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date: 23 September 2019

(p. 629) Index

(p. 629) Index

abbreviationsxviii, 33
ability condition105, 110, 111, 113
absurd result, as limitation on literal reach of language125
acceptance, of offers107, 108
accommodation, in police interviews424
accusations323
acoustic phonetics.See phonetics
acquis communautaire25, 29, 36, 268, 270
acte clair29
active voice41, 77, 380
acts40, 42–3, 49. See also statutes
actus reus340
Adams, John120
adjacency pairs291–2, 323, 376–7
adjectives21, 32, 455–7, 491, 509
admissions, adoptive290–8
adversarial system of justice409–10
Africa, linguistic situation of272–84
Afro-Asiatic273
Alaska254
alternative Question Interrogation technique364
ambiguity88, 128–44
and bilingual interpretation166–8
and perjury trials352
and translation213–4
of reference91–2
semantic89–91
syntactic89, 129
ambush defence323
American Law Institute101
American legal realism146, 149
Andorra261, 267
Anglo-Saxons20
appellate opinions61, 62. See also judgments
arbitration59–60, 88–91, 184, 431
archaic language13, 32 , 77, 406
Arfé resolution268
Arizona253–4
arrest296–7, 313, 356, 370
articles of association63
Articles of Confederation (US)250
assimilation241–4
asylum, process for gaining537–9, 542, 543
seekers of533, 534, 537–9, 543, 545
tribunals534, 539, 543, 546. See also LADO
aural-perceptual analysis547
Austin, JL57, 100–2, 331, 340, 461
Australia535, 538
Austria538
author identification487–516
admissibility500–2
and corpus linguistics504–16
coding491–2
components of author identification methods491–2, 500–2
current methods500–2
forensic vs literary489–90
forensic stylistics499–500
inter-rater reliability497
objectivity of software497
relation to other forensic science490
statistical classifiers493
validation testing490, 494–9
authority, of police328, 332, 335, 337
automatic speaker identification559, 561, 565, 572
bargain109, 113
Basque262, 264, 270
Belgium535, 537, 538
benefit condition105, 111, 113
Bennion, Francis72–3
Bentham, Jeremy17
(p. 630) Bentley, Derek507
Berne Convention of 1886463
bijuralism, and coexistence of civil law and common law162, 170–1
and drafting170–3
bilingualism, additive259
and education257–9
and social services255–7
and voting257
in Canada161–5 169
judgments173–4
subtractive259
biodiversity247
bivalence, principle of134, 136, 138
blackmail345–6
Bologna15
borderline cases46, 88, 99, 129–43, 151
borrowing22, 29, 33–5, 197
and copyright infringement472–3
and plagiarism524–5
Bram v. United States354
bribery345
briefs61–3, 510
Bulgaria270
Burkina Faso279
Burr, Aaron120
bus sweeps334, 335, 338
Byzantium14–15
California116, 259
calques.See loan translations
Canada,264, 538
civil law in162, 164, 170
common law in162, 170
Criminal Code165–6
drafting of federal legislation170–3
equal authenticity rule163–9
equality of French and English versions of Acts159–162, 164
historical context of language rights160, 162–3
legislative bilingualism160–2, 164, 170, 173
Official Languages Act162, 164, 173
particular approach to language rights161, 167, 170–171, 173
shared meaning rule164–9
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, bilingual interpretation169–170
education rights162
language rights160
legislative bilingualism164
official languages161
canon law16
Cardozo, Benjamin88
cases and case law40, 65, 66, 203
Cassation, Court of18, 36, 204
Catalan262–70
caution (police)312–25
non-native speakers324
wording of313, 315. See also Miranda warning
Celts18
Center for Plain Language67
channel mismatch problem565
Charter of Fundamental Rights270–2
China, courtroom discourse in395–407
Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic397–8
Chinese Bookkeeping Act252
Chinese law24
Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States93–4
Circuit City Stores v. Adams89–91
circumstantial evidence389
civil law28, 58–9
