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date: 23 September 2019

(p. xi) Contributors

(p. xi) Contributors

Mark Adler graduated in philosophy and then obtained a teaching certificate. He spent some thirty years in general practice as an English solicitor, adopting a “plain language” policy in the early 1980s. Since 1991 he has given seminars in the UK and overseas on plain legal writing. He has been chairman of Clarity and editor of its journal Clarity. He retired in 2007 but remains an active member of the plain language movement. Website:

Janet Ainsworth is John D. Eshelman Professor at Seattle University School of Law. She writes for an interdisciplinary audience, applying research on language and communication to critique legal doctrines and case law in a variety of contexts, including criminal procedure, evidence law, employment law, and trial practice. A unifying theme to her work is its emphasis on exposing the influence of mistaken concepts of the nature of language in legal ideology and practice.

Cornelis J. W. Baaij is PhD researcher at the University of Amsterdam School of Law and founder of the Amsterdam Circle for Law and Language. His research concentrates on the methodological relations between law and language, within the fields of comparative law, legal interpretation, and legal translation studies. His particular point of interest is the impact of Europe's multilingualism on the possibilities of legal harmonization in the EU.

Michel Bastarache, C.C. was a judge of the Supreme Court of Canada from 1997 to 2008. He has also worked as a civil servant; a law professor and law dean; a businessman; a practicing lawyer; and a provincial appeal court judge. He has written extensively on language rights and other subjects of public law and is the editor and principal author of three books. Mr Bastarache is counsel to the law firm Heenan Blaikie.

Robert W. Bennett is the Nathaniel L. Nathanson Professor of Law at Northwestern Law School, where he also served as dean from 1985 to 1995. His most recent book, “Constitutional Originalism: A Debate” (Cornell University Press, 2011) engages issues of constitutional interpretation in a debate format, with Bennett and Larry Solum of Georgetown Law School exchanging principal essays and then responses.

Susan Berk-Seligson is Professor in the Department of Spanish and Portuguese of Vanderbilt University, where she teaches courses on sociolinguistics, pragmatics, and discourse analysis. Her research focuses on the experience of Spanish speakers (p. xii) in the US criminal justice system, both in the courtroom as well as in pre-trial phases, such as police interrogations. She regularly serves as an expert in cases related to English-Only workplace policies and in criminal cases involving capital crimes and other felonies.

Brian H. Bix is the Frederick W. Thomas Professor of Law and Philosophy at the University of Minnesota. He holds a JD from Harvard University and a D.Phil. from Oxford University. His publications include Jurisprudence: Theory and Context (5th edn, Sweet & Maxwell, 2009), A Dictionary of Legal Theory (Oxford, 2004), and Law, Language, and Legal Determinacy (Oxford, 1993).

Ronald R. Butters is Emeritus Professor of English and Cultural Anthropology and former chair of the Linguistics Program at Duke University, where he began teaching in 1967. He has served as president of the American Dialect Society, the Southeastern Conference on Linguistics, and the International Association of Forensic Linguists (2008–11), and he is a former co-editor of The International Journal of Speech, Language, and the Law. He consults frequently with American attorneys and has testified in forensic linguistic cases for over twenty years. His practical and scholarly interests include (1) ethical issues in forensic linguistic consulting, (2) statutes and contracts, (3) death-penalty appeals, (4) copyrights, (5) discourse analysis of linguistic evidence, (6) lexicography, and (7) linguistic and semiotic issues in trademark litigation.

Jasone Cenoz is Professor of Education at the University of the Basque Country. Her research focuses on multilingual education, bilingualism, and multilingualism. She is the editor (in collaboration with Ulrike Jessner) of the International Journal of Multilingualism. Her most recent books are Towards Multilingual Education: Basque Educational Research in International Perspective (Multilingual Matters) and The Multiple Realities of Multilingualism (edited in collaboration with Elka Todeva, Mouton de Gruyter).

