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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 1023) Index

(p. 1023) Index

Aaweserra Apepy, Pharaoh 752
Abdu, B. 619
Abun-Nasr 817
Abungu, G. 692
Abydos, Egypt 500, 708
‘Abyssinian writing’ 145, 146
Acheulean 307–317
Adamawa Plateau, Cameroon 619
Adams, W. M. 679
Adams, W. Y. 122
Adande, Alexis 28
Adar Bous, Niger 423
adhesives 379
The Admonitions of Ipuwer 745
Adrar area, Mauritania 314
Adrar Bous, Niger 453
Adrar des Ifoghas, Mali 155
Adulis, Eritrea 205, 709–710
churches 808
trade 807
Aduma, Ethiopia 335
Aegyptica (Manetho) 741
Afalou Bou Rhummel, Algeria 434–5
African Archaeological Network (AAN) 232–3
African diaspora 999–1007
African National Congress (ANC) 245, 248
Afrikaner National Party 243, 256
Afroasaiatic languages 50, 52
Agadez, Niger 620
age-sets 726
Aghram Nadharif, Libya 781
agriculturalists
rock art 150, 151–2, 153–4
agriculture 509
crisis 562
Horn of Africa 800–801
Kerma 754–5
North Africa 781–2, 784
southern Africa 657–66
Ahaggar, Algeria 155
Ahmose I, Pharaoh 756
Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Ma’rifat al-Aqalim (al Muqaddasi) 817
Ain Hanech, Algeria 311
Aïr, Niger 155
Aka people 357
Akameru, Rwanda 890
Akan region 866
Akjoujt, Mauritania 618, 620
Aksum, Ethiopia 25, 29, 803–809
cattle 576
Christianity 171
food production 574, 578, 674
Late Stone Age 801
state formation 709–710
urbanism 694
Akwa, Nigeria 181
al-Bakri 838
al-Basra, Morocco 822–3
al-Fazri 838
al-Ghaba, Sudan 548
al-Idrisi 846
al-Kajina 818–19
al-Kanemi, Muhammad 849
al-Khadada, Sudan 548
al-Mas’udi 903
al-Muqaddasi 817
Al-Yakūbī 837, 839
al_Bakri 846
Alexander, J. A. 82–3, 960
(p. 1024) Alexandria, Egypt
coinage 834
Algeria
Berber heritage 765
Ottoman 959
rock art 145–6, 156
Algiers, Algeria 961, 962, 963
Algoa Bay, SA 208
Alimen, H. 17
Alodia, kingdom of 790, 791, 793
Amarna, Egypt 693
Amblard-Pison, S. 832
Ambohimanga, Madagascar 950
Ambrose, S. H. 465
Amekni, Algeria 455
Americas
African crop plants 515–16
language and slave trade 57–60
Amhara language 810–812
Anania, Giovanni 849, 854
Andah, Bassey 28, 262, 689
Andranosa, Madagascar 948
Andrantsay, Madagascar 950
Andrews, P. 346
Anezrouft, Mali 830–31
Angola
state formation 882
wooden head 165
Ankole kingdom 714
Annapolis, USA 1005
Anquandah, James 28, 866
Antananarivo, Madagascar 696
Anthony, D. W. 78–9, 81
anthropology in universities 227–8
antiquities
looting 28–9, 217, 218, 220
apartheid 243, 256–7
Apollo 11, Namibia
art 360, 377
bone tools 375
Appiah, Kwame 16
Aqualithic culture 79–80, 449, 542–3
aquatic resources 454
East Africa 463, 464, 466
southern Africa 476–7, 478
archaeometallurgy 139–40
architecture
Aksum 804–806
Nubia 792–3
Ottoman 960–62
Roman North Africa 780–81
Swahili 906, 908
Tigray 801–802
West African coast 986; see also churches, houses, mosques
Ardipithecus 273, 275
Ardouin, C. D. 228–9
Arkell, A. J. 542, 547
Armstrong, R. G. 53
art
and hunter-gatherers 358–9, 360
Iberomaurusian 436
MSA 377, 378
art historians and ceramics 124
Asa Koma, Djibouti 575
Asante kingdom 989
Ashley, C. 466
Ashley, C. Z. 466, 890
Asia
plant origins 516, 517
Asmal, Kadar 248
Asmara, Eritrea
caprines 576
cattle 576
food production 574
Late Stone Age 801
plant crops 578
Assefa 395
Asselar, Mali 455
Aswan High Dam, Egypt 25
Atbara region, Sudan 544
Aterian 423, 424–5, 426–7
Atkinson, R. 42, 44, 46
Atlas Mountains 155
Atlas of African Prehistory (Clark) 343–4
Augustine, St 771
australopithecines
discovery 17, 19–20, 269
phylogeny 280
Australopithecus 276
stone tools 292
taxonomy 272, 273
(p. 1025) Australopithecus afarensis 20
Austronesian languages 50, 56–7
Automated Similarity Judgement Programme (AJSP) 53
autosomal DNA 66–7, 73
Avery, D. H. 140
Bacwezi, kingdom 39, 44–5
Badenhorst, S 663
Bafut kingdom 91
Baganda people 120
kings 214
Bagirmi kingdom 854
Balanta people 987, 993
Bambandyanalo, South Africa 918
Bambata Cave, Zimbabwe 648
Bambata pottery 660
Banda, Ghana 123
ritual deposits 180
Banganarti 794
Bantu 52
and genetics 55, 67, 328–9
rock art 152, 154; see also proto-Bantu
Bantu expansion 79–80, 627, 631–7, 658
ceramics 82, 122, 124
genetics 71–2
and ironworking 622
Bantu languages 627–31
Baranda, Zimbabwe 923
Barbados 1000, 1001
Barham, L. S. 424
Barich, B. E. 4
Barker, G. 425, 682
Barotse kingdom 82
Barth, Heinrich 145
Bassar, Togo 992–993
Bayajidda legend 851
Beach, D. N. 922
beads 824, 835, 839
Early Farming Communities 665
East Africa 1017, 1018
hunter-gatherers 359, 360, 375–7
Iberomaurusian 435
MSA 396
Neolithic 548
southern Africa 648
Yorubaland 991–2; see also personal adornment
Beaujard, P. 691
Bedaux, R. M. 166
Begho, Ghana 170, 694–5, 866–7
behaviour, archeology of 21–2
behavioural complexity
site usage 293
toolmaking 291–2
behavioural modernity 341, 342–4, 346, 347
and bone tools 375
and figurative art 377
Beleza, S. 55
Bell 745
Bellamy, C. V. 134
Bénabou, Marcel 258
Bender, M. L. 52
Benfica, Angola 646
Benghazi, Libya 961–2
Benin, kingdom of 861–863
bronzes 138, 716
political landscape 196
urbanism 694
Benin City, Nigeria 25
Berber culture 766–7
Berg Aukas, Namibia 332
Beta Giyorgis Hill, Ethiopia 803
Beutler, Augustus 145
Bietak, M. 693
biface 307, 311
in Sahara 314; see also handaxes
Bigo bya Mugenyi, Uganda 37, 714, 894
Binford, L. R. 191, 355, 359
Bingerville Highway, Ivory Coast 605
Bioko, Equatorial Guinea 634, 999
bipedalism 275, 276, 278, 280
Bir Kiseiba, Egypt
cattle domestication 450–51, 528, 530, 534, 544
ceramics 448
Bir Sahara, Egypt 314
Bir Tarfawi, Egypt 427
Acheulean 314
Birimi, Ghana 412
Birni Ngazargamo (Gazargamo), Sudan 170, 848, 849
birth intervals 449
Bivar, A. D. H. 694
(p. 1026) Blanton, R. E. 725
Bleek, Wilhelm 627
Blench, R. M. 24, 945
Blombos Cave, South Africa
beads 376
bone tools 373–5
food resources 202–203
hominin fossil 335
ochre 359, 377
Blumenschine, R. J. 301
Blundell, G. 194, 261
boats
Dufuna canoe 22, 610
Egypt 203
North Africa 203–204
Bodo, Ethiopia
Acheulean 312
fossil hominin 332
Homo species 391
Boeny, Madagascar 950
Bofi people 357
Bohannan, L. & P. 726
Bokoni, Souh Africa 678–9, 935–6
bone assemblages 89
bone tools
Iberomaurusian 435
southern Africa 373–5
Bonnet, Charles 25
Bono Manso, Ghana 694–5, 867
Boone, J. L. 822, 824
Border Cave, SA
bow and arrow 379–81
dating 344
hominin fossil 335
Boschoek, South Africa 27
Boserup, E. 675
Bosumpra, Ghana 605
Botswana
and Europeans 975
towns 696–7, 938
Boule, M. 342, 344
Bourdieu, P. 178
Bouri, Ethiopia 291–2
Boutakoff, Mrs 254
bow and arrow 379–81
Bower, J. R. F. 585–6
Boyko, A. R. 500
Bradley, R. 80, 81
brain size 277, 278, 279, 282, 391
Brandenberg massif, Namibia 650
Brazil 1000, 1001, 1002
Breen, C. 910
Breuil, Henri 17, 146
Breunig, Peter 24, 29, 694
Britain
in East Africa 1013, 1014
and slavery 1000, 1001
and South Africa 978
British Museum 221, 222
Broederstroom, South Africa 662, 663
ironworking 138
Broken Hill, Kabwe, Zambia 332, 343
bronze 615, 618, 622
Brooks, A. S. 346, 424
Broom, Robert 19
Brothwell, D. 413
Buganda kingdom 714, 894
urbanism 695
Buhaya, Tanzania 888
Buhaya people 136
Buhen, Egypt 693
Bunyoro kingdom 714
Burg-Wartenstein Conference 120
burials
Aksumite 804–805
Egypt 745
Elmenteitan 595–6
Lake Turkana 591
Madagascar 948
Maghreb 433–4, 440