co-existence with common law in Canada162, 170–1
development of14–19
harmonization program in Canada171–3
Civil Rights Act of 1964258
Clarity67, 70
clauses, adverbial43–4, 47
main43–5
qualifying48
relative43–7
subordinate43–5, 50
Clinton impeachment351–2
closing arguments380
Code Napoléon17–18
codes and codification17–18, 20
code-switching425
coercion300, 334–8
cognitive development307–8
(p. 631) cognitive load482
Coke, Sir Edward22
Collier, John249
collocations375
colonialism17, 18, 23, 273, 276
Columbus, Christopher248
commands102, 189, 326, 329–32, 336–7, 356
commitment106, 107
common law19–24, 353, 382, 409,
co-existence with civil law in Canada162, 170–3
concepts and terms of,28
drafting conventions58–9
English borrowings in legal languages35
Commonwealth Association of Legislative Counsel70
communication theory188, 193–9
compound words32
compromise213, 267, 411, 419–20
concept (legal), and relation to legal term27–8
conditional promises106, 107, 109, 113
conditions precedent106, 107, 111
confirmation bias412n
Confucian School396–7
conjunctions56, 57
consent315, 322
consent searches326–8, 333, 338–9
consideration108, 109, 110
conspiracy344–45
constative utterances101, 102
Constitution (US)114–27
amending of114, 119, 124, 127
and language rights253, 255, 258
Constitution Act, 1867 (Canada), content of s133 161, 164
equality of French and English versions of Acts159–161, 164
legislative bilingualism160–2, 164
constitutional language, constraint from,117, 125
context of114, 115, 116, 123, 127
designed for long run117
originalist liberties with literal reach125
precise and general116, 117, 123, 125
relevance of social practice115, 116
shrouding normative differences123
contractions317
contracts53, 55, 58–64
bilateral105, 108
drafting and quasi-synonyms of legal terms31
formation of100–13
unilateral105, 108, 110
Convention on the Law of Treaties192
Conversation Analysis,323
conversational maxims.See Cooperative Principle
conversations370, 374
between police and citizens326
by telephone293
covertly recorded342, 343
Coode, George47, 69
Cooperative Principle330, 355, 480
in trademark law480–4
maxim of quantity350
maxim of relation349–50
Copenhagen criteria269
copyright463
and authorship identification469
and plagiarism469
dual submission469n
redundant publication469n
self-plagiarism469
infringement466
length of rights464
Corbin, Arthur108
Corpus Juris Civilis15–16
corpus linguistics41, 458, 470, 504–16
Council of Europe201, 261, 263–4, 266
counterfeiting of goods464
Country of Origin Information (COI)539–540
Court of Justice of the European Union36 200–16, 269
advocates general203–11, 215–16, 222–4
argumentation by217–24, 227, 231
interpretation, canons of217–18, 220, 221 223
(p. 632) interpretative methods of181, 217, 220–31
language of201–12
référendaires203–13, 216
settled case law of218, 220, 223. See also European Commission, translation.
courts, informal423, 431–2
language rights of parties in Canada161
small claims431–2
trial432–433. See also trials
crimes of language, blackmail345–6
bribery345
conspiracy344–5
perjury348–53
solicitation341–4
threatening345–8
Criminal Justice and Public Order Act314
criminal law and procedure, Chinese397–8
Dutch410–12
Critical Legal Studies (CLS)146, 154
CSI effect557, 572
customary law, legal concepts and terms of28–9
Danelaw20
Daubert v Merrill Dow Pharmaceuticals561
deafness325
deconstruction146
decontextualisation324
definitional approach to meaning93–5
democracy126, 127, 133, 139, 280–1. See also direct democracy
Denmark538
derecho foral28
detention312–25
detriment109 see also consideration
developmental immaturity307–9
dialogue320–1. See also discourse; discourse analysis
dictionaries, and author identification509
and interpretation94, 96, 171
and trademark law452
legal terms in37–8
direct democracy118–19, 126–27
discourse40, 47, 181, 316
in American trials369–80
in Chinese trials395–407