Carole E. Chaski, PhD is the Executive Director of the Institute for Linguistic Evidence, the first non-profit research organization devoted to linguistic evidence and the CEO of ALIAS Technology LLC. Dr Chaski held a Visiting Research Fellowship (1995–98) at the US Department of Justice's National Institute of Justice, where she began the validation testing which has become an increasingly important aspect of forensic sciences since the Daubert ruling, and introduced the computational, pattern recognition paradigm to questioned document examination and forensic linguistics. Dr Chaski has served as an expert witness in Federal and State Courts in the USA, in Canada and in The Hague. Primarily a researcher and software developer, Dr Chaski consults with corporations, defense, and security on computational linguistic applications. Dr Chaski earned her doctorate and master's in linguistics at Brown University, her master's in psychology of reading at the University of Delaware and her bachelor's in English and Ancient Greek from Bryn Mawr College.

Malcolm Coulthard is Emeritus Professor of Forensic Linguistics at the University of Aston. He is probably still best known for his work on the analysis of spoken and written discourse, but since the late 1980s he has become increasingly involved with forensic applications of linguistics. He has written expert reports in over 200 cases and given evidence on author identification in the Courts of Appeal in London, as well as in lower courts in England, Germany, Hong Kong, and Northern Ireland. Recent publications include (with Alison Johnson) An Introduction to Forensic Linguistics (2007) and A Handbook of Forensic Linguistics (2010).

Deborah Davis, PhD is Professor of Psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno, and President of Sierra Trial and Opinion Consultants. She has worked as a jury consultant and as an expert witness on witness memory, coerced confessions, and sexual consent. She publishes frequently in these areas, including a 100-page review article on interrogations and a chapter on jury selection in the recent Handbook of Forensic Psychology, and chapters on sources of distortion in eyewitness memory and on memory for conversation in the recent Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology. Website:

Jan Engberg is Professor of Knowledge Communication at the Department of Business Communication, University of Aarhus, Denmark. His main areas of interest are the study of texts and genres, cognitive aspects of domain-specific discourse, and basic aspects of communication in domain-specific settings. The focus of his research is on communication and translation in the field of law. In this connection, he is co-chair of the section on LSP communication of the German Association for Applied Linguistics (GAL) and co-editor of the international journals Hermes and Fachsprache.

Paul Foulkes is Professor in the Department of Language and Linguistic Science at the University of York. His teaching and research interests include sociolinguistics, language variation and change, phonetics, phonology, and child language acquisition as well as forensic speech science. He is also a consultant analyst with J P French Associates, and has worked on over 200 speaker comparison cases.

Peter French is a Director of J P French Associates, the United Kingdom's longest established forensic laboratory specializing in the analysis of speech, audio, and language. He is Honorary Professor in the Department of Language and Linguistic Science at the University of York, where he teaches, undertakes, and supervises research in forensic speech science and sociophonetics. He is President of the International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics, a Fellow and UK Secretary of the International Society for Phonetic Science and a Fellow of the Institute of Acoustics. He has worked on over 5,000 cases being heard before courts up to and including the International Commission of Enquiry and International War Crimes Tribunal levels. He has appeared in court as an expert witness over 200 times.

Masahiro Fujita is an associate professor of social psychology at the Faculty of Sociology of Kansai University. He is one of the leading experts in psychology and law in Japan. (p. xiv) He has been vigorously applying disciplines and methods in social psychology to decision-making processes in criminal proceedings.

Naomi E. S. Goldstein, PhD is Associate Professor of Psychology at Drexel University and a member of the faculty of the JD-PhD Program in Law and Psychology at Villanova Law School and Drexel University. Dr Goldstein specializes in forensic psychology, and her research examines juvenile suspects’ capacities to waive Miranda rights and offer confessions during police interrogations. She also developed and is evaluating the efficacy of the Juvenile Justice Anger Management (JJAM) Treatment for Girls.

Durk Gorter is Ikerbasque research professor at the Faculty of Education of the University of the Basque Country in San Sebastian/Donostia, where he leads the Donostia Research group on Education and Multilingualism. He does work on European minority languages, linguistic landscapes, and multilingualism, in particular in educational settings. He has published numerous books and articles on those themes. From 1979 to 2007 he was a researcher in the sociology of language and head of the department of social sciences at the Fryske Akademy in Ljouwert/Leeuwarden, the Netherlands. He was also professor in the sociolinguistics of Frisian at the University of Amsterdam.

Maurizio Gotti is Professor of English Language and Translation and Director of the Research Centre on Specialized Languages (CERLIS) at the University of Bergamo. His main research areas are the features and origins of specialized discourse (Robert Boyle and the Language of Science, Guerini, 1996; Specialized Discourse: Linguistic Features and Changing Conventions, Peter Lang, 2003; Investigating Specialized Discourse, Peter Lang, 2011). He is a member of the editorial board of national and international journals, and edits the Linguistic Insights series for Peter Lang.