Mapungubwe Hill 918
MSA 396
Neolithic Sudan 548
Ottoman 961
Pastoral Iron Age 598–9
and personal identity 180
royal 758, 895
Sahara 829–30
South Africa 358
southern Africa 478
Upemba Depression 713; see also funerary practices
Burkina Faso 559
Burkitt, Miles 17, 23, 241
Buroburo, Ghana 6
Bushman Rock Shelter, South Africa 476
Bushmen 343
butchery 291, 292, 300, 302
handaxes 315
Buto, Egypt 546
urbanism 693
Butzer, K. W. 693
Bweyorere palace and settlement, Ankole, Uganda 37–8, 895
Cachel, S. M. 191
Cahen, D. 408
Cairo, Egypt 961
Cambridge History of Africa 4
camels 499, 576
Cameroon
bananas 946
education 242
ironworking 619, 620
origin of Bantu 629, 631–3
Cameroon Grassfields 991–2
Camps-Fabrer, H. 121
Canadian Archaeological Association 241
Canary Islands 999
Cann, R. L.M. 346
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa 973, 976–8
Cape Town, South Africa 207–208, 978
Cape Verde Islands 991
caprines (sheep and goats) 496–6, 531–3, 576
Capsian 438
Cardial Ware 439–40
Caribbean 1002
Carneiro, R. L. 672
Carter, Pat 24
Carthage, Tunisia 203, 769–71
coinage 834
ironworking 618
Roman 778–9, 780
trade 835
urbanism 693
Casablanca, Morocco
Acheulean 311, 312, 313
Casey, J. 180
Caton-Thompson, Gertrude 16, 119, 256, 426, 545
cats 500
cattle
domestication 496–7, 528–30
Horn of Africa 575–6
West Africa 609–610
Cave of Hearts, South Africa 279, 333
Çelebi, Evilya 963, 965, 967
Central Africa
Acheulean 315
forager/farmer relations 357
Lupemban Industry 406–407
rock art 145–6, 150–51
state formation 711–13
Central African Republic
ironworking 619–20, 633
megaliths 168
Central Cattle Pattern 662–3
Central Rift Valley
Holocene 464, 468
Iron age 728–9
Pastoral Iron Age 596
centralization in state formation 706
Centre for Heritage Development (CHDA) 218
ceramics
African diaspora 1003, 1005
Bantu expansion 658
clay figures 164–5, 436, 566, 664, 891
dotted wavy line 79–80
Elmenteitan 595
Great Lakes 889–92
Lake Tumba 412
Lake Turkana 588
Lake Victoria 466
learning networks 94
and migration 82
Neolithic Maghreb 439–40
Nile Valley 542, 544
Pastoral Iron Age 597
religious and symbolic meanings 166
Roman North Africa 783
Sahara 446–9, 453, 531
Sahel 453, 556, 557
Savannah Pastoral Neolithic 593–4
South Africa, pre-Bantu 56
southern Africa 645–6, 929–931
Swahili 904–905
West Africa 605
(p. 1028) cereal crops 544–5
ceremonial and status objects 138
Červiček, Pavel 154
Chad
early hominins 20
Chad Basin
farming and change 562–5
chaine opératoire 92–3, 95, 359
stone tools 110
Chami, Felix 28, 80, 902
Champollion, Jean-François 737
Chase Dunn, C. 691
Chataigneraie, Algeria 432
Chewa people 882
ironworking 136
rock art 151
chickens 500, 576
Childe, Gordon 17, 77, 82
Childs, S. T. 136, 623
chimpanzee nesting model 298
chimpanzee toolmaking 291, 303
China 903
Chirikure, S. 140, 622
Chishinga people 137
Chittick, Neville 25
Chokwe 152
choppers 291
Christianity 170–71
Aksum 804, 807–808
Ethiopia 812–13
Nubia 790, 792–73
Tigray 812
Christie, A. C. 910
churches
Nubia 792–3, 794
civilization 704–705
Clark, Desmond J. 21, 23, 24, 103, 150, 342, 343–4, 456, 527
Clark, Grahame (J. G. D.) 239, 343, 372, 390
clay figures 164–165
Iberomaurusian 436
Luzira 891
Nok 566
ritual purposes 164–5
southern Africa 664
cleavers 307, 314
click languages 474
climate
MSA 390
climate change 431–2, 450, 463–4, 603–604
Acheulean 317
and demographic fluctuation 327–8
and hominin evolution 283
North Africa 420–21
and pastoralism 534–5
Cline, W. 134–5
Close, A. E. 435
Coart, E. 119
cobbles 289
cognitive archaeology 359–60
cognitive complexity 379, 382
Cole, Sonia 342–4
Collard, M. 277
Collett, D. P. 82, 137, 183
colonialism 979
archaeology 254–5
East Africa 1013–19
and educational policy 242
and museums 228, 229
community involvement
heritage management 222–3
museums 230–31
Comores 696
composite tools see hafted tools
Congo Basin 634–5
Acheulean 315
state formation 712–13, 875–883
Congo-Kinshasa
ceramics 118
Connah, Graham 3, 4, 24, 694, 848
contact languages 55, 60
Coppens, Yves 20
copper 618, 620, 880, 881
Early Farming Communities 665
in Egypt 132
furnaces 134–5
Coquery-Vidrovitch, C. 692
core axes 406–407
cores 291
Cornu, G. 817
cotton domestication 521
Council for British Archaeology 240
Courtois, Christian 778–9
cowries 182, 991
Craddock, P. 619, 623
(p. 1029) craftworkers
marginalization of 94
social role 137–8
Cremaschi , M. 530
crop plants 508, 518–21
evidence 510–11
Horn of Africa 573, 577–578
linguistics 54
New World 989
and slave trade 993
Crossland, Z. 171, 950
Croucher, S K. 910
cultivation 508–509
Cameroon 633–4
West Africa 609
cultural economies 991
culture history 342–3
Curtis, M. 803
Cushitic languages 56, 57, 588
cutmarks 300, 302
Cwezi traditions 888–9
Cyprus 545
Cyrenaica, Libya 766
Greek colonies 771
Cyrima Rujigira, King of Rwanda 895–6
Dabba, Egypt 693
Dagara people 167
Dahomey kingdom 868
and Europeans 988
power and landscape 196
Daima, Nigeria 849
dairying 497, 536, 595
Dakhlet el Atrouss, Mauritania 832–3
Dakleh 426–7
Acheulean 314–15
sheep & goats 532
Dale, D. 466
D’Altroy, T. N. 822
dan Fodio, Usuman 853
Daniels, Steve 24
Dar-es Soltan, Morocco
hominin fossil 335
Darfur 796
medieval 794
Darling, Patrick 861
Dart, Raymond 19
Darwin, Charles 3, 269, 271, 283, 342
dating technology 344–5
David, N. 90, 95, 96, 117, 122–3, 167
David, R. 739
Davies, M. I. J. 676
Davies, O. 80, 604
Day, M. H. 334
de Haulleville, A. 119
de Heusch , L. 690
de Maret, Pierre 603, 622
Deacon, Janette 648
Debarwa, Eritrea 965
débitage see flakes
Debra Damo, Ethiopia 809
debris see flakes
DeCorse, C. 258, 974
Deetz, J. 1003
Deir el-Bahri, Egypt 203
Deir el Medina, Egypt 180
Delattre, Père
demographic fluctuation 361
demographic theories 361
Denbow, J. R. 665
Denmark 977
dental modification 434–5, 438, 440, 664, 882
African diaspora 1006
Derricourt, Robin 19, 20, 933
Devisse, J.117
Dhar Tichitt, Mauritania 21, 24, 714
cattle 609
early farming 558, 559–60
political integration 714
social complexity 831–4
urbanism 694
Dhar Walata, Mauritania 832, 834
di Lernia, S. 453
Dia, Mali 715
Dia Shoma, Mali 835
Die Kleders Cave, South Africa 335
Diepkloof, South Africa 377
dietary practices 358
diffusion 77
diffusionism 119, 254–5, 257–8, 342
Diodorus 780
Diop, Cheik Anta 27–8, 257–8
Diré-Dawa, Ethiopia 335
ditch systems 196
(p. 1030) divine kingship 863, 865, 875, 877
DNA analysis 345
and animal domestication 492–3
Doddington 208
Dogon people 681
ceramic traditions 93
domestic space 90
dogs 500
Doke, C. M. 52
Dokki Gel, Sudan 756
Dombrowski, J. 575
domestic stock
Early Farming Communities 662
southern Africa 646–7
domestication 450–51, 509
The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals (Ucko and Dimbleby) 24
Dominguez-Rodrigo, M. 296
Dongola, Sudan 542, 794
burials 548
donkeys 499–500, 576
Donley-Reid, L. 178–9
Dowson, T. A. 261
Drake, N. A. 421–2
drinking vessels 548–9
Drost, D. 120
Du Bois, William 257
Dufuna, Nigeria 22, 610
Dunefield Midden, South Africa 480
Dupont, L. M. 404
Durbi Takusheyi, Nigeria 852–3
Dutch 972, 1000
Dutch East India Company (VOC) 973, 975, 976
Dutour, O. 455
Dyson-Hudson, R. and N. 528
Dzimbabwe (Mufuka) 259
Earle, T. K. 822
East Africa
Acheulean 312
agricultural intensification 674–5
beads 360
