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date: 25 May 2019

(p. 597) Index

(p. 597) Index

Abelson, R. P.408
Access (software package)440
account management354, 356, 363, 369, 371
global39, 44–5, 164, 580
key193–4, 466, 471
skills, abilities and processes362
strategic361, 368, 580 see also CDSAM
account representatives114, 133
accountability22, 132, 133, 149, 150, 151, 156, 158, 163, 169
customer focus and147
diminished155
organizational goals395
regional sales directors161
action identification11, 414–15, 420, 421, 423
activity‐based analysis290–1
adaptive behavior52, 419, 420, 521
adaptive selling65, 192–3, 521, 528
agility distinguished from520
added value25, 38, 107, 108, 206, 228, 325–6, 350, 362
building strategies with major customers36
buying firm361
collaborative relationships434–5
critical to understand criteria527
firms cannibalize on themselves by366
making creativity a major source of22
resellers150
ADP ((Automatic Data Processing)142–3
advertising20, 182, 239, 545, 592
expenditure on27, 426
heavy589
influence of407
online590
advertising agencies591
AFT (accelerated failure time)335
Agarwal, S.65
agency theory220 n.
agentic role345, 357, 360, 364, 369, 371
implemented using talent‐based model353
sales force only rewarded for358
sophisticated361
aggregate level approaches324
agility drivers520, 521, 525, 532
Ahearne, M.193
airplane parts151
Aksoy, L.313, 320–1
Albers, S.302
Alcoa584
alcohol usage255
Allied Signal151–3
Allnet Communications Services503
allocation of resources, see resource allocation
Almaden594
Alvarez‐Gonzalez, L. I.213
always‐on communication110
Ambady, N.119, 120
Ambrose, M. L.70
American consumers404–23
American Customer Satisfaction Index321
American Marketing Association470
AmEx587
analytical CRM phase352, 354
Anderson, E.65, 84, 85, 87, 88, 92, 176, 184, 185, 202, 203, 205, 206, 208, 209, 210, 212–13, 216, 218, 383, 490–1
Anderson, J. C.201, 211, 215, 507, 546
Andreassen, T. W.320–1
(p. 598) angels and devils364
anxiety255, 264
Apple320, 347, 365, 366
MacIntosh computers588
APS (Advanced Planning and Scheduling)438, 439
Ara, K.122
Argote, L.473, 478
Armour, H.511
Arndt, J.360, 363
ASA (attraction‐selection‐attrition) model389
Ashkanasy, N. M.377
asymmetric information357
AT&T132, 503
attentiveness and likeability357
attitudinal loyalty317, 318, 320, 323, 340
Australia90, 91, 92, 93, 99, 561
Austria93
authority411–13
resources allocated on the principle of477
automation, see SFA
automobile industry496
Babakus, E.78, 79, 84, 85, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97
Bagozzi, R. P.115, 121, 262, 263
Bahrain94
Bain & Company320
Baldauf, Artur3, 13, 46, 65, 78, 86, 93
Ballantyne, D.469, 470, 543
bandwidth134, 137–8, 139, 143
challenged153, 166
Bank, A. J. M.45
Bank of America500
bankruptcy573
Barclay, D. W.546, 547
bargaining364
arms‐length359
hard357
reasoned359
Barnard, Chester556
Barney, J. B.174, 369, 370, 493, 494, 496, 499, 505, 507
Baron, R.549
Barone, M. J.216, 218
Barr, S. H.444
Barrett, M.480
Barton, A. W.445
Bascoul, G.319
Bass, B. M.60, 61
Bayesian decision theory325
Beatson, A.118
Bechara, A.118
beer consumption411
behavior control82, 84, 86, 90, 93, 96, 99
compensation and85, 88
relevance and importance of92
behavior monitoring215–16
behavior performance88–9, 91, 92
behavioral loyalty317, 318, 319, 323, 340
Behrman, D. N.186, 257, 260, 261, 262
beliefs388, 522
adoption of473
misconceptions and313
shared259, 260
underlying501
Belk, R. W.409
Bellenger, D. N.257
Bellizzi, J. A.118
benchmarking systems26, 286, 301, 320, 367
Berends, H.476
Bergen, M.211
Berntson, G. G.117
Best Buy364
best‐in‐class relationships348
inspection355
suppliers38, 356, 361
best practice58, 432
Bharadwaj, S. G.370, 490, 504, 547
Bhutan422
bidirectional communication258, 557, 562
