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date: 23 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The chapter examines how colonial encounters transformed the course of Islam and Muslim societies in Africa both north and south of the Sahara. Its focus is on the imperial age begun by the French conquest of Algiers in 1830, but also looks to the precolonial and postcolonial periods in order to delineate the dialectic of continuity and change brought about by the colonial situation. The chapter analyses the changing perceptions and policies that colonial powers, most importantly the French and the British, developed vis-à-vis Islam and Muslims and how colonial actors and Muslim leaders worked out subtle patterns of accommodation. It calls for more attention to how Islamic thought and Muslim societies were transformed from within in the course of the twentieth century, with emphasis on Sufism, Salafism, the challenge of Western modernity, and the colonial phenomenon of conversion to Islam.

Keywords: Islam, Muslims, colonialism, Maghrib, Sufism, marabouts.

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