in Dutch trials,408–20
in Japanese trials381–94
translation of421–34
discourse analysis61, 562, 566
dispute resolution125
distinctiveness, in trademarks450–1, 454–5, 478–85
diversity, linguistic.See multilingualism
DNA analysis555, 558, 559, 569
domain names468
drugs327, 336, 339
due process116, 122
duress329
Dutch law.See Netherlands
EBLUL268
Ebner-report270
education, bilingual162, 236–9, 257–9
mother-tongue-based multilingual education244–5
elections, in United States118–19, 126
of US state judges118
of US senators118
Eli Research, Inc. v United Communication Group474
encyclopedias, legal terms in37
English, as legal language20–4
as international legal language25–6
as official language in Canada161
as official language in United States250
borrowings into legal languages35
continental usage of legal terms36
limited proficiency in256–7
synonyms in31, 52. See also equal authenticity rule
Enlightenment17, 69
equal authenticity rule (Canada), application to bilingual statutes166–8
current law regarding165–166
as expression of bilingualism principle167
history of164
purpose of164, 165, 167
equal authenticity, principle of190, 192, 197
(p. 633) equal protection117, 123, 254
equality of French and English versions of Acts (Canada), Charter of Rights and
Freedoms160–1, 164
Constitution Act, 1867159–161, 164
in Canada162
in Manitoba162–3, 164
in New Brunswick162, 164
in Ontario162, 164
in Quebec162, 164
ESL, as educational method258
essential condition104, 113
Estonia269
Eurobarometer271
European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages263, 265–70
European Commission268–70
European Court of Justicesee Court of Justice of the European Union
European Parliament265, 268–70
European Union25–26, 175, 177, 178–9, 181–2, 185, 260, 261, 269
directives222–3, 226–7, 230
legal concepts and terms29–30, 33, 35–6, 38
legislation217–8, 222, 225, 231
regulations225–7, 229
treaties218, 225–7
evidence law, documentary408, 409, 410, 411n
hearsay376. See also expert witnesses
excluded middle, law of134, 136
exclusionary rule339
expert witnesses377, 379–80
and police caution322
and asylum534–5, 537–46
in copyright cases461, 471–6
in phonetics557–72
police officers as344–5
Fa versus Li395–7, 407
face-threatening language332, 428
fair use467
false confessions354
FBI343, 561
Federal Rules of Evidence473n. See also Daubert v Merrill Dow Pharmaceuticals
Federal Trademark Dilution Act of 1995453
Federalist Papers505
felicity conditions104–5, 109–13; 331
Fifth Amendment (US Constitution)357
fingerprinting558–60
Finland262, 264
First Amendment (US Constitution)254
electronic means of communicating117
freedom of speech117, 125
freedom of the press117, 125
incorporation into
Fourteenth Amendment121
footing425–6
formulaic language52, 63
Fourteenth Amendment (US Constitution)254
Equal Protection Clause117, 123
free speech protection120
incorporation120
Fourth Amendment (US Constitution)328, 336, 345
Framework Convention265–8, 270
France262, 267
civil code17–18
Franklin, Benjamin250
fraud113
Frederick the Great (of Prussia)17
Free Law theory146n
free speech.See First Amendment
French260
and civil law18–19
and common law20–22
borrowings from34
legal terms27, 29–30, 32–7
use of legal terms in European Union29–30, 33, 36, 38
Friesland19, 262, 264, 268
Friulian262
functional analysis49, 51
futurity condition105, 110, 113
fuzzy logic135
Gaelic262
gay marriage125
generality128, 130, 142, 144
(p. 634) generic structure65–6
Geneva Convention533
genre60–6
German251, 260, 262, 264
Germany16–17, 18, 22, 37, 250, 538
Ghana279
globalized legal order25–26; 175–7, 182–5
gratuitous promises105, 107, 109, 111
Greece262
Greek15
Grice, Paul154, 330, 331, 345, 349–50
Guarantee Clause (US Constitution)126
Guidelines for the Use of Language Analysis535, 537, 538, 542, 544–46
Guinea279
Hague Conventions197–8
Hamer v Sidway107
Hart, H. L. A.149–152
Hayakawa, S.I.253
