. 789
(p. 938) Sakuramachi site, Japan 185–6
Sales Point fish weir 41
saline lakes 109
salmon fishing 328, 331
salt extraction 458
salt production 40
Salt Springs, US 486–7
saltmarshes 722
Sammardenchia, Italy 506
samples, cleaning 603–4
sampling 488–9
of DNA 574–5
of insect remains 531
of plant remains 501–4
for soil studies 556–65
San Jorge, Colombia 96
San’nai Maruyama site, Japan 184–5
sandbag system 486
sand-blowing 799
sandstone ridges 125
Sandy Hill site, US 766
Sanlaville, P. 128
Saxtorp, Sweden 817
Scandinavia 13, 34
Schaub, J. 845
Schelvis, J. 529
Schindelholz, E. et al. 675
Schlichtherle, H. and M. Strobel 423
Schlumberger, C. 422
Schmidt, R. R. 254, 618, 867
et al. 542
Schnapp, A. 875
Schöbel, G. 829
Schönenwerd, Switzerland 846
Schöningen, Germany 306
school curriculum 848
school text books 845, 848
Schwab, F. 864
Scilly Isles 476
Scotland 15, 18, 309, 311, 312, 315, 316, 458
bog bodies in 411–12, 413
crannogs in 37–8, 269–80
sea levels 659–60, 720–24, 813, 912
Sea of Galilee 124
Seamer Carr, UK 387
seasonal activity 476
seasonal mobility 756–7
seasonal variation in floodplains 750–51, 755–7
sedimentary sequences 469–70
seeds 498, 506–8
Seekirch-Stockwiesen, Germany 286, 288
Sehested, F. 867
Serbia 387
Serikov, Y. B. 143–4, 146, 147
settlement dynamics 734, 735
settlement models 734–5
settlement structures 621
settlements
communities 293
farmhouse 737–9
groups of 295–6
layout 291–2
trading towns 821–3
wetland and dryland 296–8
Severn Estuary, Wales 41, 45, 46, 469–70, 477, 478
Severn Estuary Levels Research Committee (SELRC) 456
sewn-plank boats 477
sexual activity 392
shallow waters 443–4
Shangshan Culture 159
Shangshan site, China 167
Shannon and Fergus estuary, Ireland 41, 43
Shardlow Quarry, UK 369
Shaugh Moor, UK 564–5
Shawcross, Wilfred 199
sheep 32
shell middens 64, 74, 123, 705, 706–9
in Japan 175, 180, 181, 183–4
Shigirsky Moor, Russia 143, 144–5, 146–7, 148, 149, 152, 154
Shimoyakebe site, Japan 187
Shinewater Park site, UK 367
Shinkansen bullet train 175–6
shipwrecks 132, 477, 620, 621, 900–901
shrinkage of wood 669
Shugart, H. H. 625
Shulishader, Scotland 311, 312
Shuvakish 1 site, Russia 147
side-scan sonars (SSS) 440, 441, 444
Siedlungskammern 295–6
sieving 504–5
Siggeneben-Süd, Germany 816
Siletz Cultural Resources Program 710
Silkeborg Museum, Denmark 912
(p. 939) single entities 602
Single Grave Culture (SGC) groups 15
single-beam echo sounders (SBES) 437–8
Sivan, D. et al. 125
skeletons 404; see also human remains
Skogsmossen, Sweden 817
skull deposition 369
sleeves 351–2
Slogget, R. 666
Slovenia 543
Smakkerup Huse, Denmark 815, 816
Smilde bogs, Netherlands 365
Smith, D. 525
Smith, D. N. et al. 528–9
Smith, W. C. 676
snakes 392
Snoqualmie River, US 706
Sobiejuchy, Poland 819
social archaeology 896–7
social change 223
sockets/sleeves 351–2
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment 604
soil deposits 123
soil formation 84–5
soil studies 542, 555–65
Somerset Levels Project, UK 18, 454–5, 516–19, 609, 903–7, 910
trackways 359, 361, 365, 366, 371, 372
Songze Culture 159
Sonnenburg, E. P. and J. I. Boyce 445
Soppen Lake, Switzerland 639
South Alligator River, Australia 224