Biemans, W. G.545, 548
Big 3 (major accounting firms)587
“Big Brother” connotations122
biology103, 120, 122, 123
black box approach445
Black & Decker142
Blackberrys110, 440
(p. 599) Blattberg, R. C.327, 330
Blau, P. L.56, 71
blogs321, 322, 365
blood pressure255
Blythe, J.556
body language122
Boersma, K.476
Bohling, T.316, 325
Bolton, R. N.318, 327
Bonifacio, M.468
Bono, J. E.60
bonuses238, 243, 248
Booz Allen Hamilton (2003)335
bottom‐line evaluation236
bottom‐up approach324
Boulding, W.430
boundary‐spanners55, 111, 112, 175, 186, 257, 426, 472, 481
close ties between customers and178
cross‐functional345, 357, 473
less role stress by261
Bouquet, P.468
Bowler, Jeremy334
Boyd, J. N.415
Bradford, K. D.206, 404, 408, 418
brand equity339
built355
long considered a market‐based asset349
positive500
sharing594
brand heritage591
brand image88
dissatisfied customers may damage320
transfer from parent brands349
brand loyalty365, 366
customer management process364, 370–1
brand management34
brand preference321, 322, 323
brand strength77, 594
Brandt, C. J.377, 386, 387
Brass, J.122
Brenčič, M. M.545, 548
Britannic33
Brown, A.80
Brown, S. P.10, 102, 116, 175, 236, 253, 262, 375, 382, 417
Brown, T. J.63
Brynjolfsson, E.444
Buchanan, M.122
bureaucracies31–2, 33, 550
Burke Inc.322–3
burnout112, 264
Burns, T.506, 550
Burt, R. S.479
Busch, P.262
BUSCH system588
Bush, R. F.262
business design512
business‐to‐business environment78, 108, 366–7, 416, 417, 446
antecedent and effectiveness relationships95
buying that enables organizational growth and social connectedness410
calculated migration strategies for firing a customer330
CRM in sales force intense contexts355–64
customer choice of supplier27
customer solutions as relational processes370
diverse sample of salespeople86
dramatic change in marketing21
eCommerce solutions369, 507
full‐time and retailing salespeople407
fundamental driver of economic growth426
goods manufactured for sale into541
integrated multi‐channel sales model353
managers of sales units involved in94
marketing channels215
projecting CLV of a prospective customer327
sales contexts428
sales volume203
salespeople add value to exchanges435
SD logic has much to offer in understanding value creation in464–5
(p. 600)
sellers in24, 25
strategic requirements under successful customer intimacy approach348
strategy in markets365
success culture of acquisition in501
working with business customers429
buyer‐seller roles/relationships37–8, 81, 430
competing for relative advantage357
co‐production108
decision‐making11, 22–3
joint actions361
nature of437
no reliance on person‐to‐person communications434
resolving conflicts of interest431
substantial impact on43
technology‐only boundary435
value‐added solutions107
Cacioppo, J. T.117
cadres56, 396
California204
call‐centers353, 355, 356
cost of handling sales calls466
cross‐selling and up‐selling347
personnel330
routine recurring purchases moved to465
valued for immediacy354
camaraderie60
Campbell, M. C.214
Canada298
Cannella, A. A.481
capital investment182
Capon, Noel15, 572–3
Cappleman, S.480
Cardinal Health369
care‐why362
Carnegie, Dale2, 103–4
Carney, D. R.120–1
Carpenter, G. S.505
Carpenter, P.545
carryover sales282, 287, 293, 294, 299
cash flow350, 585
CRM initiatives that reduce volatility351
enhancing366
short‐term582
Cass, E. L.554
Caterpillar44
causal knowledge362
Cavusgil, S. T.470
CBD (Customer Business Development)33, 431
CDSAM Competency‐Driven Strategic Account Management) program504
cellphones, see mobile phones
Cemex590
censoring and truncation (data limitations)328
centralization493, 549, 550, 561
Cespedes, F. V.545, 548
CFRs (cross‐functional relationships)14, 41, 350, 351, 483, 539–40
communication44, 67, 360
conflict in546–7, 548
coordinating activities44, 357, 367, 381