hearsay295, 376
hedging322
heroin572
Hindu Law29
homicide364
Japanese law of384, 388–94
homonymy129–30, 132
human rights235–7, 280
Hungary261
hypotaxis41, 43, 46
IAFPA (International Association for Forensic Phonetics and Acoustics)560, 561, 570
IATE38
Iceland18
if-clauses64
illocutions, types of102–4, 108
immediacy409, 411n
immersion, as educational method258
immigration253
and asylum427–430
indeterminacy6, 88, 114, 128–9, 132–6, 146–9, 151–5, 290
indictments62, 383, 412–3
indigenous/tribal peoples235–247
in North America248–50
Indonesia17
inferences.See Cooperative Principle
inquisitorial system of justice409–10
insurance policies61, 62, 64
Inter-Active Terminology for Europe38
interdiscursivity66
International Commission of Enquiry562
International Plain Language Working Group67
International Trademark Association449
interpretation of statutes87–99, 145–55
intentionalism154
interpretation vs. construction15–5
judicial discretion149–52
legislative intent87, 97, 152–154, 155
linguistics145
literary theory145
methods of217–31
of multilingual texts197, 199
purpose91
teleological217, 220–31
translation errors229–31
uniform interpretation and application of EU Law217, 218, 220, 222–3, 231
interpreters, and police caution324–5
consecutive421, 422, 431, 432
in African courts282
in asylum proceedings539, 540, 541
simultaneous421, 422, 432
interrogation295–8, 312–25, 354–66, 425
in inquisitorial system411, 416
interpreters’ role in423–7
maximization363, 365
minimization363, 365
offers made during361–2
phases of360
promises of leniency,354, 365–6
sympathetic detective with a time-limited offer361, 362
theme development method363–5
intertextuality66
intoxicants326, 571–2
invasion of privacy465
investigation, documentary method of411
interview312–25
preliminary410, 411
Ireland538
Islamic law24
Italy15, 260, 262, 264
ITMs (Indigenous/tribal peoples and minorities/minoritised groups)235, 243–7
Jefferson, Thomas23, 120
judges36; 314, 321
and constitutional interpretation123, 125, 126, 127
judicial discretion,114, 126
role in US trials376
Judges’ Rules314
judgments15, 18, 24, 63–6,
Canadian173
Chinese404–7
in European Court of Justice203–8.See also interpretation of statutes
judicial opinions.See judgments.
judicial review115, 127
Julius Caesar19
juries, and police caution314, 323
common-sense judgment of435
deliberations of435, 436, 438, 439,440, 442
fair-cross-section requirement435
foreperson438
impartiality of435, 436
interviews with440–1
peremptory challenges to436. See also jury instructions
jurists (Roman law)14
jury instructions23
Arizona's441, 443
audiotape or videotape of442
California's439, 443
empirical studies of436, 438, 439, 440, 441, 444–5
final438, 441, 444
headings for442
juror comprehension of436, 441
jury instruction committees436, 437, 439, 440, 441, 443, 444, 445
legal language in436, 439
legal phrases and concepts in437, 439
pattern436, 437, 438, 439, 442
plain language439, 441, 445
PowerPoint presentation of442–3
preliminary436, 438
presentation of436, 438–9, 441, 444, 445
questions about438, 444, 445
written copy of439, 441, 442, 445
jury trials.See trials
jus commune16
Justinian, emperor14–15
juveniles, linguistic abilities of301–2
Khoisan274
Killilea report269
Kripke, Saul146–147
Kuijpers resolution268
LADO (Language Analysis for Determination of Origin)533–46; 558, 572
Landrecht (Prussia)17
language analysis, of asylum seekers533–5, 542–4
language attitudes536, 539, 544
language crimes.See crimes of language
language for special purposes27, 31–2
language minority263–4
language policy, African275–81
Canadian159, 160–1, 163, 167, 171
European261–71
United States248–60
language socialization536, 537, 544
language testing534, 541
language versions, comparison of218–219, 223, 230
equal authenticity of217–218, 231
linguistic discrepancies between217–27, 229–31
language, philosophy of.See philosophy of language.