colonial 1013–19
hominin fossils 336
hunter-gatherers 461–9
hunting 357
introduced crops 516
Islam 170
leaders 726
metallurgy 621
Oldowan sites 289
pastoralism 585–9
rock art 153–4
East African Rift System 271–2
Eastwood, Ed 146, 479
Eburran 465
‘Ecole du Patrimoine Africain (EPA) 218
ecological context 191
ecological theories 360–61
economy
Roman North Africa 781–2
Ede-Ile, Nigeria 868–9
edge ground tools 605–607
education 239–50
Edwards, D. J. 673
Edwards, D.N. 961
Effah-Gyamfi, K. 123, 694
Eggert, M. K. H. 56, 622
Egypt 737–48
agriculture 545–6
cats 500
ceramics 448
chickens 501
copper 132
Copts 170
irrigation 672–3
and Kush 751–2, 755, 756, 758
maritime activities 203–205
Ottoman 958–9
political centralization 546–7
sheep 495
state formation 707–708
Egyptian Museum, Cairo 737
Egyptian Western Desert 426–7
cattle domestication 528–30
climate change 420
Egyptology 16, 737–9
Ehret, C. 51–52, 674
Ekholm, K. 691
el-Badari, Egypt 546
(p. 1031) El Harhoura, Morocco 335
El Kiffen, Morocco 440
el-Meragh, Sudan 759
El Oualadji, Mali 715
Elands Bay Cave, South Africa 476
seasonal mobility 478
Elandsfontein, South Africa 279, 332
Eliye Springs, Kenya 279
hominin fossil 333
Elmenteitan 594–6
Elmina, Ghana 205–206, 974–5, 985, 990
Emery, W. B. 743
Emi Lulu, Algeria 829
encephalization see brain size
Encylopedia of Precolonial Africa (Vögel) 4
Endo people 90
Engaruka, Tanzania 676, 678, 728, 731
Enkapune ya Muto, Kenya 462, 463
beads 396
dating 387
Eburran 465
livestock 592
ochre 396
pastoralism 468
stone tools 394
Ennedi, Chad 155
environment
Acheulean 316–17
and behaviour 361
and evolution 342–4
human impact 465
Oldowan 301–302
Equus Cave, South Africa 335
Eritrea
food production 571
ports 205
shellfish 202–203; see also Asmara
Essouk, Mali 694
Essouk-Tadmakka, Mali 839–40
Esterhuysen, A. B. 261
Ethiopia
Christianity 170
food production 571
fossil dates 354
intensive agriculture 673–4
introduced plants 516
ironworking 619
language diversity 52
plant domestication 512, 513–14, 518–19, 520–21
power and house symbolism 91
shrines 169
state formation 709
stone tools 392
urbanism 695
ethnicity
and material culture 182
Egypt 747
ethnoarchaeology
ceramics 122–3
shrines and groves 167–8
ethnography 482
agricultural intensification 676
ceramic studies 119, 120
funerary practises 167
houses 178
interpreting behaviour 356–8
metalworking 132, 134–5, 136, 138
rock art 147–50, 153
Euesperides (Benghazi), Libya 771
Eurocentrism 355–6
European contact 972–9
European trading companies 207–208
European Union 219
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 723, 725
evolution
chronology 344–5
evolutionary trends 280–82
extinction 329, 336
Eyasi, Tanzania 333
Ezana, King of Aksum 171
Fagan, Brian 24
Fagg, Bernard 23, 24
Faras, Sudan 792
Christianity 171
Farrington, I. S. 676
Fattovich, R. 690
favoured place model 297
Fayum Lake, Egypt 545
Fazzan, Libya
irrigation 784
plant gathering 544
rock art 145, 155
(p. 1032) Federal Department of Antiquities, Nigeria 120
Feierman, S. 42, 44, 46
fermented foods and brewing 548–9
figurative art see representational art
Filipowiak, W. 840
Finneran, N. 170
Fipa people 43
fire 316, 382, 395, 397
Fish River, South Africa 145
fishing 203, 454
Roman North Africa 783
flakes 105, 289, 291, 307, 314
Fleisher, J. 696, 910
Fletcher, Roland 689, 697
Flight, Colin 24
FLK Zinj, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
animal bones 295
environment 296
hominin site usage 299, 303
stone tools 302
floodwater farming 679, 681
Florisbad, South Africa 279, 333
food production 466–8, 508
East Africa 588
Horn of Africa 571–80
Sahara 449
Sahel 556–67; see also domestication
food resources
animal 451–2
coastal 202–203
food storage 449
foodways
African Diaspora 1003–1005
forager-farmer relations 361, 467
southern Africa 480–82, 665–6
foragers see hunter-gatherers
forest clearing 860
Fort Jesus, Mombasa, Kenya908–909, 1014
Fortes, M. 723, 726
fortifications
East Africa 1014–15
Garamantes 780
Madagascar 948–50
Ottoman 963–5
Oyo-Ile 866
Sudan 170
Fouché, L. 119
Fox, Aileen 239–40
France
colonialism 777
Franchet, L. 119
Frank, B. 166
Frederiksen, P. 90
Frederiksgave 977
Frobenius, Leo 146
From Hunters to Farmers (Clark and Brandt) 24
fruit crops 521
Fulani people
ceramics 122
symbolism 166
fulani jihad 170, 848, 853, 854
funerary practices 167
African diaspora 1006–1007
Berber 766–7
Kerma 754, 755, 758
Punic 770–71
Saharan hunter-gatherers 455
Shum Laka 411; see also burials
Funj kindgom 795
Fura Wells, Sudan 759
furnaces 134–5, 136
Gabon 634
Gadeb, Ethiopia 309
Gademotta, Ethiopia
dating 344, 387
stone tools 392
Gadi, Kenya 710
Gajiganna, Nigeria 24
Gajiganna Complex, Nigeria 557, 560, 561, 562
Gala Abu Ahmed, Sudan 759
Gallay, A. 122–3
Gambaga Escarpment, Ghana 180
Gamble's Cave, Kenya 464, 592
Gao, Mali 169, 839
Garama, Libya 768, 780, 781, 784
Garamantes 714, 780, 782, 784
Gardener, E. W. 545
Garlake, Peter 26, 696
Garrard, T. 834
Garu Kime, Nigeria 848
Gedi, Kenya 710
Geduld, Namibia 650
Geili, Sudan 548
gender 358
and agriculture 937
ceramics and ironworking 166
and genetic diversity 328
and material culture 179–180
and spatial organization 90; see also women
genetic diversity 327–9
genetic isolation 70–71
genetics
Bantu expansion 636
Early Farming Communities 665–6
and human origins 326–7
Madagascar 943
southern Africa 934
and spread of livestock 536
geoarchaeology 192
Geography (Ptolemy) 903
Gerzean knives 109
Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel 315, 316
Gesiza, Rwanda 619
Ghana
and Atlantic World 989, 992
European contacts 972
village settlements 861
Ghana kingdom 715, 838
Ghirza, Libya 785
Giddens, A. 178
Gifford-Gonzalez, D. 528
Gilf Kebir, Egyypt 155
glass making 864
glottochronology 53
goats see caprines
Gobedra shelter, Ethiopia 576
Gobéro, Niger 455
Godinho, V. M. 822
Gogo Falls 467, 595
Gogoshiis Qabe, Somalia 575, 576
gold 618, 622, 834
Gold Coast 977
Gombe, Congo-Kinshasa 408
Gona, Ethiopia 309
stone tools 107, 289, 290, 291
Gondar, Ethiopia 965
Goodall, Jane 20
Goodwin, A. J. H. 17, 23, 103, 390, 397, 474–6
Gordon, R. 619
Gorée, Senegal 985, 986, 990–91
Gorgora, Ethiopia 392
Gosselain, O. 93
Great Lakes region 635–6
state formation 714, 887–97
Great Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe 25, 119, 696–7, 920–22
bronze spearheads 138
colonialist bias 255–6
glass beads 170
politics of archaeology 26
as shrine 214
state formation 711
symbolic and ritual purposes 168
Grébénart, Danilo 24
Greek colonies in North Africa 771
Greenberg, Joseph 50, 629
Greenlaw, J. 965
grinding 109
Gronenborn, D. 848
Grotte Capelletti, Algeria 532
Gualdeloupe 1000, 1001
Guinea
and Europeans 987
guinea fowl 500–501
Güldemann, T. 648
Gullah people 60
Guomde, Kenya 333
Guthrie, M. 52–3
Gwisho, Zambia 21, 466
skeletons 474
Haaland, Randi 24
Hadar, Ethiopia 20
Homo fossils 293
Hadza people 51, 89
environmental adaptation 343
genetics 70, 328
rock art 153
hafted tools 359, 392–3, 445–6
MSA 379, 380
Haiti 206, 1001
Håkansson, N. T. 731
Hall, Martin 247, 256, 261, 663, 930, 935, 976
(p. 1034) Hall, S. L. 657
Hambolu, M. O. 848
Hamites 79, 887
Hammel, E. A. 43, 44, 46
hand-axes 105, 307–308, 314
MSA 396
symmetry 315–16
use 315
Handler, J. 1001, 1006
Hansen, M. H. 692
