Abstract and Keywords
A growing number of sites and sequences are now coming together to paint a more complete picture of East African hunter-gatherers of the last 20,000 years. During this period, microlithic technologies became widespread as hunter-gatherers adapted to different environments, ranging from highly mobile hunters of large game to sedentary forest dwellers with broad diets, and semi-sedentary hunter-fisher-gatherers. Other themes that emerge are greater assemblage diversity through time and an elaboration of the skills and technologies required to adapt to particular environments and the resources they could provide, including experiments in resource intensification. Ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological records help explain how some foraging societies survived into the more recent past and the nature of their interactions with both farmers and herders. This article discusses late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers; the Pleistocene–Holocene transition; mid and late Holocene hunter-gatherer-fishers; resource intensification; and hunter-gatherers, herders, and farmers.
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