South America 94–8
South American rivers 389
South Puget Sound Community College (SPSCC) 711
Southwestern United States 66
Sovjan, Albania 17
spades 801
Spain 258
spear points 306
specialization, focus on 834–5, 837
spectral induced polarization (SIP) method 422, 426–9, 430–32
specular reflection 436, 437
sphagnum moss 820
Splash Point, Wales 469
Spriggs, J. and J. Hutchings 674, 675
Squaxin Island Tribe 711
Srejović, D. 387
Sroove crannog, Ireland 36–7
St Guthlac 27
Stanley, M. 43
Star Carr, UK 13, 363, 387, 543, 693, 726, 763, 897–8
Starkov, V. F. 143, 146, 149
Steel Lake, US 639
Sternberg, H. O. 751–2
Stevenson, A. 328
Stillwater Marsh, US 773
stone artefacts 73
stone fish traps 331–2
stone tools 216, 217
Store Vildmose bog, Denmark 802–5
Strata Florida wooden figure 910–12
strategic approach 452–9
strategic programmes 723–5
stratigraphic approach 255, 259
Strelka site, Russia 148, 152
Stringer, D. 904
Stuart, J. 270
Stukeley 392
sub-bottom profilers (SBP) 438, 439, 444, 445
Subboreal period 154
submerged forests 474, 564
submerged Mesolithic sites 12–14
succinite 780, 782
sugar treatments 674
Suigetsu Varves 2006 Project 634–9
Sukachev, V. N. and G. I. Poplavskaya 152
sulcus 341
sulfur in wood 671–4
Sulgostowka, Z. 390
Sully, D. 666
Sumerian civilization 123
Sumner Creek Fish Weir, US 327
Sunken Village site, US 317, 711–12
supercritical drying method 675
supernatural beliefs about wetlands 27
surface samples 502
surveys 454–9, 471–3, 556–65
environmental 691–2
Sutz-Lattrigen Südwest, Switzerland 288, 296, 656–7
Šventoji, Lithuania 14–15, 816–17
swamp forests 109, 236–41
‘Swampbuster’ programme 99
swamplands 108–9, 767
Mesopotamia 130
swath bathymetry sonars (SwBS) 440–41, 445–6
swath methods 436, 438–41
Sweden 16, 34, 315
Sweet Track, UK 15, 315, 367, 368, 370–71, 375, 454, 517–18, 727, 904, 905
Swiss National Scientific Research Foundation 658
Swiss television (SF) 849–50, 852
Switzerland 18, 256, 259–60, 263–4, 283, 286, 288–90, 295–7, 339, 346–7, 352, 652–6, 908–9
education 847–8
history of palaeoecology 543
lake-dwelling myth 832–4, 845
media coverage 849
museums 853–4
symbolism 391–2
Syria 131–2
Szwajcer, W. 818
Tabasco, Mexico 88
Tägerup, Sweden 815
taonga 666–7
taphonomic pathways 275
taphonomy 541
Tapsell, P. 667
tapu 201
Tari region, New Guinea 234
tarp systems 486
Tasgetium, Switzerland 577
‘taskscape’ 753–4
Tasmania, Australia 215, 218
Tategahana site, Japan 176–9
tauihu 666
taxonomic groups 531
Taxus baccata (yew) 310, 315
Te Miro site, New Zealand 199, 207–8
tea plantations 235–6
techniques, study of 836–7
teeth 347, 350–51, 352
Tegel, W. 624
television programmes 849–52
Tell Nami, Israel 122
Tell Oueli, Iraq 127–8
Tenochtitlán, Mexico City 93–4, 98
Terminal Classic Droughts 91
terpen mounds 29–33
Terramare model 784
terramare villages 262–4
terrestrialization 812
‘tertiary toghers’ 366
testate amoebae 550
textile production 32
Thailand 899
Thames basin, UK 390–91, 392
Thayngen Weier, Switzerland 288
theatre 863, 871–2
Theodosius harbour, Turkey 132
theory of wetland archaeology 726
Thiessing, J. B. 879
Thorne Moors, UK 520
threats to wetland environments 688–91, 693
Thy, Denmark 797–800, 801