effective approaches to integration39
interfirm and intrafirm STs438–9
investments362
job rotations541
negotiators362
origins and importance of542–4
team structures63, 469
CFTs (customer‐focused teams)354, 356
Chakrabati, A. K.553
Challagalla, G.116, 184, 187, 236, 383
challenge stressors265, 271
Chally (H.R.) consultancy22, 27, 37
Chamberlain, L.117
Chambers, John349
Chan, D.382, 385
Chandy, R. K.178
change:
anticipated525
created525
increasing pace of534
potentially self‐destructive531
unprecedented526
(p. 601)
change proficiency520, 521, 525, 527, 531, 533, 534, 535
accidental528
inadequate532
managed528–9
repeatable528
channel‐bonding capabilities344
channel delivery106–7 see also distribution channels; sales channels
charismatic leadership61
ChemStation International503–4
Chevron Texaco471
Chin, W.110
choices45, 68, 218, 351
channel353
intelligent521
negative11
operational CRM369
past519
positive11
price the key to357
sales technology439
salespeople always face529
strategic38, 349
supplier358
Chonko, L. B.13, 109, 182, 238, 257, 262, 264, 461, 462, 472, 473, 478, 480
Choudhury, T.122
Christenson, C. M.524
Chrysler573
Chrzanowski, K.346, 507
Churchill, G. A.77, 186, 262, 375
Cialdini, Robert411, 413
Cisco Systems349, 201, 523, 589
Citibank589
clan control65, 68, 86
classroom training233
climate for service391–2
clusters144, 145–6
CLV (customer lifetime value)9, 191, 192, 315, 349, 365, 502, 514
analysis of customer defection rates503
identifying right customers based on324–5
leveraging327–34
measuring325–7, 340 see also CPLV; SLTV
coach mode67–8
coalitions508
building263, 265, 364
management of363
Coca‐Cola179, 587
coercive tactics555, 562
capricious use of556
cognitive appraisal theory69–70
cognitive dissonance theory522
cognitive psychology117, 118, 119
cold‐calling114
collaborative advantage479
collaborative relationships212, 216, 344, 363, 471, 479, 506, 526–7
bidirectional communication signals557
CRM investments in350
cross‐functional2, 473
customers strategically selected for potential and payback507
operating as SBUs507
sales force adopts a role in369
sales technology as aid to adding value in434–5
Collins, B. H.444
Collins, J. M.255, 262
Collins, R. H.444
Colvin, R. C.120–1
combinative capabilities493, 507
Comer, J. M.258, 259
command mode66–7
commercialization process495, 510
commission7, 212, 299
direct link between sales volume and238
sales force paid exclusively by295–6
straight240–1
commitment and consistency principle411
commoditization26–7, 38
common culture473
company results146
customer results a key influencer of135
sales force structure decisions affect172
(p. 602) Compaq501
compensation6, 40, 143, 183, 213, 227, 426
adjusted annually246–7
behavior‐based176, 186
behavior control and85, 88
double212
incentive45, 46, 85, 239, 241, 242–3, 244
most common form of238
successful programs236
transition171 see also commission; compensation plans; rewards
compensation orientation187
compensation plans241, 244, 247
basic238
combination243
complicated/complex246, 248
effective and efficient242
faulty245
straight salary239
competence definition52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 64, 68, 72
shifting from competence deployment to69
competence deployment52, 53, 55, 64, 69, 72
activity limited to54, 66
objective of57
competence modification53, 54, 56, 57, 67, 72
shifting from competence deployment to69
competencies78, 83
dedicated teams504
expertise and65
mastered528
transformational493 see also core competencies
competition182, 212, 457, 509, 534, 589
avoiding head‐to‐head503
intense592
intensity of83, 437
interdepartmental548
international44
keeping an eye on179
metrics/measures relative to79, 81
supplier357
technological superiority434 see also hypercompetition
competitive advantage37, 38, 40, 44, 178, 219, 220, 368, 479
