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date: 16 December 2019

(p. xiii) Figures (and map)

(p. xiii) Figures (and map)

Figures

  1. 1.1 Latin America's relative per capita GDP 9

  2. 1.2 Latin America's poverty 22

  3. 2.1 Growth rates of population and per capita GDP, 1500–1820 and 1820–2001, by region 30

  4. 3.1 Policy Index across countries 62

  5. 3.2 Civil Service Development Index 69

  6. 3.3 Party system institutionalization, programmatic orientation, and the quality of policies 71

  7. 4.1 Latin American structural reform index average (1985–2002) 84

  8. 4.2(a) Latin American inflation, 1990–2000 85

  9. 4.2(b) Latin American inflation, selected countries, 1990–2000 85

  10. 4.3(a) Latin American budget balance, selected countries, 1990–9 86

  11. 4.3(b) Latin American public debt, selected countries, 1990–9 86

  12. 4.4 International financial liberalization index, 1973–2002 88

  13. 4.5 Latin America and East Asia: Gross Domestic Savings, 1970–2008 89

  14. 4.6 Latin American capital markets reform implementation, 1990–2002 90

  15. 4.7 Latin American advance of reforms, 1989–99 91

  16. 4.8 Latin America and East Asia: relative GDP per capita, 1980–2006 92

  17. 4.9 International education expenditure vs. PISA scores, 2006 102

  18. 5.1 Tendency towards the overvaluation of the exchange rate 115

  19. 6.1 Latin America and the Caribbean: changes in soil usage 133

  20. 6.2 Select countries: evolution of energy intensity and GDP per capita (1990–2005) 136

  21. 6.3 Latin America and the Caribbean: proportion of land areas covered by forest 138

  22. 6.4 Gross Savings and Adjusted Net Savings 144

  23. 6.5 Latin America and the Caribbean: frequency of hydro-meteorological events, 1970–2009 149

  24. 6.6 Latin America and the Caribbean: coupling among GDP, energy, and CO2 emissions 151

  25. (p. xiv) 7.1 Latin America: country risk and stock exchange prices, 1990–2004 169

  26. 7.2 Latin America (19): GDP growth instability, 1990–2009 174

  27. 7.3 Latin America (19): external shocks and growth of aggregate demand, 1990–2009 175

  28. 7.4 Latin America (19): GDP and aggregate demand, 1990–2009 176

  29. 7.5 Latin America (19): net capital inflows and real exchange rate, 1980–2009 177

  30. 8.1 Argentina: bilateral RER with the US, deflated by CPI indexes 207

  31. 8.2 Brazil: Bilateral RER with the US, deflated by CPI indexes 208

  32. 8.3 Chile: Bilateral RER with the US, deflated by CPI indexes 208

  33. 8.4 Colombia: bilateral RER with the US, deflated by CPI indexes 209

  34. 8.5 Mexico: bilateral RER with the US, deflated by CPI indexes 209

  35. 8.6 Peru: bilateral RER with the US, deflated by CPI indexes 210

  36. 9.1 Average inflation and volatility 215

  37. 9.2 Quarterly year-on-year GDP growth rates in crisis periods 217

  38. 9.3 Interest rates in crisis periods 218

  39. 9.4 Nominal exchange rates in crisis periods 219

  40. 9.5 Exchange rate regimes 221

  41. 9.6 Deposit dollarization in select economies 225

  42. 9.7 External and fiscal vulnerabilities 227

  43. 9.8 External accounts and the real exchange rate in Mexico 234

  44. 10.1 Credit/GDP ratio and per capita GDP 249

  45. 10.2 Stock market capitalization/GDP ratio and per capita GDP 249

  46. 10.3 Stock market capitalization/GDP ratio and private credit/GDP ratio 250

  47. 10.4 Corporate bonds/GDP ratio and private credit/GDP ratio 251

  48. 10.5 The functional approach to financial development 260

  49. 10.6 Financial structure, dysfunctions, and regulations 262

  50. 11.1 Tax rates: value-added tax, individual income tax, corporation income tax 270

  51. 11.2 Latin America: initial primary spending levels (1995) and increases (1995–2008) 272