Latin15–16, 20–2, 25
borrowings into modern legal languages31–7
Latvia237, 239, 269
Lau v Nichols258
(p. 636) law merchant16
law reports63
law reviews63
learning disabilities302, 317
legal documents, drafting conventions of58–9
operative63
primary and secondary63. See also contracts, cases, orders, statutes, wills
legal education16–17
legal language1, 4, 52–3
African281–2
and genre52–66
in the courtroom383
grammar of39–51, 56–7
history of13–26
jury instructions436, 439
obscurity of32
plain language movement of68–74
relation to ordinary language31
translation of189, 194, 216
variability of510, 513
vocabulary of27–38
legal profession, origins of13, 20–4, 46
legal realism,see American legal realism
legal reasoning179, 205, 219–20, 223, 231
and first-order arguments220, 224, 227
and second-order arguments220, 222–3, 224
legalese22, 69, 71–5, 78, 82, 383
Legalist School (China)396–7
legislation7, 17, 40, 42, 44, 50
application of written laws to later events117
delegated63
drafting conventions58–9
leniency, promises of during interrogation354, 365–6
lex mercatoria16
lexis316
Lichtenstein261
likelihood ratios569–71
Lincoln, Abraham124
linguistic discrepancysee language versions
linguistic diversity7, 171, 246–50, 261, 270–5 See also multilingualism
linguistic genocide238, 245–6
linguistic human rights235–47
linguistic minoritiessee minorities
Liparota v. United States89
living constitutionalism114, 115, 125, 127
loan translations29, 34–5
Malta210, 261
Manitoba Act, 1870162–3, 164
Marbury v Madison127
markedness478–82, 485, 515
Marshall, John127
Marshall, Thurgood297
maxims of jurisprudence21
maxims, pragmatic.See Cooperative Principle
meaning, disputes over508–10
of words93–6, 176–7
changes over time95–6
ordinary meaning approach to93–5
word meaning vs. speaker meaning148–9, 154. See also interpretation
mediators428, 429
mens rea340
mental health310, 317
Mercator network268
metaphor138, 380, 457–8
Meyer v Nebraska251
Mills v Wyman110
minorities7, 235–47, 257, 260; 280, 541, 544
in Canada159–60, 164
in EU261–71
Miranda rights288, 295–297, 300, 306, 313–5, 354, 426, 427
administration of warning303
and juveniles300–1
and interrogation355–9
and mental illness309–10
and reading level304
sentence complexity of304
vocabulary of305
waiver of300–1, 307
wording of300, 303–6, 311. See also caution
Miranda v. Arizonasee Miranda rights
misappropriation of identity465
mixed legal systems24, 193
(p. 637) Monaco261, 267
monolingual reductionism246
Moraes report270
Moskal v. United States95–6
Mowry v. Viacom International, Inc.476
multilingualism, and determination of origin541
and translation188–99
in Africa274–5, 278
in EU270
in the asylum process535, 536, 537, 541
interpretation217–31
multilingual legal order176- 81
multivalued logic135–6
Muslim Law29
narrative371–5, 377–80, 429, 432
Native American languages248–50, 255, 257, 260
native speakers, as language analysts536–46
natural kinds138, 148–9
naturalization29, 34, 195, 421
Nebraska251–2, 348
negotiation, as a model for procuring confessions359–63
of blame417
of meaning424
neologisms25, 29–30, 33, 36, 195
Netherlands18, 262, 408–20, 535, 538, 562
New Brunswick164
New Zealand23, 69, 236
Law Commission72
Nigeria273–82
Niger-Saharan273
Nilo-Saharan273
Nineteenth Amendment (US Constitution)118
nominalization, nominal structures46–7, 77
nominalized verbs forms41, 47
non-discrimination161, 239, 242–3
positive242. See also human rights
non-expectancy condition105, 110, 112–3
Norman Conquest20
Norway537–8
oaths20, 52, 61–2
objectivity114, 119, 122, 125, 127, 419
absurd results125
and grammatical structure32
historical inquiry115, 116
interpretational stability114, 119
restraint through114, 115
obligations, in contract law106, 107
rights and1, 7, 69, 88, 189
offers, and contract law105–10
during interrogation361–2
official languages, in Canada162, 164, 173
in United States,253–5
one-right-answer-thesis138, 141
Ontario163–4, 166
open texture140
of law149–52
opening statements370, 374–5
original intention, consensus116
held by individual116–17
mix of reasons117
precise and general116
public school segregation117
relationship to original meaning122, 123
relationship to persons121
relevance of context123–24
summing problem115–16
role of original applications123, 125
use by
originalists115
originalism.See original intention.