achieving with a superior sales force10
capabilities and contexts as drivers of492
capturing470, 474
development of460, 506
effects/impact of resources and capabilities on201, 498, 505
externalization of12, 461
key to499
long‐run510, 513
longer‐term461
mutual361
new opportunities for430
performing certain activities to achieve205
potential482, 492, 499, 500, 503
predictors of493, 494
renewed460
resource and capability that drives490
strategic perspective on sales technology and433–7
strong323
success in building503
value propositions which create13
vital component of27 see also competitive advantage sources; SCA
competitive advantage sources507, 533
customer knowledge170, 304
fundamental81, 176, 468
major questions about26
most important80
significant154, 170
sustainable345
competitive intelligence179–80
competitive position43, 285–6
risk of undermining40
competitive strategy176, 179–80, 362, 444, 464, 466
enhancing462
generic351, 372
primary348
(p. 603) competitiveness36, 59
end‐use market38
repositioning sales as core part of26
superior intelligence resources closely related to37
competitor targets587
composite measures318, 324
proprietary323 see also CLV
computer‐assisted analysis302
computers120, 133
concentration579
configuration theory58, 64, 68
confirmatory factor analysis121
Conger, J. A.61, 62
connectivity457
consciousness477
consideration60
consultative selling114, 475, 482
encouraging476
consulting services333
consumer behavior403
theories of444
consumer benefits/values589
consumer goods sector37, 439
consumer profiles325
consumption408, 409
hedonistic415
lesser or more efficient405
pampered419
responsible417
teenage411
contests244–5, 246
contextual knowledge360
contingency leadership59, 60
contingency theory434
control mechanisms46, 65, 83–6
formal10, 383, 384–5, 388, 391, 395, 397
informal10, 383–5, 397 see also locus of control
control philosophy184–5
Cooil, B.320–1
coordinating activities44, 357, 367, 381, 446, 462, 553–6
cross‐functional507, 543
interfunctional475
internal492
senior managers' attitudes towards550
coping behaviors255, 441, 526
core capabilities361
core competencies36, 493
innovation becomes29
marketing commitment to building13
value‐related460, 462, 463, 482
core customers371, 372
relationships with344, 350, 366
Corporate Executive Board313
corporate expenditure27–8
global24
Cosier, R. A.549
cost‐benefit analysis212, 234–6
cost leadership10, 345, 348, 351, 369
Costa, P. T.60
Cotteleer, M.176
coverage cubes143–5
Cox, D. F.175
CPLV (customer portfolio lifetime value)337–8
Cravens, D. W.3, 4, 31, 40, 44, 45, 46, 65, 78, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 96, 98, 119, 185, 186, 289, 384
creativity22, 29, 52, 60, 469, 495
combination of analytic skill and577
firms that value533
help to develop561
role for492
credit card debt409, 417
credit ratings473
credit risk351
Crites, S. L.117
critical analytic processes351
CRM (customer relationship management) 9, 10, 11, 20, 80, 152, 155, 195, 285, 333, 344–73, 462, 490, 492
anticipated impact on reducing sales costs27
company‐wide system153
effective46, 227
focus on technologies109
(p. 604)
global corporate expenditure on technology24
good543
important part of strategy330
information technologies in32
international perspective on44
knowledge‐sharing and476
rationale for using CLV to guide324, 335
sales‐based technology and109–10, 176, 178, 427–33, 439, 441, 443
spending on software426
Cron, W. L.382, 417
Croson, D. C.215
Crossan, M. M.473, 475
cross‐buying319
cross‐functional teams34, 63, 190, 193, 469, 553, 592
absence of196
boundary‐spanning473
increasing use to win new customers243 see also CFRs
cross‐purchasing situations318
cross‐selling333, 335
call‐center347
firms lever new customer acquisitions through366
increased350
