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date: 28 February 2020

(p. xi) List of Figures

(p. xi) List of Figures

  1. 2.1 Growth and changes in African archaeology from 1947–2005 18

  2. 2.2 Sites, locations, and areas mentioned in Chapter 2 19

  3. 2.3 The recovery of the dugout canoe from Dufuna, northeastern Nigeria 22

  4. 2.4 Ground plan of the eastern unit in the stone-walled settlement at Boschoek, near Johannesburg, South Africa 27

  5. 3.1 Interlacustrine East Africa, with the Bigo and Rugomora Mahe sites highlighted 38

  6. 3.2 Location of Buhaya in northwestern Tanzania 39

  7. 3.3 The kikale or palace of Rugomora Mahe (1650–1675), Buhaya, Tanzania 40

  8. 3.4 Kaiija Tree, Buhaya, Tanzania (c. 1970) 41

  9. 3.5 The landscape around Kaiija Tree, Buhaya, Tanzania 42

  10. 4.1 Outline distribution of Africa's language families 50

  11. 4.2 Potential overlaps between the distributions of Cushitic and Khoe speakers 57

  12. 7.1 The chief of Sukur's compound, northern Cameroon 91

  13. 7.2 Decoration of pottery, northern Cameroon 93

  14. 7.3 Learning how to make pottery, eastern Tigray, Ethiopia 94

  15. 7.4 Iron smelting in northern Cameroon 95

  16. 8.1 Examples of African stone artefacts 104

  17. 8.2 Key processes and terms involved in percussion flaking 106

  18. 8.3 Schematic representation of the process of manufacturing a Levallois point and a Levallois flake 111

  19. 9.1 Pottery collected from the coastal region of Congo-Kinshasa, early 20th century 118

  20. 9.2 An Ila (Zambia) potter employing the coil-building technique 121

  21. 10.1 A typical iron smelting site, Tswapong Hills, Botswana 132

  22. 10.2 A tall natural draught furnace from Malawi 134

  23. 10.3 A low shaft furnace decorated with breasts and waist belt, Nyanga National Park, Zimbabwe 135

  24. 10.4 A bowl furnace used in southern Africa 135

  25. 10.5 Transmitted plane polarized photomicrograph of Late Iron Age tin slag from the Rooiberg, South Africa 139

  26. (p. xii) 11.1 An example of the Central African geometric tradition art including rare examples of handprints 146

  27. 11.2 San rock art, southern uKhahlamba-Drakensberg, South Africa 148

  28. 11.3 The release of supernatural potency by a dying eland, San rock art, South Africa 149

  29. 11.4 Khoekhoen tradition rock engravings from the central interior of South Africa 149

  30. 11.5 Northern Sotho boys’ initiation rock art from northern South Africa 150

  31. 11.6 Settlement pattern rock engraving from eastern South Africa 151

  32. 11.7 Red geometric tradition rock paintings from central Malawi 152

  33. 11.8 Boys’ initiation rock art from central Malawi linked to the nyau secret society 152

  34. 11.9 Human forms in the hunter-gatherer rock art of central Tanzania 153

  35. 11.10 Paintings of Maa-speaker cattle brands, western Kenya 154

  36. 11.11 ‘Ethiopian-Arabian’ tradition rock art from Ethiopia 155

  37. 11.12 Bovidian period rock paintings, southeastern Algeria 156

  38. 12.1 Ritual figurines in situ, Yikpabongo, Ghana 165

  39. 12.2 Ceramic spread and accompanying stone arrangements, Nyoo Shrine, Tong Hills, Ghana 166

  40. 12.3 Possible aisle of a mosque, Gao Ancien, Mali 169

  41. 13.1 Sites and regions discussed in Chapter 13 178

  42. 13.2 Idealized plan of the ground floor of a Swahili stonehouse. 179

  43. 13.3 Esu figure, Lakaaye Chambers, 2011, Nigeria 181

  44. 15.1 Principal places mentioned in Chapter 15 202

  45. 15.2 A Bellin 1764 coastal chart of the historic port of Alexandria, Egypt 204

  46. 15.3 ‘Zanzibar Town from the Sea’ in the late 19th century 207

  47. 16.1 Art students drawing exhibition models to appropriate and valorize precolonial heritage in the context of Africa's decolonization movements 215

  48. 16.2 Senegalese models reaffirming African beauty via clothing, hairstyle, and jewellery 217

  49. 16.3 The looted site of Gao-Saney, Mali 220

  50. 16.4 Salvage excavation at the future site of a gas-fired power plant at Kribi, Cameroon 222