OSCE (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe)242, 244–5, 261, 264–5, 270–1
Oxford English Dictionary457, 509,
parataxis41, 43, 46
Parliament (Canada), bijuraral nature of161–2, 170–1
equality of French and English versions of Acts162, 164
legislative bilingualism161, 162
(European)38, 201 265, 268–70
(Germany)130
(New Zealand)72
(UK)22, 40–3, 49, 314, 513
(p. 638) passive voice41, 50, 346, 380
patents463–5, 472
Peirce, Charles S.176
Pennsylvania249–50
People v Montecinos364
people's assessor (China)398–401, 405
performatives49–50, 57–8, 63, 101–2, 340–1. See speech acts
perjury5, 348–53
false statement requirement348
literal truth defense349–50
materiality348–9
Philippines252
phonetics3, 454–5, 535, 540, 546, 557–72
phonology3, 540, 558, 562–5, 568
in trademark law478, 480–6
phonoscopy560
plagiarism7–8
and copyright469–75
electronic detection of514, 517–9, 525, 528
automated517–29
word strings521
digital fingerprints531–23
program design518–9, 526
indexing521, 522
word matching524, 526–7
fuzziness525
similarity519, 525–7
expected levels527
lexical525
percentages528–9
word forms527
word-types526
digital fingerprints521–3
PLAIN (Plain Language Association InterNational)67, 70
Plain English Foundation67
plain language32, 50, 67–83, 439, 441–5
advantages of71–2
approach to statutory interpretation94, 97
attitudes to70, 72–5
example of78–82
definition of67–8
disadvantages of72–3
history of68–70
techniques of76–8, 79–82
plain meaning approach to statutory interpretation.See plain language
plainers67–72, 78–9
pleas and pleading63, 370–3
Poland and Polish261, 509, 514–16
Police and Criminal Evidence Act314
Police Codes of Practice313–4, 324
police, cautioning suspects312–25
interpreters423–8
interrogations295–8, 354–66, 423–6
language and demeanor326, 331, 332
powers of314
register of507–8
role in inquisitorial systems409–12. see also consent, interrogation, speech acts
politeness326–9, 333, 335–6, 338–9, 388, 427–8, 491
political parties free speech rights121
original disdain for118
party loyalty118
relevance of Twelfth Amendment120–1
role in presidential selection118, 119, 120–1
role in senatorial selection118
polysemy30–1, 130, 132
positivism149
postmodernism146
pragmatics289–90, 297, 313; 329–32, 468, 475
and disputed meanings508–9
equivalence432
implicature329–6, 355–65
in authorship identification491
in trademarks479–80,
precedent21, 23, 40, 63, 66, 71, 203
and constitutional interpretation119, 125–6
preexisting duty112–3
prepositional phrases47, 305, 491, 515
president (United States), age requirement116–7
election of118–20
private international law35
promises330–1
(p. 639) during interrogation354, 365–6
in crime341, 347
in contract law64, 101–13
propositional component320, 404–7
protection of minoritiessee language policy
prototype analysis94–5, 139
psychosocial maturity308
Puerto Ricans, and voting257
Quantization482–5
Quebec, Charter of the French Language159, 162, 164
questioning of suspects.See interrogation
questions, and perjury349–53
and truth value330–1
as threats348
by jurors442–5
in courtroom370–9, 399–401, 417, 420
interpretation of426–8
set-up questions in interrogation359–63, 366. See also interrogation
recency and primacy374, 380
reference, anaphoric41, 54–56
exophoric55
theories of148–9, 155. See alsoambiguity
refugees264, 429–30, 533–8, 540, 543. See also LADO
register32, 274, 504, 507–8
Reid Method of Interrogation359, 363–4
relative clauses and relative pronouns43–7, 53–4, 317
rights, affirmative242
civil,314
collective236, 240–4, 247
educational236–47
expressive243–4
individual236, 240, 242–4, 247
instrumental rights243–4
language rights235–6
negative242
of criminal suspects312–25
Rome (ancient) and Roman law13–17, 19, 108
treaty of202, 261
Ruiz v Hull254
rule of law2–3, 128, 134, 141–4, 148–9, 153, 201, 203, 213, 334, 398, 407
Rumania261, 270