Risto Hiltunen is Professor of English at the University of Turku, Finland. His research interests include history of English, medieval and early modern English, the English language in legal settings, and discourse studies. He has recently published in the Journal of Historical Pragmatics and Journal of Pragmatics. He is one of the associate editors of Records of the Salem Witch-Hunt (Cambridge University Press, 2009).

Syûgo Hotta is a professor of language and law at Meiji University School of Law in Japan. His fields of interest extends from theoretical linguistics to language and law. Among the fields of language and law, he has been working on psycholinguistic aspects of trademarks and corpus-based analyses of lay participation in Japanese criminal courts.

Martha L. Komter has worked as assistant professor at the departments of Criminology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Amsterdam. She is currently senior researcher at the Department of Language and Communication of the Faculty of Arts of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. She has published widely on talk (p. xv) in various institutional settings: job interviews, courtroom interaction, and police interrogations.

Krzysztof Kredens received his MA in English Studies and PhD in English Linguistics from the University of Łódź (Poland). He is now a Lecturer in Applied Linguistics in the School of Languages and Social Sciences at Aston University (UK). His main academic interests are in socio-legal applications of linguistics including forensic linguistics, legal translation, and court and police interpreting. He is Deputy Director of Aston University's Centre for Forensic Linguistics and Secretary of the International Association of Forensic Linguists.

Richard A. Leo, PhD, JD, is a Professor at the University of San Francisco School of Law and a Fellow in the Institute of Legal Research at University of California Berkeley (Boalt Hall) School of Law. He is an expert on police interrogation practices, false confessions, Miranda requirements, and wrongful convictions. Professor Leo has published numerous books and articles on these subjects, regularly lectures on these subjects to criminal justice professionals across the country, and has consulted and/or testified as an expert witness in hundreds of cases. Dr Leo's 2008 book Police Interrogation and American Justice (Harvard University Press, 2008) has won several awards. In 2011 he received a Guggenheim fellowship. Website:

Karen McAuliffe is a Lecturer in the School of Law at the University of Exeter, UK and visiting Lecturer at the University of Luxembourg. Dr McAuliffe holds the degrees of LLB (Hons) in Common and Civil Law with French (2000) and a PhD (2006) from the Queen's University of Belfast and has also studied at l’Université Catholique de Louvain (Louvain-la-Neuve) in Belgium as well as the Academy of European Public Law in Greece (where she received a Diploma in European Public Law, 2003). Prior to undertaking her PhD studies she worked for the Court of Justice of the European Communities in Luxembourg. She is currently involved in research in post-enlargement dynamics of law and language in European Union institutions and the relationship between language, law, and translation in the EU legal order as well as developing research in the field of language, neuroscience, and the law.

Marijke Malsch is a senior researcher at the Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Malsch is also working as an honorary judge at the Appeals Court of Den Bosch and the District Court of Haarlem.

Nancy S. Marder is a Professor of Law at Chicago-Kent College of Law. She is a graduate of Yale College, Cambridge University, and Yale Law School, where she was an articles editor of the Yale Law Journal. She then clerked for Justice John Paul Stevens at the US Supreme Court. She has written numerous articles and a book on the jury, and has presented her work at conferences in the USA and abroad.

Heikki E. S. Mattila is Doctor of Laws, Professor Emeritus of Legal Linguistics (University of Lapland, Finland), and Docent of Comparative Law (University of Helsinki). His research fields include comparative law and comparative legal linguistics, that is studies concerning different legal languages, especially legal Latin and legal French. He also researches general questions of legal language, for example, legal abbreviations. He recently published a general treatise on language(s) and law, Comparative Legal Linguistics (Ashgate, 2006). A second edition of this treatise (2011) is in press.