up‐selling closely related to504
Csikszentmihalyi, M.408–10
CT scanners208, 367, 504
cues:
non‐verbal413
voice122
cultural barriers204
cultural capital346, 496, 499, 501–2
cultural controls86, 259, 384
cultural diversity232
culture‐building capability508
Curhan, J. R.120
Curphy, G. J.60
Curry, D.105
custom‐tailored solutions393, 394 see also customization
customer acquisition327, 345, 347, 349, 351, 496, 502–3
ensuring that goals are met353
firms lever366
increasing350
customer acquisition capability364–5
customer advocacy334
determined through customer surveys320
identifying right customers based on321–2
word‐of‐mouth318, 333, 340
Customer‐Centric CEO Index595
customer‐centric perspectives40, 349, 447
customer churn365, 369
customer defection314, 315, 330, 331–2, 340, 584
CLV analysis of503
detractors hasten320
minimizing the likelihood of365
probability of335
customer‐facing processes354, 367, 369
customer focus2, 7, 25, 33, 141, 151, 155, 193
accountability and147
building39
high level of134
market characteristics strongly favor32
may be prejudiced by past successes535
programs to ensure158
customer information349
explicit, acquisition of355
sales force may help integrate472
sales force must collect360
unnecessary and underused348
customer intimacy349, 351, 364, 366, 369, 370
CRM for371
strategy493
successful348
customer knowledge170, 225, 304, 349, 350
acquisition of430
building as a strategic resource36
CRM creates348
(p. 605)
dedicated account manager may be valued for354
enhancing462, 466
premium on353
solution‐selling elevates the importance of360
superior192
territorial6, 181
customer knowledge generation function360, 362
customer learning355, 357, 364, 369, 371
embedded in knowledge co‐creation process363
model that stresses sales productivity over353
customer lifecycle526
decreasing534
prospect of end of527
customer linking344, 345, 357, 369–70, 498, 505, 506–7
learning role371
monitoring and feedback embedded in362
customer loyalty227, 314, 322, 349
developing526
enhancing350, 353
future behaviors321
identifying right customers based on317–18, 323–4
investments in strategic accounts may increase351
long‐standing myths about318
managing348
popularly held beliefs about313
quality leap in new product expected to generate347
rewarding365
satisfaction a key driver of316
customer management, see strategic customer management
customer monitoring360, 362
customer needs278, 411, 420, 520
aligning with complex technical solutions27
anticipating472, 507
approaches to meet wide array of307
assembling the right resources to address155
assessing133, 309, 495
changes in149, 166, 509, 532
complexity in profiles594
corporate resources align with46
diverse139
emerging new183
exogenous factors likely to influence468
explicitly stated413
focusing on305, 337
future505
identifying193, 347, 495
idiosyncratic393
knowledge advantages gained between capabilities and209
local conditions shape and define45
long‐term405
market intelligence pertaining to505
matching300, 322
meeting132, 133, 134, 137, 146, 151, 161, 282, 532
poorly defined178
potential468
principal capabilities and204, 219
regional diversity of154
responding to22, 39, 142, 154, 201, 301
satisfying38, 54, 167, 205
serving effectively277, 374
sophisticated questioning processes to surface359
strategy driven by135
strategy successfully aligned with205
underlying421
understanding205, 214, 393, 404, 410, 509, 510
unique192
unstated404, 421, 422
valuable source of information on194
well served309
customer orientation495, 505
customer perceptions587
customer portfolio35
characteristic of47
(p. 606)
dependence on certain parts of36
managing10, 44, 10, 46, 337–9
potentially dominant customers30–1
customer portfolio analysis9–10
customer priorities39–40
customer profiles364
customer relationship expansion345, 366–7, 504–5