Russia and Russian29, 184, 201, 248, 256, 261, 429, 431, 562
saiban-in system381–9, 394
San Marino261
Scalia, Antonin87, 93, 96, 117, 125–6, 335
search and seizure328–9, 334, 337
Searle, John100–2, 104, 110, 112–3
selection bias457
self defense363–4, 387, 398
self-incrimination287–8, 297, 306, 314
semantics3, 133–7, 140, 316, 330, 449
in authorship attribution491
in LADO540
in trademark law455, 459
semantics of plagiarism524–7, 529
semiosis176–8, 183–5
semiotics145, 468,
Senate (US), state legislative selection117–18
two for each state116
sentences (linguistic)43
length of41–42, 50
as copyright unit467–71
service marks55, 57, 65, 463
Seventeenth Amendment (US Constitution)118
Seventh Amendment (US Constitution)435
shared meaning rule164–9
sidebars376
Sierra Leone275
Krio541
silence, communicative function of288–90
in police questioning295–8
interpretation as admission of guilt290–8
right to remain silent287–8, 312–25, 358, 426
sincerity104,108, 113, 341, 347–48
Sixth Amendment (US Constitution)435
Small v. United States94
(p. 640) Socialist law16, 29, 35, 397
sociolinguistics61–2, 316, 468, 536–7, 541–2, 545, 566, 571
solicitation341–44
Somalia and Somali274–5, 539, 541
Sorani541
Sorites Paradox134–8, 141
South Africa190, 193, 236, 275, 278–9, 281–4
South Tyrol262
Spain14, 18, 21, 28, 190, 243, 248, 262, 270, 409, 469, 495
Spanish Civil Code88
speaker identification, and comparison557–72
and false alarm rates vs. hit rates547, 553, 555
and familiarity547, 552–3
and listener's age549–0
and multiple offenders554
and retention interval554
and stress552
and telephone effects554
and witness confidence551
blind listeners551
ethnicity and550–1
gender differences in549
interspeaker and intraspeaker variability548–9
linguistic-acoustic methods557–572
research regarding547–8. See also voice lineups, voices
speech acts5–6, 57, 331–2, 340–1, 355, 383, 449, 473–4
and contract formation100–13
autonomous105
cooperative105, 106
explicit102
implicit102–4
illocutionary force49–51, 340
performative49–50, 340–1
perlocutionary effect340–8. See also illocutions, performatives, promises, threats.
speech community177, 351, 509, 516, 536–7, 544–5, 569
speech pathology569, 570
St. Martin's Press and Robert Sikorsky v Vicker's Petroleum Corporation472
statutes, as genre52, 58, 61, 62, 63
language of15, 17, 20–3, 39–40, 49–50, 72–3
multilingual163–6. See also legislation, interpretation
statutory interpretation.See interpretation
subordination41, 43–4, 46
suicide notes469, 495, 512
supervaluationism135–6, 138
Swahili275–6, 279, 538
Sweden69, 264, 268, 535, 538, 562
Switzerland190, 192–3, 349–50, 495, 537
syntax40–1, 44, 316
complexity41–3, 46, 50
coordination41, 43, 46
embedding45–6
genre and53–4, 179
in authorship identification491, 500, 503, 513
left-branching44–6
nested44–6, 50
right-branching44–6, 48, 50
trademarks455–6
translation/interpretation of191, 425, 433. See also ambiguity, clauses
tada (“except that”, etc,)388–93
teleological interpretation.See interpretation
telephone transmission548, 568, 571
term banks37–8, 195
textbooks63, 65–6, 190, 193, 258, 477, 510, 562
texts53–60
complexity53–4
mapping56
schematization59–60
translation of188–93, 196–8
Thomas, Clarence126
threats100, 345–8, 463
trade secrets7, 463, 474
trademarks7–8, 343, 450–62, 463–4, 468, 477, 478–86
arbitrary and fanciful453, 481–3
confusion450, 461, 482
consumer surveys461
dilution450, 453–4
(p. 641) generic, descriptive, and suggestive457–60, 481–3
linguistic analysis of454–6
markedness and478, 480–6
tests452, 457
Trading with the Enemy Act251
traffic stops327–8, 332, 336
training, of interpreters325
of police319–20
translation (legal)37–8, 182, 185
accuracy and legal reliability188, 190, 192 + n.4, 198
assessing difficulty of188
comparative conceptual analysis188
conceptual incongruity194–6
cultural aspects of188, 193–4
from Latin16
functional approach195
goal of191–3, 198