Liao Meizhen obtained his PhD in linguistics from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. He is a professor of linguistics and associate dean of the School of Foreign Languages, Central China Normal University. His academic interests include pragmatics, forensic linguistics, and metaphor. His representative publications include “Metaphor as a Textual Strategy in English” (Text 9, 2, 1999), “A Study of Interruption in Chinese Criminal Courtroom Discourse” (Text & Talk 29-2, 2009) and A Study on Courtroom Questions, Responses and their Interaction (Law Press, Beijing, 2003). Email:; website:

Sharon Messenheimer is a JD-PhD student in the law-psychology program at Drexel University and Villanova University School of Law. Her research interests include juveniles’ comprehension of Miranda rights, forensic psychological assessment, and the relationship between police interrogation strategies and false confessions.

Janice Nadler is Research Professor at the American Bar Foundation, and Professor of Law at Northwestern University School of Law. She received a JD from the University of California at Berkeley, and a PhD in social psychology from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Her scholarly interests lie at the intersection of law and psychology, and her research focuses on moral intuitions, compliance with the law, perceptions of injustice, negotiation, and dispute resolution.

Mami Hiraike Okawara is Professor and Dean at the Graduate School of Regional Policy, Takasaki City University of Economics, Japan. She is also a conciliation commissioner at Maebashi District Court. She served as a research member of the plain courtroom language project of the Japan Federation of Bar Associations. She received her doctorate in linguistics at Sydney University. Her research interest is the analysis of legal language, with publications of Saiban kara Mita America Shakai (American Society Viewed through Trials, 1998), Shimin kara Mita Saiban-In Saiban (The Saiban-In System Viewed through Lay Persons, 2008) and Saiban Omoshiro Kotoba-Gaku (Peculiar Legal Language Studies, 2009).

Tunde Olusola Opeibi, PhD, is Senior Lecturer in the Department of English, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria. His areas of research interest include sociolinguistics, political communication, language and law, democracy, and governance. He is Nigeria's representative of Clarity (an international association promoting plain legal language). He is also a member of many international scholarly associations, including the International Language and Law Association (ILLA). Presently he is working as the (p. xvii) Senior Special Assistant on Speech & Communication to the Governor of Lagos State, Nigeria.

Peter L. Patrick is Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Essex, and a Member of the Essex Human Rights Centre. His research interests include language variation, Creole languages, applied sociolinguistics, language rights, and forensic linguistics. He was born in New York City and educated in Kingston, Georgia, and Pennsylvania. He is convenor, with Diane Eades, of the Language & Asylum Research Group (LARG) and a co-author of the 2004 Guidelines for the use of language analysis … in refugee cases.

Ralf Poscher is Professor of Public Law and Director of the Institute for Staatswissenschaft and Philosophy of Law, Dep. 2: Philosophy of Law at the Albert-Ludwigs University in Freiburg, Germany. He holds a PhD in Law and was awarded the post-doctorate degree “Habilitation” with the venia legendi for Public Law, History of Constitutional Law and Legal Philosophy, at the Humboldt-University Berlin. His writings include a wide range of topics in public law and jurisprudence. He has published books (in German) about the theory of fundamental rights and the concept of probability in police law and co-authored volumes in domestic and international public law. His most recent writings in English cover jurisprudential questions such as a critique of the principal theory of Robert Alexy, and the Hart–Dworkin debate. In 2007 he held a research fellowship at the University of Osaka, Japan and for the academic year 2007/08 was a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, USA. Together with Geert Keil (Philosophy, Humboldt-University Berlin) he coordinates the research group “Dealing Reasonably with Blurred Boundaries,” funded by the Volkswagen Foundation.

Frances Rock is a Senior Lecturer in Language and Communication at Cardiff University, Wales, UK. Her research interests are in discourse analysis, interactional sociolinguistics, and literacies, drawing on broadly linguistic ethnographic methods. She is currently working on applications of language study to policing and other workplace and legal settings. Her research investigates both written and spoken language. She is an editor of the International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law.

Christina L. Riggs Romaine, MS is a PhD student in the clinical psychology program at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She is currently completing her clinical internship at the University of Massachusetts Medical School/Worcester State Hospital. Her research interests include Miranda comprehension and forensic assessment of juveniles, mental health treatment of offending and at-risk youth, and the effects of trauma on adolescents.

Susan Šarčević is full Professor and Head of the Department of Foreign Languages at the Faculty of Law of the University of Rijeka (Croatia) where she teaches Legal English, Legal German, and EU Terminology. At postgraduate level she teaches Legal Translation at the University of Zagreb and has taught Institutions of the European Union and Translating EU Legislation in Zagreb. She has published extensively on legal translation, (p. xviii) legal lexicography, and multilingual communication in the law and has guest lectured on legal translation worldwide. She heads national projects on EU legal terminology and translation and is a member of various international projects.

