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date: 25 February 2021

Abstract and Keywords

The Horn of Africa is one of the Africa’s most culturally varied regions and the world’s most physiographically diverse areas, possessing an extensive range of climates, topographies, vegetation, and soils, often found vertically stratified over short horizontal distances. In consequence of its diverse climate, physiography human landscapes and dynamic food-producing systems, the Horn has long been recognised as a major world centre of plant domesticates, possesses diversity in cattle and goat breeds, and provides some of the densest and most varied concentrations of ancient pastoral rock art in Africa. This article examines the middle to late Holocene transition and the first appearance of food production in the Horn; the archaeological evidence for domesticated animals and plants in the Horn; and frameworks for the origins of food production.

Keywords: food production, Horn of Africa, cultural diversity, plant domesticates, middle/late Holocene transition, domesticated animals

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