Harar, Ethiopia 169, 695
Harbord, F. W. 134
hard hammer percussion 108
Harris, J. W. K. 191
Hasan Ibn al-Nu’man 818
Häser, J. 673
Hassan, F. A. 28, 494, 534, 535, 693, 745
Hassi el Abiod, Mali 454, 455
Hassi Ouenzga, Morocco 440
Haua Fteah, Libya
fossils 335, 344, 419
sheep & goats 532
Hausa kingdoms 170
Hausaland 850–54
Hawzien Plain, Ethiopia 809–810
Hay, R. 291
Haya people 39–40, 44
Hegmon, M. 117
Heidegger, Martin 194
Heinzelein de Braucourt, Jean de 21
Heliopolis, Egypt 693
Henning, H.122–3
Henshilwood, C. S. 347–8
Herbert, E. 623
Herbert, R. K. 53
herding see pastoralism
Herodotus 771, 780
Herto, Ethiopia 279
Acheulean 313
butchery 395
crania 394, 396
hominin fossil 336
heterarchy 706, 725, 727, 731–2
Hierakonpolis, Egypt 546
urbanism 693
Hildebrand, E. 528, 530
Historic Cave, Makapan, South Africa 930
Historical Archaeologies of East African Landscapes (HEEAL) 1015, 1017
historical archaeology 29, 1013
historical ecology 192–4
The History of Archaeological Thought (Trigger) 15
Hodder, I. 88, 92
Hoedjies Punt, South Africa 333
Holl, A. 80
Holl, A. F. C. 619, 620, 622, 848
hominid see hominin
hominins 270
archaeology of 17, 19–21
behaviour 293–4
environment 282
evolution 277–8, 390–91
feeding strategy 89
food sharing 302
fossils 271, 274–5, 331–6
geography 282
and human origins 326
land-use patterns 191
phylogeny 280
stone tools 107–108, 291–3
taxonomy 272–4
tool transport 291
toolmaking 292
Homo species 272–4
early fossils 277–8
origins 276–7
phylogeny 280, 283
H. antecessor 274
H. erectus 272, 277–8, 331
East Africa 390
emigration 421
stone tools 307–308
at Tighennif 311
H. ergaster 272, 278
H. floresiensis 274
H. georgicus 274
H. habilis 272, 276, 278
H. heidelbergensis 272, 279, 308, 331, 343, 391
Kabwe 395
H. helmei 272, 279, 308, 391
H. rhodesiensis 272, 342, 391
H. rudolfensis 277
H. sapiens 272 (p. 1035)
archaic 279
cognitive complexity 383
genetics and origins 326–37
at Middle Awash 313
North Africa 419–20
oldest 391
origins 342, 345, 346
and symbolic behaviour 348
H. sapiens idaltu 70, 334
Horn of Africa
complex societies 799–813
food production 571–80
rock art 154, 155
horses 576
Horton, Mark 25, 910
houses
African diaspora 1001–1003
Ottoman 961–3
symbolism 91; see also architecture
Hovers, E. 358
Howieson's Poort Industry 346, 373
hafted tools 380
ostrich eggshell 369
stone tools 112
Huber, R. 961
Hubert, H. 120
Hublin, J.-J. 361
Hueda, Bénin 181, 868
and Europeans 987–8
Huffman, Tom 53, 80, 168, 183, 660, 662, 921–2, 930, 933, 934, 935, 937
Hull, R. W. 691
human origins and genetic research 69–70
The Human Past (Scarre) 3
‘Human Revolution’ conference, Cambridge 346
Hunt, Eva 44, 45
hunter-gatherers
adaptability 357
ethnoarchaeology 89–90
European contact 975
genetics 328
and herding 651
land use 191–2
language groups 51
Maghreb 431–40
rock art 145, 147, 150, 153
Sahara and Sahel 445–56
southern Africa 367–83, 473–83
theoretical frameworks 356–62
hunting
equipment 112, 356, 422
Iberomaurusian 436
Oldowan 301
symbolism 358
Huntington, R. 167
Hyrax Hill, Kenya 728
Iberomaurusian 432–8
Ibn-Battuta 903
Ibn Hawqal 817, 820
Ibn Khaldun 847
Ichoukane, Algeria 768
Ife, Nigeria 25, 694, 863–5
state formation 716
Ifri n’Ammar, Morocco
art 436
microliths 435
Igbo-Ukwu, Nigeria 25, 867
objets and symbolic meaning 181
Ile-Ife see Ife
Ileret, Kenya 278, 588, 589, 592
illicit art trade 214, 217, 219
and AFRICOM 232
legislation 235
and museums 228
India 515, 544–5
Indian Ocean
slave trade 206–207
indigenous epistemologies 262–3
Ingold, T. 528
initiation ceremonies 151–2, 164
Inner Niger Delta, Mali 123
early farming 560–61
heterarchy 725
Holocene 454
intensive agriculture 681
plant domestication 518
social complexity 690
urbanism 694
Inskeep, Ray 24, 26, 466
Insoll, T. 88, 195, 965
Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (later Institut Fondamental Afrique Noire) 25
(p. 1036) intensive agriculture 671–83
international cooperation
heritage 218–21
museums 221–2, 232–3
International Council of Museums (AFRICOM) 232–3
International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences 26
interpersonal violence 47
Iraq 206
Iraqw people 675
iron smelting and working 133–6, 618–23, 634
appearance 565
archaeological research 24–5
and Atlantic World 992–3
dating 133
earliest 45
Early Farming Communities 664–5
ethnoarchaeology 94–5, 136–8
Great Lakes 895
Meroe 759
pastoralists 597–8
social and symbolic meaning 39–42, 165–6, 879–80
and state formation 716
technology 133–7, 140
irrigation 673, 675–6
Isaac, Glynn 20, 24, 89, 191
Isenya, Kenya
Acheulean 313
stone tools 109
Ishango, Congo-Kinshasa 409–411
fish 463
Isimila, Tanzania 312–13
Islam 168–170
Aksum 812
Hausaland 852–3
Kanem-Borno 850
Madagascar 948
Nubia 794, 795–6
Ottoman Empire 957–8
Swahili 710, 905, 908
and urbanization 696
islands 81
Israel 342, 345, 419
Italy 433, 777
Iwo Eleru, Nigeria 413, 605
Jaja (now Garoumélé), Niger 848
Jamaica 1001, 1002
Jarigole Pillar site, Kenya 591
Jebel Adda, Egypt 961
Jebel Akhdar, Libya 424–5
Jebel Barkal (Napata), Sudan 757–8
Jebel Gharbi, Libya 424
Jebel Irhoud, Morocco 279
fossils 334, 344, 419
Jebel Nauri, Sudan 963
Jebel Sahaba, Sudan 22
Jebel Shaqdud, Sudan 500
Jebel Uweinat, Libya, Sudan, Egypt 155
Jenné-jeno, Mali 25, 715
clay figurines 164
gold 618
historical ecology 193
oral traditions 38–9
state formation 715
symbolic reservoirs 183
trade and urbanism 835–7
urbanism 694
Johanson, Donald 20
Johansson de Château, L. 692
Johnston, H. H. 628
Jordan, E, 977
Jos Plateau, Nigeria 315
K-2 710
K6, Ghana 608
caprines 610
Kabambian 880
Kabwe, Zambia
bone tools 395
brain size 391
fossils 279
Kadero, Sudan 24
Neolithic 548
Kaditshwene, South Africa 937
Kadruka, Sudan 548
Kaf That el Ghar, Morocco 440
Kafu River, Uganda 289
Kafue Flats, Zambia 468
Kahun, Egypt 693
Kakaton’i Anja, Madagascar 945
Kalahari 89
herding 647, 648, 650
(p. 1037)
style and identity 92
Kalambo Falls, Zambia 21, 111
Acheulean 313, 315, 316
environment 407
plant foods 395
stone tools 394
wooden tools 395
Kaleb, King of Aksum 808
Kalenjin people
social organization 726
Kalundu pottery 560, 658
Kamoa, Congo-Kinshasa 407–408
Kamose, Pharaoh 752
Kanem-Borno empire 715, 847–50
Kanjera, Kenya 107, 291, 292
Kankpeyeng, W. 258
Kano, Nigeria 851–2, 853
Kapedo Tuffs, Kenya 392
Kapthurin Formation, Kenya
Acheulean 313
dating 344
hominin fossil 332
stone tools 392
Karagwe, Tanzania 896
Karega-Munene 466
Karkarichinkat, Mali 559, 609
Kasteelberg, South Africa 647–8
Kasubi, Uganda 214
royal burial 895, 896
Kasunga, Uganda 894
Katanda, Congo-Kinshasa 409–410
Katsina, Nigeria 853
Kea, R. A. 691
Kébibat, Morocco 333
Kehfr el Hammar, Morocco 432, 433
Kelly, K. 196, 975
Kemp, Barry 546, 693, 739
Kenya 910–11
education 242
irrigation 674–5
obsidian 396
pastoralism 586, 592
watoro 1018
Kerma kingdom 751–6
bronze 621
irrigation 673
state formation 708
urbanism 693
Kerma, Sudan 25, 500
Key West, USA 206
Khama III, King 975
Khama, Sir Seretswe 258
Khami, Zimbabwe 924
Kharga, Egypt
Acheulean 314–15
Khartoum Hospital site, Sudan 542
Khoe 975
Khoekhoen 480–81
rock art 149–50
Khoesan (Khoisan) 474, 645
genetics 67, 70, 328
languages 50–51, 56, 57
Kibengo, Uganda 714
Kibiro, Uganda 892–3
Kibish Formation, Ethiopia 391
Kiethega, J.-B. 123