incongruity of legal systems and cultures193–4
interlingual concordance192, 198
legal equivalence192–93, 197, 198
literal translation191, 195
of police caution325
role of comparative law188, 195–6
source and target legal systems188, 193
theory of188–91
translation for informational purposes190–1
translation (methods), lexical expansion and contraction197
linguistic equivalents195
literal22–3, 25, 29
use of borrowings197
use of calques34, 195
use of descriptive and explanatory phrases195, 197
use of footnotes191
use of functional equivalents196
use of methods of comparative law195–6
use of neologism25, 36, 195
use of neutral terms197
translators, competence needed188, 189, 198–9
growing demand for189
interdisciplinary training198
legal expertise198–9
sworn translators191
treaties, with Native American tribes249. See names of individual treaties
Treaty of Lisbon262, 271
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)202
trials and trial procedure, 12 Angry Men 440
American369–80
and police caution322
capital cases,436, 440–1
in China395–407
judge's role435–6
language of15, 21, 369–70
truth conditions330–2
truth value gaps135
Turkey14, 241, 267
Twelfth Amendment (US Constitution)120–1
Twenty-Sixth Amendment (US Constitution)118
Ukraine261
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)535
UN International War Crimes Tribunal562
UNDRIP237, 241, 247
UNESCO238; 274–5
Universal Copyright Convention of 1952463
United Kingdom (UK)23, 262, 270, 297, 509–13, 520, 526, 528, 535, 537–40, 542–543, 560, 562
conclusion framework569–571. See also caution
United Nations33, 175, 184–5, 201, 236, 245, 247, 261–4, 533, 535
United States2, 5, 8, 264, 303, 326–28, 341–2, 370, 380, 401, 409, 495, 511, 535, 542
Constitution of114–28, 152–3, 463
intellectual property in464–7, 470
(p. 642) interrogation practices in354–66
language policy of248–60
legal language in21, 23, 28, 33–5, 37
plain language movement in67, 69
statutory interpretation in87–99
United States v. Granderson91–2
United States v. Locke97
United States v. Marshall98
US Secret Service562
vagueness88, 92–5, 151
chilling effect of144
classificatory131, 133
combinatory131–2
higher-order136, 140, 144
of degree131–2, 134–5
of identity137
of individuation131, 133
of object137
ontological137
pragmatic133–4
reflexivity of129
semantic133–4
valid exchange (in contract)109–10, 113
validation of authorship identification490, 494–9
variation, in speech540, 541, 544
Vatican City261
verbs30, 32, 71, 76–7, 425, 493
in forensic linguistics515–6, 555–6
modal auxiliary316, 317
nominalized41, 47
performative49–50, 101–4, 341
verdicts61–2, 65, 135, 382, 404, 406, 412, 436, 440
Vikings20
Virginia95, 124, 126, 250
vocabulary.See terms (legal)
voice comparison.See speaker identification
voice lineups, and showups549, 551–5
research regarding554–5
voiceprints559–61, 567
voices, and evolutionary theory548
descriptions of547–8, 551–2
disguise of553
parameters of548
quality of548
speaker distortion of548, 552–3
void-for-vagueness-doctrine128, 130
voir dire370, 373–4, 435
voting, in United States115–9, 257. See also elections
Wales19, 268 409
caution in312–25
warnings474, 558
threats and346. See caution, Miranda rights
Warsaw Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air196–7
Webster's Third New International Dictionary458
wedding ceremonies61, 101
Welsh19, 262, 270, 324
West Virginia124, 126
wills20, 40, 61–4, 145, 152–3, 190, 449, 469
WIPO Copyright Treaty of 2002463
witnesses, confidence of551
descriptions and identification of persons551–2
in Dutch trials411–13
jury's questioning of445
Wittgenstein, Ludwig139, 141m 146–51
World War I236, 251
World War II69, 201, 236, 253, 560
wrongful convictions354
Wyoming116
Yniguez v Arizonans for Official English254
Yorkshire Ripper hoaxer558, 567–8
Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act314
Yu Cong Eng v Trinidad252