  52. 11.3 Social spending as a share of GDP 273

  53. 11.4 Discretionary fiscal policy response to cyclical conditions 276

  54. 11.5 The stabilizing role of government size 277

  55. 11.6 Country correlations between the cyclical components of net capital inflows and real GDP, 1960–2003 279

  56. 11.7 Subnational over general government's expenditure 282

  57. 11.8 Measures of sustainability: required vs. observed primary fiscal surpluses 286

  58. 11.9 Public debt and sovereign rating (1995–2005) 288

  59. (p. xv) 11.10 Share of domestic debt over total debt and GDP per capita, average for 2000–4 288

  60. 12.1 Fiscal policy measures, Latin American and OECD countries 296

  61. 12.2 Composition of revenue and expenditure in Latin American and OECD countries, regional averages, 1990–2006 299

  62. 12.3 Redistribution of income by means of taxes and transfers in Europe and Latin America, in selected countries 306

  63. 12.4 Education: spending and results in OECD countries and selected emerging countries 308

  64. 14.1 Date of implementation of Latin American trading agreements 348

  65. 14.2 Trade flows and openness in postwar Latin America 354

  66. 14.3 Structure of the FTAA negotiations 360

  67. 14.4 The proliferation of trade agreements in the Americas 365

  68. 15.1 Wage gap between workers with high education vs. medium education 385

  69. 17.1 Relationship between GDP growth, HDI changes, and natural resources 426

  70. 17.2 Relationship between HDI components' growth and natural resources 426

  71. 18.1 FDI inflows to and outflows from Latin American countries, 1990–2008 439

  72. 18.2 Origin of FDI flows to Latin America, 1999–2003 and 2004–8 443

  73. 18.3 Sectoral distribution of inward FDI, 1998, 2007 444

  74. 18.4 OFDI by investor countries, 1994–2008 453

  75. 19.1 Latin American exports to China 463

  76. 19.2 Manufacturing exports 470

  77. 19.3 Share of total manufacturing export growth, 2000–6 471

  78. 20.1 Latin America: gross annual migration flow to USA and Spain, 1997–2007 497

  79. 20.2 Age structure by sex of Latin American migrants: USA and Spain, 2008 501

  80. 20.3 Population growth of 20–49-year-olds by migratory status: USA and Spain, 2002–7 502

  81. 20.4 Sex ratio of Latin American immigrants in USA and Spain, 1996–2008 505

  82. 20.5 Latin American immigrants by level of education and region of origin: USA and Spain, 2007 506

  83. 20.6 Economic activity rates by sex: USA and Spain, 2007 509

  84. 20.7 Latin American immigrants by employment sector and sex: USA and Spain, 2007 510

  85. (p. xvi) 20.8 Latin American immigrants in selected occupations by sex: USA and Spain, 2007 511

  86. 21.1 Relationship between export sophistication and GDP per capita, 2005 526

  87. 21.2 Visual representation of the product space 532

  88. 21.3 The “open forest” at different GDP levels 534

  89. 21.4 Distance to the quality frontier in existing export products 535

  90. 22.1 Traverse in development process and hysteresis 550

  91. 22.2 Productivity gap between Latin America and the technological frontier 560

  92. 22.3 Productivity and structural change: Latin America and the USA, 1990–2007 561

  93. 23.1 Brazil's GDP per capita as a multiple of India's GDP per capita, and Mexico's as a multiple of Vietnam's, 1950–2008 572

  94. 23.2 Latin America and other regions: GDP growth, 1950–80 and 1980–2008 573

  95. 23.3 Mexico and Thailand: Output, employment, and productivity, 1950–2008 574

  96. 23.4 Productivity growth: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Peru vs. China, Indonesia, and Taiwan, 1950–2008 576

  97. 23.5 Latin America and five Asian economies: TFP, 1960–2004 577

  98. 23.6 Investment patterns in Latin America and Asia, 1950–2008 580

  99. 23.7 Latin America and other developing regions: public investment as a share of GDP, 1970–2008 582

  100. 23.8 Brazil and Chile: growth of non-residential investment per worker and of productivity per hour, 1950–2008 583

  101. 23.9 Latin America and Asia: growth rate of investment per worker and of labor productivity, 1950–80 and 1990–2008 584

  102. 23.10 Latin America: the contrasting fortunes of employment and labor productivity in the post-reform period, 1990–2008 586