  51. 17.1 Entrance to the Nairobi National Museum, Kenya 230

  52. 17.2 Exterior of the Khama III Museum in Serowe, Botswana 231

  53. 17.3 Community interactive space at the Khama III Museum in Serowe, Botswana 232

  54. 17.4 A school visit to the National Museum of Lubumbashi, Congo-Kinshasa 233

  55. (p. xiii) 18.1 Pupils and staff visiting excavation of a Pastoral Neolithic–Pastoral Iron Age burial cairn 241

  56. 18.2 Education programmes allow learners to participate in excavations 244

  57. 18.3 One of the many posters distributed by government in celebration of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site 246

  58. 18.4 Report of the history/archaeology working group 249

  59. 19.1 Archaeological excavation of a c. 4th-century ad burial in Rwanda 261

  60. 20.1 Classification and nomenclature for human evolution 270

  61. 20.2 Principal areas for sources of information about human evolution in Africa 271

  62. 20.3 Chronological distribution of hominins 274

  63. 20.4 Hominin phylogeny 281

  64. 21.1 Some examples of stone tools from the oldest archaeological site in the world: OGS7 at Gona (Ethiopia) 290

  65. 21.2 Archaeological localities mentioned in Chapter 21 290

  66. 21.3 Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analyses of several bone assemblages from spotted hyena dens, leopard dens, lion-consumed carcasses, and the Olduvai Bed I sites 299

  67. 22.1 Major Acheulean sites in Africa mentioned in Chapter 22 310

  68. 22.2 Acheulean bifaces 311

  69. 23.1 Phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA, highlighting the distribution of lineages in time throughout Africa 329

  70. 26.1 Approximate locations of sites mentioned in the text and in Table 26.1 372

  71. 26.2 Bone tools from MSA contexts, scale bars = 1cm 374

  72. 26.3 Marine shell beads from MSA contexts, scale bars for 3a and 3c = 1cm and scale bars for 3b and 3d = 1mm 376

  73. 26.4 Engraved and painted objects from MSA contexts, scale bars = 1cm 378

  74. 26.5 Hafting and hunting technologies associated with backed pieces from the Howieson's Poort, South Africa, ~60–64 ka, scale bars = 1cm 380

  75. 27.1 Map of key eastern African Middle Stone Age sites 388

  76. 27.2 Middle Stone Age sites in eastern Africa by country, indicating the relative antiquity of sites, past site situation, and associated hominin remains 389

  77. 27.3 Cultural modification of the Herto adult and child crania, Ethiopia 394

  78. 27.4 Map of distribution of point styles in the African Middle Stone Age 397

  79. 28.1 Current distribution of forests in West and Central Africa, archaeological and palaeoenvironmental sites cited in Chapter 28 404

  80. 28.2 Illustration of hypothetical reconstructions of maximum and minimum extent of forests in response to climate changes 405

  81. 28.3 Core-axes and other implements in polymorphic sandstone from lower Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) 407

  82. (p. xiv) 28.4 Selection of stone artefacts from the Katanda sites, Semliki Valley, Congo-Kinshasa 410

  83. 29.1 Sites mentioned in Chapter 29 420

  84. 29.2 Saharan megalake basins and possible routes out of Africa 422

  85. 29.3 Aterian tools from the Jebel Gharbi, Libya 423

  86. 30.1 Distribution of major Iberomaurusian and Capsian sites in the Maghreb 433

  87. 30.2 Anterior and left lateral views of the Hattab II skull showing dental evulsion of the upper incisors 434

  88. 30.3 Iberomaurusian lithic microliths, Taforalt Cave, Morocco 435

  89. 30.4 The Afalou modelled clay zoomorphic, Algeria 436

  90. 31.1 The Sahara and the Nile Valley, with sites mentioned in Chapter 31 446

  91. 31.2 Microlithic industry from Niger 447

  92. 31.3 Dotted wavy line pottery from Ti-n-Torha East, Libya 448

  93. 31.4 Site E-75–6 at Nabta Playa, Egypt 451

  94. 31.5 View of the hut in the Ti-n-Torha East Shelter, Libya 452

  95. 31.6 View of Ti-n-Torha Two Caves Shelter, Libya 452

  96. 31.7 Rock art image in the Roundhead Style, Tassili, Algeria 456

  97. 33.1 Southern Africa, showing the major localities and archaeological sites discussed in Chapter 33 474

  98. 33.2 Elands Bay Cave, a major source of information for the Pleistocene/Holocene transition 477