Tianluoshan site, China 164, 166, 167–71
Tibirke trackway, Denmark 368
tidal weirs 324–5
tides 467–79, 485
Tigris–Euphrates basin 124, 129–30
Tilley, C. 391
timber supply 624–6
time, passage of 897–8
time-spans of settlements 727
Timofeev, V. I. and G. I. Zaitseva 148
Tinner, W. et al. 590
Tinneys trackways, UK 366
Tiryns type amber 787–8
Tite, M. S. and A. J. Shortland 783
Tla’amin traditional territory 331
toghers 43
Tollund Man 407, 408–9, 820–21, 859, 900
Tolmachev, V. Y. 143
Tomizawa site, Japan 179
Tongass National Forest, US 326
tools 883
from bone and antler 340, 345–50
domestic 315
for excavation 489
for farming 169
for harvesting 802
for hunting 58–9, 63, 216, 316, 814
workmanship 310–12
(p. 941) Toralba site, Spain 766
Torihama shell midden, Japan 175, 183–4
tourism 853–4
towns 821–3
‘Toy War Club’ 711, 712
trackways 42–4, 307–8, 359–76, 516, 520, 528–9, 897
construction 15, 16
dating 902–4
geophysical methods 421–32
protection 659
trade 115, 163
in artefacts 876, 878
emporia 821–3
long-distance 779–91
networks 389–91
Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) 331
transducers 440
transect surveys 556
transformations 44–6
transportation 192
of artefacts 489–92
through water 75, 111, 112, 163, 165, 369, 388–91, 813–14, 815
Travers, W. 882–4
treatment of wood 669–75
treatments for organic materials 676
tree-ring dating (dendrochronology) 3, 256–7, 259, 609–12, 617–28
study of trackways 372, 904–6
tree types 310
trees see forest
Trichoptera 531
Tringham, R. 736
tsunami destruction 914
Tukano villagers 392
Turner, R. 910
Tybrind Vig, Denmark 12, 316, 814, 815
types of wetland site 901–2
Tyuremnov, S. N. 152
Uchter Moor, Germany 409, 410–11
Uerschhausen-Horn (also Ürschausen-Horn), Switzerland 18, 286
Ufa Film 866
UK 13, 15, 16–17, 18
fish weirs in 41
funding 907
reclamation 45–6
wooden trackways in 359, 361–72
Uke (bamboo fish trap) 188
Ulrich, R. B. 311
Umma, Mesopotamia 129
UNESCO 3, 76, 660, 839–40, 854, 860, 870
Únětice culture 783, 818
uniformitarian principles 539
Universum Film AG (UFA) 849
Unteruhldingen, Germany 865, 866, 870–71
Upemba Depression, Congo-Kinshasa 113–14
Upper Volga River region, Russia 14
Upper Wahgi, New Guinea 234, 235–41
Ural Society of the Natural History Amateurs 143
Urals, Russia 141–55
US 310, 317
fish weirs on the Northwest coast 326–33
waterway transportation 389
V-shaped weirs 40–42
Valletta Convention 460
Valthe Bridge, Netherlands 367
values 698–9
Van Andel, T. H. and C. N. Runnels 764–5
Van de Noort, R. 763
and A. O’Sullivan 278, 725, 726, 761, 772
Van der Sanden, W. 910
Van der Veen, M. 498
and N. R. J. Fjeller 505
Van Geel, B. et al. 587
van Giffen, A. E. 30
Van Gijn, A. L. and H. T. Waterbolk 476
Van Neer, W. 113
Vancouver Island, Canada 329
varve chronology 633–41
Viereckschanze 509
violent deaths 768, 820–21, 900
Virchow, R. 886
Vis I, Russia 315–16
vitreous materials 781, 785
Vogt, E. 543, 788, 896
volcanic areas 204
volcanic ash layers 181
volcanic highland zones 97
(p. 942) Volkhov River, Russia 822–3
Von Post, L. 542, 547
votive deposition 306
Wadden Sea 724
wagons 364
Waikaraka estuary, New Zealand 666
Waikato lakes, New Zealand 202–3
Waikato people 207–8