Kikongo language 60
Killick , D. J. 136, 139
Kilo-Moto, Congo-Kinshasa 407
Kilwa Kiswani, Tanzania 25, 710
stone architecture 910
trade centre 205
urbanization 191
kin-based societies 724, 725–6, 733
material traces 727
Kinahan, J. 648
Kingany, Madagascar 948
kinship systems 664
Kintampo Complex, Ghana 80–81
lithic assemblages 180
Kirkman, J. S. 696, 903
Kisalian 878–80
Kisese, Tanzania 462
Kisio Shelter, Kenya 46
Kissi, Burkina Faso 835
Kitab al-istibsar 820–21
Kitab surat al-ard (Ibn Hawqal) 817, 820
Kiyaga-Mulindwa, D. 242
Klasies River, South Africa 21
art 377
bone tools 373–5
hominin fossil 334
stone tools 373
Klein, M. A. 991
(p. 1038) Klein, R. G. 361
Klein Kliphuis, South Africa 377
Kleindienst, M. R. 289
Klieman, K. A. 637
Kobadi, Mali 454
Kokiselei, Kenya 309
Kololo language 82
Kom el-Abqa’in, Egypt 766
Komaland, Ghana 165
Kondoa, Tanzania
forager-farmer interaction 468
historical ecology 193
rock art 153, 154
Konduga, Ghana 605
Kongo kingdom 691, 876, 878
Christianity 171
state formation 712
urbanism 695
Koobi Fora, Kenya
Acheulean 309
hunting 300–301
land use 191
Kopytoff, Igor 8, 81, 82–3
Kosso, P. 88
Koumbi Saleh, Mauritania 25, 838
urbanism 694
Kpone, Ghana 605
Kramer, C. 96, 117
Kryzaniak, Lech 24
Kuba, R. 167
Kufan Kanawa, Nigeria 851–2
Kufrah River, Libya 422
Kuhn, S. L. 357
Kuhn, T. S. 347
Kukawa, Nigeria 849, 850
Kumali, Ethiopia 576
Kursakata, Nigeria 846
Kush, kingdom of 751, 756–61
urbanism 693
Kusimba, C. M. 910, 1015, 1018
Kusimba, C. M. & S. B. 732
Kwa languages 53
Kwadi 51
Kwali, Zimbabwe 138
La Violette, A. 696
Lac Karâr, Algeria 313
lactase persistence 491, 496, 586
Laetoli, Tanzania 333
Laga Oda, Ethiopia 575, 576
Lahr, M. M. 421
Laidler, P. W.119
Lainyamok, Kenya 333
Lake Barombi Mbo, Cameroon 405
Lake Besaka, Ethiopia 575, 576
Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana 608
pollen records 405
Lake Chad Basin
and Atlantic World 989
cattle 609
ceramics 120
environment 845
genetics 67–8, 72–3
urbanism 694
Lake Ifrah, Morocco 432
Lake Megafezzan 420–21
Lake Nakuru Basin, Kenya 594
Lake Tana, Ethiopia 575
Lake Tumba, Congo-Kinshasa 412
stone tools 409
Lake Turkana, Kenya 191
and climate change 450
food production 468
Homo fossils 276–8
Pastoral Neolithic 586, 588–591
stone tools 392
subsistence strategies 464, 465
Lake Victoria (Nyanza)
ceramics 890–91
economy 892–3
historical ecology 192–3
hunter-gatherers 466, 467
social organization 732
Lalibela, Ethiopia 810–11
churches 171
Lamu, Kenya 178
land molluscs 438
land use, coasts 202–203
landscape, symbolism and meaning 194–5
Lane, P. J. 90, 96, 166, 179, 193, 194, 262, 466, 910
Lanet 596
Lange, F. 1001, 1006
language 344 (p. 1039)
and modernity 347
MSA 397
Lanning, E. C. 37, 894
large mammal use 314, 315
Larick, R. 598
Lauroui, Abdullah 258
Lavachery, P. 603
Lawton, A. C. 120
Le Tourneau, R. 821–2
Leach, E. 43, 44, 46
Leakey, Louis 17, 20, 23, 289
Leakey, Mary 20, 289, 291, 308
Leakey, Richard 20
Lebeuf, A. M. D. 848
Lebeuf, J.-P. 120
Lee, E. S. 78–9
Lehner, Mark 739
Leija, Nigeria 139
Leith-Ross, S. 120
Lentz, C. 167
Leopard's Kopje sites 918
Lepcis Magna, Libya 769, 779, 780–81, 784
Lernia, Savino di 29
Leroi-Gourhan 120
Levallois technique 110, 111, 308, 313, 314, 344, 392
Levant
farming 545
human dispersal 422
Levi Jordan, USA 1006
Lévi-Strauss, Claude 42, 45, 46
Lewis-Williams, David 22, 147, 148–9, 153, 360
lexicostatistics 53
Libya
agricultural intensification 681–2
climate change 421
Ottoman 959–60
rock art 156
Liesegang, G. 853
Lim, Imogene 153
Limpopo Basin 479
lineage based genetic analysis 66–7
linguistics
spread of pastoralism 586–8
literacy
Nubia 793
lithic technologies see stone tools
livestock see pastoralism, cattle
Lixus, Morocco 769
Loango kingdom 712, 876, 877
Lodjo Valley, Congo-Kinshasa 407
Lokalalei, Kenya 107, 110
Lokori, Kenya 591–2
London Missionary Society 171
Lopoy, Kenya 589, 591
Lothagam, Kenya 464
Lovejoy, C. O. 275
Lozi state 883
Luangwa tradition 881–2
Luba kingdom 713–14
Luba people 879–80
Lubell, D. 438
Lucas, G. 976
Lukenya Hill, Kenya 594
hunting 395
Pleistocene 463
Luo people 90, 732
Lupemban Industry 392, 394, 406–408, 413
Lupo, K. 89
Luzira Head 165
Lycett, S. J. 315
Lyons, D. 90
Maa speakers 154
Maadaga 608
Maadi, Egypt 546
Maasai community 732
Maasai Plains, Kenya and Tanzania 596–7
Mabulla, A. 468
MacDonald, K. C. 24
MacEachern , S. 184, 854
MacKenzie, B. L. 240
Madagascar 943–51
missionaries 171
population movements 56–7
symbolism 91
urbanism 696
Mafa people 136
Mafia Island, Tanzania 93
Maghreb
hunter-gatherers 431–40
Islamic period 817–25
urbanism 693–4
Magnavita, C. 848
(p. 1040) Mahdia, Tunisia 203–204
Mahilaka, Madagascar 696, 946–7, 948
Makapansgat, South Atrica 19
hominin land use 191
Makuria, kingdom of 790, 794
Malagasy language 58, 943
Malawi 881
Mali 715
empire 840
rock art 156
walled villages 830–31
Maloti-Drakensberg Moutains, southern Africa 481
rock art 479–80
Mamba 664–5
Manda, Kenya 25, 710
Mandara Mountains, Cameroon
funerary practices 167
material style 92
symbolic reservoirs 183
Mandara people 73
Mande people
clay and symbolism 166
climate change 194
Manetho 741
Mankhamba, Malawi 882
Mapunda, B. B. B. 93, 95
Mapungubwe, South Africa 119
ceramics 929–30
golden rhinoceros 138
metalworking 137
social complexity 710
social stratification 918
Marakwet people 731
Marateng pottery 930
Marathodi, South Africa 938
Maravi kingdom 881–2
Marean, C. W. 347–8, 463
Mariette, Auguste 737
Maringishu 594
maritime activity, Ottoman 967
maritime archaeology 201–210
maritime conflict 208
Marks, S. 256
Marshall, F. 528, 530
Marshall, L. W. 911
Marshall, Wilson 1018
Martinique 1000, 1001
Masai Gorge Rockshelter, Kenya 465, 592
Masao, F. T. 301
Mason, Revil 26, 244, 933
Massawa, Ethiopia 959, 965
Matara, Ethiopia 710
material culture theory 358–9
Mathers, C. 167
Matola, Mozambique 466
Matopo Hills, Zimbabwe 361
plant foods 477, 478
Mattingly, D. 682
Matupi Cave, Kongo-Kinshasa 411, 461
Mauny, Raymond 25
Mauritania
ancient 768
ceramics 120
Mauro, Fra 854
Mazel, A. D. 245, 360, 481
Mbanza Kongo, Angola 695, 878
population 712
Mbanza Mbata, Congo-Kinshasa 878
Mbanza Soyo, Angola 878
Mbi Crater, Cameroon 631
McBrearty, S. 346, 424
McBurney, C. B. M. 425
McBurney, Charles 21, 23
McIntosh, Roderick 837, 838
McIntosh, Roderick & Susan 25, 38, 69, 193, 194, 835
McIntosh, Susan 706
meat-eating 293, 301
Medinet Habu, Egypt 203
Mediterranean Cost
megaliths 168
Mege, Nigeria 846
Mehmet Ali 958–9
Meinhof, C. 628
Melka Kunture, Ethiopia
Acheulean 309
hominin fossil 333
Melkhoutboom Cave, South Africa 21
Memphis, Egypt 693
men and metalworking 166
Merimde Beni Salama, Egypt 546
Merina state, Madagascar 950
Merleau-Ponty 194
Meroe, kingdom of (p. 1041)
collapse 761, 789
irrigation 673
metal working 137, 619, 621
state formation 708
urbanism 693, 758–9
Meroitic 760–61
Mersa, Egypt 203
Meskell, L. 180, 261
metalworking 615–17
materials 133
North Africa 615
scientific studies 139–40
south of the Sahara 617–23
technology 133–7, 140
Metcalf, P. 167
Mezber, Ethiopia 576
Mfecane 82, 936–8
Mgoli, Tanzania 1019
Mgungundlovu, South Africa 936
microliths 392, 409
Iberomaurusian 435–6
Sahara 445–6, 447
southern Africa 476, 477
Middle Awash, Ethiopia
Acheulean 309, 312, 316
fossils 278