  99. 33.3 Painting of a rain animal, Doring Valley, Western Cape Province, South Africa 479

  100. 33.4 Painting of cattle from the Caledon Valley, South Africa 482

  101. 34.1 The genetic make-up of African cattle 493

  102. 34.2 Djallonke sheep from Guinea 496

  103. 34.3 N’Dama bull, cow, and calf in Guinea 498

  104. 34.4 Chickens in a portable cage on a bicycle in a market in western Kenya 501

  105. 35.1 Selected crops of African origin, including cereals, pulses, and the tuber crop enset 508

  106. 35.2 Probable geographic locations of the five centres of indigenous crop domestication in Africa 513

  107. 35.3 Sites with early archaeobotanical evidence for the spread of major African crops 514

  108. 36.1 North Africa with the location of sites with the earliest domesticates 529

  109. 36.2 Suggested models for the spread of small livestock in Africa 533

  110. 37.1 Main sites mentioned in Chapter 37 543

  111. 37.2 Ceramic vessel from the Mesolithic site of Aneibis, Atbara, Sudan 544

  112. 37.3 Calciform beaker from the Neolithic site of Kadero, Sudan 549

  113. (p. xv) 38.1 Projectile points retouched on both surfaces from the central Sahel 557

  114. 38.2 Ceramic vessels of the Gajiganna Complex in the Chad Basin of northeastern Nigeria (c. 1500–1000 bc) 557

  115. 38.3 West Africa, showing places mentioned in Chapter 38 and archaeological groupings 559

  116. 38.4 The Chad Basin in northeastern Nigeria, with archaeological sites from the pastoral and agropastoral phases of the Gajiganna Complex (second millennium bc) 561

  117. 38.5 Geomagnetic survey of the mid-first-millennium bc settlement of Zilum, Chad Basin, Nigeria 563

  118. 38.6 Supply of lithic raw material for the Chad Basin during the time of the Gajiganna Complex 564

  119. 38.7 Ceramic vessels from the Maibe site, Chad Basin, northeastern Nigeria, c. 500 bc 565

  120. 38.8 Almost life-size head of a Nok Culture terracotta, excavated from the Nok site of Kushe, Nigeria, in March 2010 566

  121. 38.9 Schematic representation of the development of the early phases of food production in the West African Sahel 567

  122. 39.1 The Horn of Africa, showing archaeological sites and localities mentioned in Chapter 39 572

  123. 39.2 Barley field (foreground) and enset plants (background) in the Gamo Highlands, southwestern Ethiopia, 2008 573

  124. 39.3 Walls of an Ancient Ona Culture early farming household of the first millennium bc, Asmara Plateau, Eritrea 579

  125. 40.1 Key sites mentioned in Chapter 40 587

  126. 40.2 Examples of Pastoral Neolithic pottery 589

  127. 40.3 Examples of Savanna Pastoral Neolithic and Elmenteitan pottery from Kenya 594

  128. 40.4 Examples of Pastoral Iron Age pottery from Kenya 597

  129. 41.1 Sites mentioned in Chapter 41 604

  130. 41.2 Edge-ground tool types from West Africa 606

  131. 41.3 Kintampo LSA artifacts from Ntereso, Ghana 608

  132. 42.1 Map of Africa showing sites mentioned in Chapter 42, and other importantiron smelting localities 616

  133. 43.1 Present-day distribution of Bantu languages 628

  134. 43.2 Hypothetical dispersal routes of Bantu languages from I (the Proto-Bantu Homeland) and II (their region of secondary dispersal) 630

  135. 43.3 Central Africa, showing sites of the ‘Stone to Metal Age’ and their main traditions 632

  136. 43.4 Examples of Stone to Metal Age pottery from Obobogo, near Yaounde, Cameroon 633

  137. (p. xvi) 44.1 Central and southern Africa, showing sites and boundaries mentioned in Chapter 44 649

  138. 45.1 Likely dispersal routes of Early Farming Communities across sub-Equatorial Africa 659

  139. 45.2 Southern Africa, showing the major localities and archaeological sites discussed in Chapter 45 661

  140. 45.3 The Central Cattle Pattern 663

  141. 46.1 Dry-stone agricultural terracing at Konso, Ethiopia 674

  142. 46.2 Areas of precolonial intensive agriculture in eastern and southern Africa 675

  143. 46.3 Extent of cultivated fields, settlement sites, and primary irrigation furrows, Engaruka, Tanzania 677

  144. 46.4 Irrigated dry-stone terracing within the Northern Fields, Engaruka, Tanzania 678

