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date: 07 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Southern African Late Farming Communities were related to the majority of contemporary southern Africans. These agropastoralists formed part of a broader precolonial southern African complex during the second millennium AD that also included hunter-gatherers and pastoralists. European colonial expansion in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries dramatically disrupted these communities and the networks between them while recasting the pre-colonial African past in ‘tribal’ terms. This article discusses the archaeology of southern African Late Farming Communities. It discusses excavating pots and finding people, the complexity of Late Farmer Community group membership, archaeology beyond ‘tribes’, and the rise and fall of stonewalled towns and the making of colonial southern Africa.

Keywords: farmer community, archaeology, stonewalled towns, colonial southern Africa, agropastoralists

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