middle-range theory 359
migration see population movements
migration research 77–9, 83
Mijikenda 217
Miller, D. E. 139, 140
Mire, S. 216, 262
missionaries 171
Mitchell, P. J. 81, 424, 657
mitochondrial DNA 66, 69–70, 72, 73, 326–7, 328, 345–6
Mombasa, Kenya 909
Moore, H. 90
Morocco
Capsian 438
fossil hominins 331
Iberomaurusian 432–3
Neolithic 438–40
mosques
Madagascar 946, 948
Morocco 820
Ottoman 960–63
Sudan 169–70, 848
Swahili 710, 905, 908
Mossel Bay Industry 373
Mosumu, Equatorial Guinea 408
Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania 675
Mozambique 145
Mpumalanga, South Africa 164, 935–6
Msuluzi Confluence, South Africa 664
Mubende, Uganda 37, 894
Mubuga, Burundi 619
Mudida, N. 910
Mufuka, Ken 259
Mugabe, Robert 258
Mugharet el’Aliya, Morocco 334
Mumba Shelter, Tanzania 395, 462
beads 396
domestic stock 592–3
forager-farmer interaction 468
hominin fossil 335
Mumbwa, Zambia 119
bone tools 395
hearths 395
plant use 395
stone tools 394
Munro, N. D. 361
Munsa, Uganda 714, 893–4
Munson, P. J. 24, 831, 832
Mura people 93
spacial organization 90
Murray, S. 518
Musée de l’homme, Paris 120
Musée National de Lubambashi, Congo-Kinshasa 233–4
Musonda, F. B.468
Mutapa state 922–3, 924
Mutesa 695
Mwana wa Chentchere, Malawi 882
Nabta Playa, Egypt 21
abandoned 546
animal domestication 528, 530, 532, 534
ceramics 448
houses 544
Neolithic 450–51
(p. 1042)
plant domestication 518
plant remains 542–4
Nachtigal, G. 850
Nag’Ahmed el Khalifa, Egypt 314
Naisiusiu Beds, Olduvai Gorge, Kenya 462
stone tools 394
Namib desert 477
Namibia 650
Napata, Sudan 693
state formation 708
Naqa, Sudan 759
Narmer Palette 743, 744
national identity and archaeology 216
National Museum, Kenya 221
National Museum of Botswana 231–2
nationalism 259, 765
natural selection 329–40
Nazlett Khater, Egypt 426
Nderit pottery 588, 589, 592
Ndlovu, N. 261
Ndondonwane, SA 138, 664
Ndtoua, Cameroon 411–12
Ndumbi, Congo-Kinshasa 409
Ndutu, Tanzania 332
Neanderthals 341–2, 344, 422
genome 326
symbolic behaviour 348
négritude 257
Nekaber Ga’ewa, Ethiopia 802
Nelson, C. M. 585–6
Netting, R. 677–8, 681
New World see Americas
Newton, Barbados 1001, 1006
Ngamakala Pond, Congo-Brazzaville 405
Ngamuriak, Kenya 595
Nguni languages and people 82, 481, 933, 935
Niakaté, Boubou 120
Niani, Mali 840
Niger
ceramics 448–9
early Holocene 453–4
ironworking 620
microliths 447
rock art 156
Niger-Congo languages 50, 52
and slave trade 58
Nigeria 620
Nile, River
and climate change 450
Nile Delta 545
Nile Valley
Acheulean 314–15
early farming 541–50
introduced crops 516
Islam 169
state formation 707–708
urbanism 692–3
Nilo-Saharan languages 50, 51–2, 55–6
Njanja people 138, 140
Njoro River Cave, Kenya 596
Njuinye, Cameroon 411
Nkrumah, Kwame 258
Nobadia, kingdom of 790–92
Nok Culture 565–6, 631
terracotta figurines 164–165
non-recombinant Y-chromosome (NRA) 66, 69–70, 72, 73, 326–327, 328
Nordström, H.-A. 124
Norman, N. L. 181, 195–6
North Africa
Acheulean 311, 313
agricultural intensification 681–2
animal domestication 529
beads 359, 376
Christianity 170–71
dispersal 421–2
fossils 278, 336
pre-Roman 765–72
rock art 155–6
Roman 777–85
North America 1000
Northern Sotho speakers 150
Norton, C. J. 316
Nqabeni, South Africa 934
Nqada, Egypt 693
Ntadi-Yomba, Congo-Brazzaville 408
Ntusi, Uganda 890
economy 892–3
urbanism 695
Nuba Hills, Sudan 53
Nubia
Christianity 170
crop plants 516
Islam 169
(p. 1043)
medieval 789–4
post-medieval 795–6
state formation 547, 708
urbanism 693
Nuer People 725, 726
Numidia 768
Roman 778
Nupe see Yoruba
nut pounding 315
Nyabessan Swamp, Cameroon 405
Nyamwezi people 1015
Nyanga, Zimbabwe 678–80
Nyerere, Julius 258–9
O’Brien, T. P. 291
obsidian 107, 396, 463, 464
ochre 348, 357, 359, 396
O’Connell, J. F. 89
O’Connor, A. 691, 693
O’Connor, D. 742
Oea, Libya 779
Ogiek people 465, 467–8, 469
Ogundiran, A. 182, 991
Ohinata, F. 620, 931
Okafor, E. E. 28, 139
Okavango Delta 679
Okpoko, Alex Ikechukwu 28
Old Dongola, Sudan 790–91
and Ottomans 967
Old Oyo, Nigeria 694
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 20, 303
Acheulean 316
chronology 308
hominin site usage 299
Homo fossils 276–7
stone tools 289, 291, 292
Olorgesailie, Kenya 20
Acheulean 312
Omo, Ethiopia
fire 35
stone tools 396
Omo Kibish, Ethiopia 279
hominin fossil 334, 336
Oral Traditions in History (Vansina) 28
Oranjemund, Namibia 205
Orel, V. 52
Origins of African People of the Johannesburg Area (Mason) 244
Origins of African Plant Domestication (Harlan et al) 24
Oromo people 468
Ororrin tugenensis 275
Oruwanje, Namibia 650
ostrich eggshell and ostrich eggshell beads 359, 360, 375, 377, 648
Iberomaurusian 435
Sahara 447
Otto, J. S. 1003
Ottoman Empire 795, 957–8
merchantile expansion 208
Oudepost, South Africa 975
Ouidah, Bénin 988, 990
Ounjougou, Mali 607
ceramics 446, 605
stone tools 412–13
Oursi, Burkina Faso 608
Out of Africa model 346, 421–422
Oyo-Ile, Nigeria 866
Oyo, Nigeria 134, 868–9
state formation 716
Ozanne, Paul 24
paleoenvironment
and genetics 70, 73
and hominin evolution 282
and primate evolution 275
rainforest 404–406
Palmares, Brazil 1000
Pan-Africanism 257–8
Panafrican Archaeological Association (PAA) 241
Pangani, Tanzania 1015, 1016
Paranthropus 272, 276
Parker Pearson, M. 88
Parkington, John 21, 24, 192, 247, 657
Parting Ways, USA 1002, 1003
passive scavenging 294, 296, 299–300
Pastoral Iron Age 586, 596–9
Pastoral Neolithic 585–6, 590–91
(p. 1044) pastoralism 466–7, 527–37
early Holocene 453, 454
East Africa 585–99
Niger 453–4
Sahara 453
Sahel 454, 544, 556–8
south-west Africa 56
southern Africa 480
Sudan 547–8
pastoralists
and European contact 975
Pate, Kenya 217
Pawlowicz, M. 910
Pemba Island, Tanzania
colonial 1017
crop plants 516
slave trade 206
urbanism 696
Peninj, Kenya
Acheulean 309
plant processing 315
percussion flaking 106, 108–109
Pérez-Pardal, L. 496
Periplus of the Erythrean Sea 205, 902
personal adornment 375–7, 548
African diaspora 1006; see also beads
personal identity and burials 180
Petrie, Flinders 16, 119, 738, 747
petroglyphs 591
Phalabowra, South Africa 139–40
phenomenology 194
Philipson, David 4, 24, 25, 29
Phoenicia 769
Phoka people 136
phylogeny 280, 281, 283
picks 307
pigs 499, 576–7
Pikirayi, I. 28, 183, 657
Pinnacle Point, South Africa
fire 382
ochre 377
plant foods 292, 303, 531
Maghreb 436
MSA 395
Sahara 451
southern Africa 477
plant materials 395
Acheulean 316
handaxes 315
Kalambo Falls 313
Pliny 769, 780, 783
Pokot people 676, 731
political bias 253–263
political centralization
Benin 863
Madagascar 949–50
Shashe-Limpopo 916–17
state formation 546–7
political problems and archaeology 26, 27, 220–21
African innovation 140
Pollard, E. 910
pollen records 405, 432, 450, 945
Pope, M. 317
population density 391
and agricultural intensification 677–8
population movements
and animal domestication 556
Bantu 56
Egypt 746–747
genetics 71–72, 73
and herding 651
Madagascar 56–8
and pastoralism 535, 588
southern Africa 934
Porc Epic, Ethiopia
fossils 344
hunting 395
ochre 396
stone tools 392
portable religious objects 164–5
Portugal and Portuguese 972–3, 1000
Congo Basin 695, 877, 878, 881
forts 205–206
and Ottomans 959
Swahili Coast 908–909
Zimbabwe 922–3, 924
Posnansky, M. 24, 37, 122, 213, 241, 866, 888, 895