  145. 46.5 Dry-stone agricultural terracing at Nyanga, Zimbabwe 679

  146. 46.6 Bokoni dry-stone terracing, Verlorenkloof, South Africa 680

  147. 46.7 View west over a foggara at Taglit (Taqallit), near Ubari in Fezzan, southwest Libya 682

  148. 48.1 Precolonial African states and sites mentioned in Chapter 48 704

  149. 48.2 Plan and monuments of Kerma, Sudan 709

  150. 48.3 Great Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe 711

  151. 48.4 View of Loango, Congo-Brazzaville, and sites in the Upemba Depression, Congo-Kinshasa 712

  152. 48.5 Earthworks and monuments of the kingdoms of Benin, Nigeria and Dahomey, Bénin 713

  153. 49.1 Major Pastoral Iron Age (PIA) sites in central Kenya and the distribution of Sirikwa hollows 729

  154. 49.2 Sirikwa hollow at Chemagel, Kenya 730

  155. 49.3 Plan of Sirikwa hollow and adjacent huts at Hyrax Hill, Kenya 730

  156. 50.1 The mastaba of Ptahshepses at Abusir, Egypt 738

  157. 50.2 Egypt, showing the sites mentioned in Chapter 50 739

  158. 50.3 The Narmer Palette (Cairo JE32169) 744

  159. 50.4 Scene from the Fifth-Dynasty tomb of Ty at Saqqara, Egypt 746

  160. 51.1 Sites of the Kerma period between the First and the Fifth Cataracts of the Nile 752

  161. 51.2 Kerma's main religious monument 753

  162. 51.3 A typical burial of the Kerma Moyen at site P37 in the Northern Dongola Reach, Sudan 755

  163. 51.4 The kingdom of Kush in the aftermath of its expulsion from Egypt in the 7th century bc 757

  164. 51.5 Aerial view of the northern part of the ‘Royal City’ at Meroe, Sudan 759

  165. (p. xvii) 52.1 Numidian mausoleum at Medracen, Algeria 767

  166. 52.2 Garama, southern Libya, c. 1st century bc 768

  167. 52.3 View across remains at Kerkouane, Tunisia, c. 4th century bc 770

  168. 52.4 Temple of Zeus at Cyrene, Libya, c. 5th century bc 772

  169. 53.1 North Africa, showing sites mentioned in Chapter 53 779

  170. 53.2 Trade routes of the Garamantes 782

  171. 53.3 The so-called Garamantian ‘mausoleum’ at Watwat near Garama, Libya 782

  172. 54.1 The Middle Nile Valley, showing the location of major sites and regions 790

  173. 54.2 A mud-brick palatial structure at Soba, Sudan 792

  174. 54.3 A late medieval tower-house in the Third Cataract region of the Nile, Sudan 795

  175. 54.4 Post-medieval qubba tombs at Debba al-Fuqara, Sudan 796

  176. 55.1 Locations of first-millennium bc and Aksumite sites mentioned in Chapter 55 800

  177. 55.2 The central altar of the Almaqah Temple at Mekaber Ga‘ewa near Wukro, Tigray, Ethiopia 802

  178. 55.3 The upper section of Aksum Stela 3, Aksum, Ethiopia 805

  179. 55.4 Plan and proposed reconstruction of the Dungur elite structure, Aksum, Ethiopia 806

  180. 55.5 Plan of the ‘Tigray cross-in-square’ church of Abraha-wa-Atsbaha, Tigray, Ethiopia 810

  181. 55.6 Styles of stelae in southern Ethiopia 813

  182. 56.1 Digitized version of the map of the Maghreb by Ibn Hawqal (ad 988) 818

  183. 56.2 Map of the Sijilmasa landscape, Morocco 821

  184. 56.3 Map of northwest Africa during the Almoravid period 824

  185. 57.1 Locations of sites mentioned in Chapter 57 830

  186. 57.2 Hachettes and a stone ring fragment from the Windé Koroji complex, Mali 831

  187. 57.3 Plan of Dakhlet el Atrouss I, Mauritania 833

  188. 57.4 Excavations at Dia Shoma, Mali, 1998 836

  189. 57.5 A portion of the settlement mounds of Toladie, Méma region, Mali 839

  190. 58.1 Central Sahel, showing the sites mentioned in Chapter 58 846

  191. 58.2 Sites of the Kanem-Borno Empire (13th–early 20th centuries) 847

  192. 58.3 Sites in Hausaland (15th–19th centuries) 851

  193. 58.4 Takusheyi, Katsina State, Nigeria, burial 7 852

  194. 59.1 Map of West Africa showing sites mentioned in Chapter 59 860

  195. 59.2 Layout of the Esan-Edo wall complex, Nigeria 862

  196. 59.3 Layout of the Ile-Ife wall complex, Nigeria 864

  197. 59.4 A copper alloy bust of a king of Ife and a terracotta head of a prominent palace official, Lajuwa, Nigeria 865