Sanford Schane is a Research Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, San Diego, where he continues to offer each year an undergraduate course, “Law and Language”. He has worked with attorneys as a consultant and expert witness. He has published in law reviews and is the author of the book, Language and the Law.

Roger W. Shuy is Distinguished Research Professor of Linguistics, Emeritus, Georgetown University, where he taught graduate seminars in sociolinguistics and language and law. He has testified at trials in over 50 of the 500 criminal and civil cases he's worked on, and before the US Congress and International Criminal Tribunals. Since retiring in 1996, he has published eight books and a number of articles on the intersection of linguistics and law.

Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, emerita (University of Roskilde, Denmark and Åbo Akademi University, Finland), bilingual from birth in Finnish and Swedish, has written or edited around 50 monographs and over 400 articles and book chapters, in 46 languages, about minority education, multilingualism, linguistic human rights, linguistic genocide, the subtractive spread of English, and the relationship between biodiversity and linguistic diversity. She lives on an ecological farm with husband Robert Phillipson. For publications, see

Lawrence M. Solan is the Don Forchelli Professor of Law and Director of the Center for the Study of Law, Language and Cognition at Brooklyn Law School. He holds a PhD in Linguistics from the University of Massachusetts and a JD from Harvard Law School. His writings address such issues as statutory and contractual interpretation, the attribution of responsibility and blame, and the role of the expert in the courts. His books include The Language of Judges, Speaking of Crime (with Peter Tiersma), and The Language of Statutes: Laws and their Interpretation, all published by the University of Chicago Press. Solan has been a visiting professor at the Yale Law School, and in the Psychology Department and Linguistics Program at Princeton University. Prior to joining the Brooklyn Law School faculty in 1996, he was a partner at a New York law firm.

Gail Stygall is professor of English Language at the University of Washington, Seattle. Her work focuses on legal discourse. Recent work has appeared in the Routledge Handbook of Forensic Linguistics (2010), the International Journal of Speech, Language, and the Law (2010), and the Journal of English Linguistics (2008). She is currently working on a book on complex documents—credit card agreements, mortgage disclosure agreements, pension and benefit plans, and EULAs and TOSAs online.

Peter M. Tiersma is the Hon. William Matthew Byrne Professor of Law at Loyola Law School in Los Angeles. He received a PhD in linguistics from the University of California, (p. xix) San Diego, and a JD degree from the University of California, Berkeley. Tiersma has written extensively on the relationship between language and law, including the books Legal Language (1999), Speaking of Crime: The Language of Criminal Justice (2005; with Lawrence Solan), and Parchment, Paper, Pixels: Law and the Technologies of Communication (2010). Website:

J. D. Trout (PhD, Philosophy, Cornell University) is a professor of philosophy and psychology at Loyola University in Chicago. His books include Measuring the Intentional World (Oxford University Press, 1998), Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment (with Michael Bishop; Oxford University Press, 2005), and The Empathy Gap (Viking/Penguin, 2009). His research has been supported by NSF, NEH, and Mellon grants, and his articles have appeared in Philosophy of Science, Psychological Review, Law & Philosophy, and Speech Communication.

David Woolls qualified and practiced as a chartered accountant until his early thirties, then read Theology and Philosophy at Oxford University before discovering both computing and linguistics. Since the late 1980s he has worked closely with universities, in particular Birmingham and Aston in the UK, developing a range of linguistic computer programs as tools to assist both forensic linguists and students. He is now CEO of CFL Software Limited, whose software programs are used by education, the music industry, and the legal profession, among others.

A. Daniel Yarmey received his PhD from the University of Western Ontario and is University Professor Emeritus at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. He conducts research on speaker identification, eyewitness memory and identification, and deception. His books and chapters include The Psychology of Eyewitness Testimony and Understanding Police and Police Work: Psychosocial Issues. He also works as an expert court witness in Canada and the USA.

Heather Zelle, MS is a JD-PhD student in the law-psychology program at Drexel University and Villanova University School of Law. Her research interests focus on the application of social science to the law, including Miranda comprehension, forensic psychological assessment, test development, and mental health treatment of offending and at-risk youth.