  103. 23.11 Latin America's “flexible” labor markets, 1990–2008 588

  104. 23.12 Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Chile: relative productivity gaps with the US 593

  105. 23.13 Exports and GDP growth in four developing regions, 1990–2008 595

  106. 23.14 “Anti-clockwise” export trajectories between the 1960s and 1990s 596

  107. 23.15 Latin America: the neglect of manufacturing and the post-1980 process of de-industrialization 600

  108. 24.1 Average annual rate of growth in agricultural added value and total GDP, 1979/81–2005/7 627

  109. 25.1 Latin America and the Caribbean: energy demand, 2007 637

  110. 25.2 Latin America and the Caribbean, 1971 and 2005: total fuel consumption by sector 638

  111. 25.3(a) Oil reserves by country, 2000 and 2008 639

  112. (p. xvii) 25.3(b) Gas reserves by country, 2000 and 2008 640

  113. 25.4 Latin America: state enterprise and foreign direct investments, 2000–8 646

  114. 25.5 Latin America and the Caribbean: FDI in the oil sector 647

  115. 26.1 Survey measures of infrastructure quality 667

  116. 26.2 Infrastructure quantity, quality, growth, and inequality 671

  117. 26.3 Growth changes across regions due to infrastructure development 673

  118. 26.4 Total infrastructure investment in Latin America 676

  119. 26.5 Private sector participation in infrastructure 680

  120. 27.1 Gini coefficients: countries around the world 693

  121. 27.2 Latin American excess inequality 694

  122. 27.3 Inequality in Latin America and the world 695

  123. 27.4 Gini coefficients: Latin America, 1980–2008 696

  124. 27.5 Inequality Argentina 701

  125. 27.6 Inequality in Brazil: Gini coefficient, 1981–2007 704

  126. 27.7 Inequality in Mexico: Gini coefficient, 1984–2006 707

  127. 28.1 Human Development Index value trends in LAC, 1990, 2000, and 2006 728

  128. 28.2 Evolution of multidimensional poverty in Latin America 732

  129. 28.3 Multidimensional poverty in Latin America: urban vs. rural 733

  130. 28.4 Evolution of poverty in Latin America by dimension, 1992–2006 734

  131. 28.5 Multidimensional and income poverty 737

  132. 29.1(a) Growth of GDP per capita in developing countries, excluding China and India, 1970–2009 747

  133. 29.1(b) Growth of GDP per capita in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1970–2009 747

  134. 29.2 Latin America: trade shocks of countries grouped by sector of export specialization, 2001–10 749

  135. 29.3 Latin America: primary deficit and public infrastructure investment, 1980–2001 751

  136. 29.4 Poverty-growth relationship in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1990 to mid-2000s 752

  137. 29.5 Latin America: urban employed population with health and/or pension coverage in selected Latin American countries 754

  138. 29.6 Latin America and Caribbean: relationship between share of own account and contributing family workers in employment and GDP per capita, mid-2000s 754

  139. 30.1 Unemployment rate and growth of GNP: Latin America and the Caribbean, 1980–2009 771

  140. 30.2 Informal economy by country, 2008 777

  141. 30.3 Informal economy: employment structure in Latin America, 2008 779

  142. 30.4 Social security coverage by sector and contract 780

  143. 31.1 Number of reforms: Latin America, 1985–2009 799

  144. (p. xviii) 31.2 Number of countries implementing reforms: Latin America, 1985–2009 799

  145. 31.3 External flexibility by executive ideology 801

  146. 31.4 Personal security by executive ideology 803

  147. 32.1 Average years of schooling for 1938–40 and 1968–70 birth cohorts 814

  148. 32.2 Age-enrollment profiles for Chile and Honduras 815

  149. 32.3 Maximum schooling, average years in school, and average years of schooling in Chile and Honduras 821

  150. 32.4 Percentage of students who attain given levels of reading proficiency 827

  151. 32.5 Latin American performance in international tests 828

  152. 33.1 Chronology of major innovations in social protection in LAC 840

  153. 33.2 Old age pension coverage: contributory and non-contributory 843

  154. 34.1 Number of dependents per formal worker 870

  155. 34.2 Employed persons registered with social security: Latin America, c. 2006 872