post-colonialism 259–60
post-conflict archaeologies 260–261
post-positivism 88
pottery see ceramics
(p. 1045) Potts, R. 295
power relations
and landscape 196
material culture 182
and spatial organization 90–91
Praeanthropus 272
Prehistory of Africa (Alimen) 17
The Prehistory of Africa (Clark) 342
The Prehistory of East Africa (Cole) 342
Prehistory of Uganda Protectorate (O’Brien) 291
Premo, L. S. 361
Prendergast 593
pressure flaking 109
primate evolution 270–71, 275
primate studies 20
Procopius 779
Prolonged Drift, Kenya 395
The Prophecy of Neferti 745
proto-Bantu 54, 629, 630–31; see also Bantu
Proto-Tifinagh 766
Ptolemy 903
Pwiti, G. 657
Pygmies
genetics 67, 70–71, 328, 403–404
Qasr es Seghir, Morocco 694
Qasr Ibrim, Egypt
camels 499
cathedral 794
organic materials 171
Ottoman 964–5
stone lion 761
urbanism 693
Qayrawan, Tunisia 819
Quseir al-Qadim, Egypt 205
race in Egypt 746–7
racism 79, 119, 703
in education 243, 244
Radimilahy, C. 696
Rambogo, Kenya
ochre 396
plant remains 395
Ramilisonina 88
Ranger, T. O. 919
Ray, Keith 181, 867
Red Sea coast 205, 206
Redman, C. L. 694
refuge model 296
regime change, Egypt 744–5
Reisner, George 738, 758
religious practices
Carthage 770–71
Renfrew, A. C. 78
repatriation 220–22
representational art
MSA 377
resource provisioning model 295
Rhapta 902–903
Rhodes, D. 1016
Ribot, L. 55
Richard, F. G. 986
Rietputs Formation, South Africa 310
ritual activities
African diaspora 1003, 1005–1007
Early Farming Communities 664
and material culture 180–81
Shashe-Limpopo Basin 919
southern Africa 933
ritual centres 894
roads, Roman 783–4
Robberg Industry 463, 476
Robertshaw, P. T. 894, 897
Robertson, J. H. 80, 81
rock art 145–157, 360
colonial wars 938
East Africa 466
in education 247–8
Malawi and Zambia 882
phenomenology of landscape 194–195
and politics 261
recent past 973
ritual and religious aspects 163
Sahara 456
southern Africa 479–80, 481
rock art studies 22
rockshelters 397
East Africa 462–3
southern Africa 475
Rodney, W. 985
Rose Cottage Cave, South Africa 109
(p. 1046) Roset, J. P. 453
Rossignol, J. 189
Rowley-Conwy, P. 499
Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium 120, 233–4
Rubaga, Uganda 695
Rufiji Delta, Tanzania 902
Rugumora Mahe, King 38, 39–41, 45
Rwanda
ceramics 890
ironworking 619, 620
royal burial 895–6
Rwiyange, Burundi 619
sacred groves 167–8
Sadana Island, Egypt 208, 960, 967
Sadr, K. 468
Sahara
Acheulean 314–15
climate change 421
holocene repopulation 81
MSA 427
plant domestication 511, 513, 518
rock art 146, 155–6
social hierarchy 714
Sahel
food production 556–7
plant domestication 511, 513, 518
state formation 845–9
urbanism 694
Sahelanthropus 275
Sai Island, Sudan 425, 751
core axes 407
Neolithic 547–8
Ottoman 965
Salé, Morocco 331
salt 665, 892–3
San people 474, 481
and Europeans 975
genetics 70
rock art 145, 147, 148–50, 195, 479–80; see also Bushmen
Sanam Abu Dom, Sudan 760
Sandawe people 51
genetics 70, 71, 328
rock art 153
Sao clay figurines 164
Saoura, Algeria 314
Sarakolé people 122
Sassoon, H. 896
Savannah Pastoral Neolithic 592, 593–4
Savi, Bénin 868, 975, 987–8, 990
Sayfuwa dynasty 846
Scarre, C. 3
Schick, K. D. 297
Schild, R. 314
Schire, C. 975
Schmidt, P. R. 24, 39, 42, 45, 95, 136, 140, 192–193, 194, 197, 888–9, 895
Schoeman, M. H. 657
Schoenbrun, D. L. 889
Schofield, J. F. 929
Schroda, South Africa 710, 917
Sealey , J. C. 358
Sechele I, King 975
sedentism 544
Sahara 449, 451
seed crops 518–19
Segobye, A. K. 216, 242
Segou 840
Seligman, C. G. 79, 255
Semliki Valley, Congo-Kinshasa 409–411
Semna Dispatches 755
Senegal 217
Senegambia 986, 991, 992
Senghor, Léopold 257
Serengeti 592–3
settlements 90
Early Farming Communities 662–3
Seville Plantation, Jamaica 1007
Shaheinab, Sudan 547
Shambaa people 42
Shanga, Kenya 25, 710
mosque 170
Shashe-Limpopo Basin 481–2, 916–19
Shaw, Ian. 546, 739
Shaw, Thurstan 21, 23, 25, 413, 604, 867
Shea, J. J. 381, 392
sheep see caprines
shell middens 203, 609
Lake Victoria 466
Maghreb 438
Senegal 217
southern Africa 478
shells 375–7, 435
as currency 182, 877, 991
Shepherd, Nick 23, 261, 262
Shilluk people 726
Shinnie, P. 137
Shinnie, P. L. 694
shipping and shipwrecks 203–208
Eritrean Coast 807
and European colonization 973
Mombasa 909
Sadana Island 960, 967
Shona people 137
shrines 167–8, 169
Shum Laka, Cameroon 411, 605, 607, 631
Sibudu, South Africa
beads 376
bone tools 375
bow and arrow 381
hafted tools 379
plant materials 382
snares 381
stone tools 109, 373
Sidi Abederrahman, Morocco 313
Sidi Zin, Tunisia 313, 314
Sijilmasa, Morocco 820–21, 824
Sill Bay Industry 109, 373
Simunye, Swaziland 931
Sinclair, A. 191
Sinclair, Paul 28
Singa, Sudan 279
hominin fossil 334
Singida, Tanzania 153
Sinnar, Sudan 795, 796
Sirikwa people 728–32
site usage by hominins 293–303
Situmpa, Zambia 646
Sjöberg, G. 692
slavery and slave trade 206–207
Atlantic 984–5, 989, 991
burials 1006–1007
Cape 976–7
Kanem-Borno 850
and language 57–8, 60
medieval Nubia 793
and New World 999–1001, 1002
Ottoman 967–8
plant exchange 515–16
and state formation 716
Swahili 905–906
trans-Sahara 819
Smith, A. B. 90, 453, 528, 530, 648
Smith, A. T. 196
Smith, B. W. 194, 255, 261
snares and traps 381–2
Soba, Sudan 171
social behaviour 360
social complexity
hierarchy and hetrarchy 724–5
investigation of 25–6
Sahel 845–6
in savannah 694
and state formation 706
West Africa 714, 829
Yorubaland 865–6, 867, 869
Zambezia 915
Zimbabwe 710–11
social differentiation 549, 563
Society for American Archaeology 240
Society of Africanist Archaeologists 25
Sodmein Cave 532
soft hammer percussion see percussion flaking
Somalia 216
Somaliland 262
Songhai 715
symbolism of ceramics 166
Songo Mnara, Tanzania 911
Soninke people 120
Soper, Robert 24, 679
Soromoto, Mali 840
Sosso, Mali 840
Sotho-Tswana peoples 934–5
South Africa
beads 359, 360
bronze 622
education 242–9
fossil dates 345
hominin fossils 336
rock art 146, 148
stone tools 107
south-central Africa
hunter-gatherers 462, 465, 466
(p. 1048) southern Africa
Acheulean 309–310, 313
agricultural intensification 678–9
European interaction 974–9
farming 657–66
forager/farmer relations 357
herding 645–2
hunter-gatherers 367–83, 473–83
Iron Age 183
Late Farming Communities 929–38
Oldowan sites 289
population size 361
urbanism 696–7
Space, Text and Gender (Moore) 90
Spain 999–1000
links with Africa 440
spatial organization 348
Great Zimbabwe 921–2
living spaces 382–3
metalworking 138
Swahili house 178–9
spatial patterning 359
specialization in state formation 706
Spedini, G. 73
Stahl, A. B. 80–81, 181, 989, 992
state formation 705–717
Egypt 743–4
Madagascar 950
North Africa 767–8
southern Africa 935–6
Sterkfontein, South Africa 310
Sterner, J. 92
Stiner, M. C. 357, 361
Stolbova, O. 52
The Stone Age Cultures of Kenya Colony (Leakey) 17
The Stone Age Cultures of South Africa (Goodwin and van Riet Lowe) 17
Stone, P. G. 240
Stone to Metal Age 603–610
stone tools 104, 283
Acheulean 307–317
function 292
materials 103, 107–108, 292, 392, 563–4, 607
methods of manufacture 110
MSA 372–3,
southern Africa 647–8
techniques 103, 106, 108–109
transport 396
typology 111–12
West Africa 604, 605–607
West and Central Africa 406–414
storage vessels 565
Strabo 780
Stringer, C. B. 334, 346
structuralism 42–6