  198. 59.5 Greater Begho, Ghana, showing the adjoining quarters 866

  199. (p. xviii) 60.1 Map of the Congo Basin showing major polities, archaeological sites, and areas mentioned in Chapter 60 876

  200. 60.2 A selection of 8th–13th-century ad Kisalian artefacts 879

  201. 61.1 States and sites of the Great Lakes region 888

  202. 61.2 The ceramic succession in the Great Lakes region 890

  203. 61.3 The Luzira figures, Uganda 891

  204. 61.4 Cattle mortality profiles from select sites around Ntusi, Uganda 893

  205. 61.5 The Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, the main tomb building, at Kasubi, Uganda, before its destruction in 2010 896

  206. 62.1 Major archaeological sites on the Swahili coast 904

  207. 62.2 Tana Tradition/Triangular Incised Ware rims from 7th–10th-century contexts, Tumbe, Pemba Island, Tanzania 905

  208. 62.3 Spindle whorls made on sherds of imported ceramics, Chwaka, Pemba Island, Tanzania 907

  209. 62.4 Kilwa-type copper coins from Songo Mnara, Tanzania 908

  210. 62.5 Pillar tombs and a mosque, Ras Mkumbuu, Pemba Island, Tanzania 909

  211. 63.1 Some of the archaeological sites, chiefdoms, and state societies discussed in Chapter 63 916

  212. 63.2 An extensive Zhizo settlement in the valley west of Mmamgwa Hill, eastern Botswana 917

  213. 63.3 Mapungubwe hilltop, South Africa, showing the palace area 919

  214. 63.4 A view of Great Zimbabwe 920

  215. 63.5 Some of the fortified settlements on Mt Fura, northern Zimbabwe 923

  216. 64.1 Location of the archaeological sites discussed in Chapter 64 930

  217. 64.2 Phase I (A), Phase II (B) and Phase III(C) Moloko ceramics 931

  218. 64.3 Moor Park ceramics 932

  219. 64.4 An aerial photograph of one of the Bokoni towns, South Africa 936

  220. 64.5 An illustration of the ‘king's district’ (kgosing) of a Tswana town 937

  221. 65.1 Main archaeological sites in Madagascar 944

  222. 65.2 Mahilaka on the northwestern coast of Madagascar: remains of standing walls 947

  223. 65.3 Open-air chlorite schist quarry in northern Madagascar 947

  224. 65.4 Structure said to be a Vazimba house in western Madagascar 948

  225. 65.5 Rockshelter with paintings under investigation in limestone massif in southern Madagascar 949

  226. 66.1 Maximum extent of Ottoman territories 958

  227. 66.2 Ottoman tombs at Jebel Adda, Egyptian Nubia, c. 1960 962

  228. 66.3 Ottoman fortress at Wadi Shati, Libya 963

  229. (p. xix) 66.4 The Ottoman fortress of Qasr Ibrim, Egypt, about forty years after its abandonment 964

  230. 66.5 Sai Fort, Sudan, viewed from the west 964

  231. 66.6 Excavations in progress at the late 16th-century structure known as the Beit al-Basha, Suakin, 2006 966

  232. 67.1 Location of archaeological sites discussed in Chapter 67 972

  233. 67.2 Rock art depicting a conflict between troops of the South African Republic and the Hananwa, a local polity in Limpopo Province, South Africa 973

  234. 67.3 Fort St Sebastian, Ghana 974

  235. 67.4 Rhone, Groot Drakenstein, South Africa 977

  236. 68.1 Atlantic West Africa showing the towns, regions, and polities mentioned in Chapter 68 984

  237. 68.2 The king of Kayoor negotiating with a European merchant 986

  238. 68.3 ‘Prospect of the European factorys at Xavier or Sabi’ (1731) 987

  239. 68.4 ‘The Kingdom of Dahomey's levee’ 988

  240. 68.5 Excavated artefacts from Atlantic-period contexts, Gorée Island, Senegal 990

  241. 69.1 Reconstructed slave house, Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe 1002

  242. 69.2 Low-fired earthenwares from Martinique 1004