Wainwright, G. 695, 904, 907
Wakeman, W. 270
Wales 307, 469, 471, 472, 474, 475–6
fish weirs in 41
reclamation 46
walkways for excavations 491
Wangels, Germany 816
wapato tubers 78
Ward, H. A. 884
Warka site, Iraq 128, 130
Warrawau Tea Plantation, New Guinea 235–6
Washington Archaeological Society 706
Wasserburg-Buchau, Germany 542
Water Framework Directive 723–4
water quantity 84
water removal 484–8
Waterbolk, H. T. 733
waterlogged fibres 676
waterlogged leather 675–6
waterlogged wood 122, 125, 665–75
waterlogging of plant remains 499–501, 505
Waterman, T. T. and A. L. Kroeber 328
waterway transportation 75, 111, 112, 163, 165, 369, 388–91, 813–15
Wauwil Bog, Switzerland 852, 854
wave propagation 434–6
weapons 821
from antler 351–2
for hunting 58–9, 63, 216, 316, 814
Wedden Sea 459
Weerdinge couple 402, 413
Weichsel Glaciation 812–13
weighing systems 791
Welland valley, UK 562, 564
wellpoint system 486–8
wells 507, 624
Wells, H. G. 886
Wessex amber 783
West Furze site, UK 369
Westward Ho!, UK 474
Wet Organic Archaeological Materials (WOAM) group 670
wet screens 490–91
wet sites 1–2, 62–3
vs. wetland sites 71, 763
Wetland Archaeology Research Project (WARP) 28, 483, 713, 908, 909
Wetlands Management Survey 691
wheeled transport 364, 369
Wheeler, A. 387
White, E. 331–2
white layers 634
White Mountains, US 620
wiggle-matched dating (WMD) 609–14
Wijk bij Duurstede, Netherlands 743, 744
Wijnaldum-Tjitsma, Netherlands 32–3
‘Wild Nile’ floods 110
Wilde, Sir W. R. 270
Wilde, W. 860–61
Wilken, G. 88
Willandra lakes, Australia 213
Willerding, U. 500
Williams, E. 223
Williams, H. S. 886
Williams, J. 75
Willis, M. 872
Windover, Florida, US 63, 486–8, 489, 493, 898
‘Wise Use’ concept 696
Wismar Bay, Germany 12, 815
withy tie 471
Wittfogel, K. A. 114
Wobst, H. M. 764
women's roles as hunter-gatherers 774
wood 3, 161, 819
bridges 42
for building farmsteads 797–8
cultural sensitivity 316–17
facets gnawed by beavers 912–14
figurines 369–70, 910–12
use in Mesolithic 813–14
(p. 943) pile dwellings 163–4
platforms 13
portable artefacts 305–12
preservation 124–5, 132, 142–3, 306, 897
radiocarbon dating 904–6
trackways see trackways
turning 314–15
types, identifying 313–16, 424–5, 431
waterlogged 122, 125, 665–75
Wood-Martin, W. G. 270, 860–61
woodland 370–71
woodland exploitation 625–6
woodworking 78
wool production 32
World Heritage Sites 3, 76, 457–8, 839–40, 854–5, 860
wrecks 132, 477, 620, 621, 900–901
Wright, E. 477
Wrobel, S. 619
Wüppels, Germany 29–30
Wurmbrand, C. 867
Wyrie Swamp site, Australia 214–15, 767
Wyss, R. 854
Yabe giant deer 176–7
Yalahau region 93
Yamaga site, Japan 188
Yangtze River, China 159–71
Yangtze Valley, China 899
Yarnton, UK 366, 368
Yayoi people 188–9
Yde Girl 402, 407
Yemen 123
Yoko-o site, Japan 181
Young, G. S. 675
and I. N. M. Wainwright 670
Younger Dryas 60
Yucatán Peninsula 93
Yurok Kepel Fish Dam 332
Zambia 107, 111, 114–15
Zeeland, Denmark 46, 806–8
Zhou Daguan 895
Zijderveld house site, Netherlands 742
Zippelius, A. 868
Zolitschka, B. et al. 590
Zug, Switzerland 286
Zug-Sumpf 623
Zurich, Switzerland 286, 288
Zurich Antiquarian Society 845
Zurich–Mozartstrasse 783
Zweeloo Woman 407, 413