Sturtevant, W. C. 227
style and identity 92–3, 183–4, 930, 931
Suakin, Sudan 965–6
Ottoman period 208
slave trade 206
subsistence strategies 466–8
Bantu 633–4
Early Farming Communities 660–62
East Africa 463, 464, 465
holocene Niger 453–4
Maghreb 436, 438
Sahara 449, 451–2
southern Africa 476–8
West Africa 609–610
Sudan
domesticated sorghum 544–5
ironworking 618–19
Islam 170
Neolithic 547–50
Ottoman 960
plant domesticates 512, 513
terracing 673
Sugenya 595
Sukur, Nigeria 90
Sule, A. S. 853
Summers, Roger 26
Supreme Council of Antiquities, Egypt737, 738
Surame, Nigeria 853
Sutton, J. E. G. 79–80, 542, 732
Swadesh, M. 53
Swahili
coastal resources 203
house 178–9
ironworking 140
and Madagascar 946
nautical vocabulary 54
(p. 1049)
port towns 205
urbanism 696
Swahili Coast 689, 901–911
and Near East 705
state formation 710
Swart Village, Zimbabwe 138
symbol use and modernity 347–8
symbolism 358
and bone tools 375
houses 91
metalworking 39–42, 95, 137–8
rock art 148, 151, 149
Tabelbala-Tachenghit, Algeria 314
Tadrart Acacus, Libya
Neolithic 451–3
rock art 155
Taforalt, Morocco 433, 434, 435–6
Tagalangal, Niger 453
Tago, Mali 164
Tallensi, Ghana 166, 167–8, 195
Tallensi people 726
Tamar Hat, Algeria 433, 436
Tanzania
iron 621
obsidian 396
pastoralism 586, 593
rock art 147
Taolombiby, Madagascar 945
taphonomy 89, 299
Taramasa (Hill), Egypt 335, 426
Tarīkh (Al-Yaqūbī) 837
Tarikh es-Soudan 838
Taruga, Nigeria 622
Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria 155
taxonomy 272
Tchadanthropus uxoris 20
Tegdaoust, Mauritania 25
Islam 169
pottery 823–4
urbanism 694
Tell el Farkha, Egypt 545
Témara, Morocco 335
Ten Raa, Eric 153
Ténéré, Niger 155
terracing 673, 679
Testart, A. 449
Texier, P. J. 109
textiles 835, 850, 853, 867, 881, 992
Thaba Bosiu, Lesotho 936
Thebes, Egypt 693
Thiaw, Ibrahima 27
Thinis, Egypt 693
Thomas, J. 189
Thomas Quarry, Morocco 311, 312
Thukela Basin, South Africa 662
hunter-gatherer behaviour 360
Thutmose I, Pharaoh 756
Tibesti, Chad 155
Tichitt see Dhar Tichitt
Tichitt-Oulata-Néma sites 559–60, 562
Tighennif, Algeria 311, 314
Tigray, Ethiopia 90, 803
cattle remains 575
medieval 809–810
Tihodaine, Algeria 314
Tilemsi Valley, Mali
cattle 609
millet domestication 518
Timotheus, Bishop 171
Tio kingdom 712, 876–7
Tishkoff, S. A. 55
Tiv people 726
Tixier, Jacques 21, 108, 110
Togola, Téréba 28
Torwa state 924
Toteng, Botswana 648
cattle 593
towns see urbanism
trade
Aksum 807, 809
Badarian people 546
colonial East Africa 1016–1017
Congo Basin 877
Early Farming Communities 665
and Europeans 974–5, 978
Garamantes 782
Great Zimbabwe 921
Hausaland 853–4
Igbo-Ukwu 867
Indian Ocean 903, 905–908, 946
and Islam 170
Kanem-Borno 850
Kerma 755–6
Kush 760
(p. 1050)
Malawi 881
maritime 203–208
medieval Nubia 793
Ottoman 967
Roman 783
Shashe-Limpopo Basin 917
Sudan 547–8
Swahili Coast 705, 710
and towns 694–5, 696
trans-Saharan 169, 714–15, 784, 823–4, 834
West Africa SMA 610
Zambezi Valley 881
traditional heritage management 214
Transatlantic Slave Trade Database 206
tree crops 521
Trigger, Bruce 15, 23, 255, 256, 673, 743
Tripoli, Libya 961, 963
Tripolitana, Libya 778–9
Tritrivakely, Madagascar 945
Tromoy, Norway 206
Troy, L. 693
tryponosomal infection 495, 496, 497–8
Tsara people 138
Tshitolian Industry 408–409
Tsonga people 931
Tswana people 171
tuber crops 519–21
tumuli 829–30, 834
Tunis, Tunisia 961, 962
Tunisia
Ottoman 959
Punic identity 765
Turkana people 591
Turkwel pottery 589
Turner, Victor 46
Tushka, Egypt 531
Twin Rivers, Zambia
haematite 396
Lupemban Industry 406–407
stone tools 394
Two Caves, Libya 452
Uan Afuda, Libya 427, 453
Uan Muhuggiag, Libya
burials 455
sheep & goats 532–3
Uan Tabu, Libya 427, 452–3
Uchi Maius, Tunisia 784
Uganda
bananas 946
history and politics 887–8
Islam and trade 170
royal burial 895–6
urbanism 695
Um Dirweiwa, Sudan 548, 549
UNESCO 218
UNESCO History of Africa 3
United States 1001, 1002–1003
universities 228, 241–2
Uoro Valley, Equatorial Guinea 409
Upemba Depression, Congo-Kinshasa 26
state formation 713–14, 878–882
Uqba Ibn Natufa 818
urbanism 689–97
Atlantic World 989–91
East Africa 1016
Kerma 753–4
Madagascar 946–8
Middle Niger 835–6
North Africa 780–81
southern Africa 936–7
Swahili 90, 906–907
West Africa 859, 865, 868
Urewe Complex 653, 658–60
Vallois, H. 342, 344
van der Merwe, N. J. 136
van Grunderbeek, M.-C. 619, 620
van Noten, Francis 24
van Riet Lowe, C. 17, 103, 390, 397, 474, 475
Vandals 778–9
Vansina, Jan 37–8, 39, 42–3, 45, 80, 875
Vasco da Gama 205
Vazimba people 945, 948
vegetable crops 521
Venda people 935
Vergelegen, South Africa 976
Vérin, P. 692, 696
Vermeersch, P. M. 426
Victoria Nyanza see Lake Victoria
Vinnicombe, Patricia 22, 147, 148
Vlach, J. M. 1003
Vögel, J. O. 4
Vogelsang, Ralf 650
Vohémar, Madagascar 948, 949
Volubilis, Morocco 768
Waata people 468
Wadh Lango, Kenya 467, 595
Wadi Adroh, Libya 427
Wadi Dagadé, Djibouti 333
Wadi Greboun, Niger 453
Wadi Howar, Sudan 542
Wadi Tahardart, Morocco 440
Wadi Ti-n-Torha, Libya 451–2, 453
Walker, N. J. 361
Walshaw, S. C. 910
Wandala 854
Wandibba, Simiyo 28, 123
Wandsnider, L. 189
Watson, D. J. 80–81
Wayland, E. J. 120, 254
Weber, M. 705
Webley, Lita 650
Weidenreich, F. 342
Wells, L. H. 119
Wendorf, F. 314, 435, 528, 530
Wengrow, D. 550
West Africa
Acheulean 315
agricultural intensification 681
and Atlantic World 983–4
copper 618
empires 837–40
European contacts 972–3
ironworking 133, 620, 621, 622
plant domesticates 511–12, 513
political systems 726
rock art 155
state formation 714–16, 870
Stone to Metal Age 603–610
stone tools 412–13
tropical rainforest 403
urbanism 694–5, 859–71
West Turkana, Kenya 293
Western Cape 479–80
The White Lady of the Brandenberg (Breuil) 17
Whitelaw, G. 657, 664
Widgren, M. 681
Wiesmüller, B. 848
Wiessner, P. 92, 183
wild cereals and grasses 436, 446, 531, 544, 575
Wilkinson, T. 744
Willard, A. 691
Willett, Frank 25
Williamson, B. S. 359
Willis, R. G. 43–4, 46
Wilmsen, E. N. 357
Wilson, T. H. 696
Winters, C. 691
Wittfogel, K. 672, 676
Wobst, M. 92, 358
women
food and reproduction 89
Gorée 986
in Saharan rock art 456
pottery production 166–7
sedentism 449
in Swahili house 179; see also gender
Wood, B. A. 277
Woodburn, J. 530
wooden tools 395
woodworking 315, 607
World Archaeological Congress 26
World Bank 219–20
World Heritage list 218, 219
World Summit on Sustainable Development 222
world view
Early Farming Communities 662–4
Wotzka, H.-P. 637
writing
Berber 766
Egypt 737
Wynne-Jones, S. 93, 191
Yaqut 846
Yeha, Ethiopia 801–802
Yellen, J. E. 89, 359
Yesbokheamani, King of Kush 761
York, Richard 24
(p. 1052) Yoruba
genetics 72
and slave trade 57–60
state formation 716
Yorubaland
cultural economy 991
divine kingship 870
ritual practices 182
social complexity 865–6
Young, Thomas
Zakiab, Sudan 548
Zambia
foragers 468
Late Iron age 881
urbanism 696
Zampetti, Daniela 29
Zangato, E. 619, 620, 622
Zanzibar, Tanzania 1013, 1016
trade 206–207
Zaria, Sudan 170
Zawiyet Umm el-Rakhem, Egypt 766
Zilum, Nigeria 562
Zimbabwe
education 242
herding 648
and Portuguese 973
rock art 146, 480
urbanism 696
Zimbabwe culture 689, 915–25
Zimbabwe Plateau
gold 907
state formation 710–711
Zinjanthropus 272
Ziwa, Zimbabwe 137
Zubieta, L. F. 882
Zulu state 936–7
Zululand 934