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date: 17 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter discusses the history of wetland archaeology in eastern Russia; human occupation of wetlands in eastern Russia; chronology of the wetland sites; economy of the wetland sites; and palaeoenvironment of the wetland sites. After more than a century of research at the wetland sites of the Middle Urals, it can be concluded that they were initially settled at least in the Mesolithic, c. 9800 BP, based on data from the Shigirsky and Gorbunov moors. Extensive use of wetlands is known in the Neolithic (c. 7000–4500 BP) and Aeneolithic–Bronze Age (c. 4500–3500 BP), with hunting and fishing as the main economic activities. The diverse natural resources, such as mammals, birds, fish, and plants, were used to sustain the prehistoric populations of the Middle Urals. Watercraft existed from the Mesolithic onwards, and exploitation of water resources was practised by different means, with the use of nets and rods for fishing.

Keywords: eastern Russia, wetland archaeology, human occupation, chronology, economy, palaeoenvironment, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Aeneolithic–Bronze Age

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