customer relationship strategy351
defining the breadth and depth in356
delimiting the scope of356
specifying352
customer relationships31, 191–3, 404
behaviors and patterns of thought254, 501
better234
building54, 80, 228, 445, 494
complexity of24–5
cultivating196
deciding whether to maintain318
developing27, 36
duration of325, 335
effective280, 445
enduring521, 523
improving226, 337
maintaining54
mastering490
optimizing322
organizational guidance in development 481
protecting25
quality of194
requirements21–2, 39, 40
strengthening227
stress impact on270
strong228
technology‐based20
turnover puts in jeopardy295
weaker338 see also CRM; also headings above prefixed “customer relationship”
customer retention54, 83, 313, 319, 321, 328, 338, 345, 347, 349, 350, 502, 527
best record of246
direct sales force fully manages353
driving the equity yields of339
ensuring that goals are met353
increasing583
judicious investments365
key strategic and operating decisions involving323
lower394
making it happen334–7
measurable improvements in344
personalized treatment of valuable customers to increase351
satisfaction a key driver of316
customer retention capability365–6, 503–4
customer revenue expansion345, 366
direct sales force fully manages353
customer satisfaction79, 175, 182, 219, 235, 308, 314, 350, 360, 418
creating313
custom‐tailored solutions393, 394
delivering381, 392
identifying right customers based on316–17
importance of scores384
improving563
index of404
measurable improvements in344
organizations routinely track544
providing a high level of385
reluctance of firms to base rewards on248
sales climate and376, 390, 391, 397
top‐tier192
customer security322–3
customer segments34, 289, 290–1, 319, 322, 323, 324, 330, 332, 345, 355
complex and diverse needs137
data used to profile328
desirable361
firm needs to identify338
heterogeneous212
key316
targeted325, 327, 333, 334, 337, 346, 354, 356, 371
understanding of316, 337
customer selection9–10, 313–43, 367–9
(p. 607) executive‐level decisions directly affect351
target512
wise348
customer sensing345, 357, 358
event‐based tools365
learning role360, 371
customer service33, 55, 239
climate for391–2, 394–5
enhanced21, 194
executive‐level decisions directly affect351
fewer demands on165
managing expectations362
reduced levels168
reward for performing241
strong satisfaction‐based incentives improve248
superior39, 180
customer sophistication25–6, 353, 354
customer‐supplier relational processes370
customer support:
awareness of issues165
post‐deployment370
customer tracking data363
data mining of364
Customer Value Principle579
customer win‐back process330, 332, 350, 351, 365
customization370, 434, 438, 500, 504, 506
Dacin, P. A.205
Daemon Quest333
Dalsace, F.202
Damasio, H.118
Darmon, R. Y.289
databases440
relational347
transactional359, 365
Daugherty, P. J.551
Dawes, P. L.540, 546, 548, 549, 551, 553, 555, 557, 559
Dawson, S.409
Day, G. S.205, 344, 346, 351, 357, 367, 369, 371, 498, 506, 507
Day, R. L.255
DCAPS positioning591
DCM (Dynamic Capabilities Model)491, 493, 494–6, 498, 508, 510–12, 514
De Boer, L.25
DeBono, K. G.409
DeCarlo, T. E.7, 214, 216, 218
decentralization45, 511, 550
decision‐making219, 558
centralization of550
committee structures510
creation of obstacles to547
decentralized511
emotions in118
ethical43
good171
joint563
major, influence over42
managerial control and118–19
metrics become aspects of349
multiple359
positively associated with job satisfaction and performance232
predicting in group situations120
risky input to rely on during218
sharing information and responsibility258
solidarity and loyalty to a group549
tactical195
team469
understanding about value propositions519 see also strategic decision‐making
decision rules:
commonsense affordability‐based8
cost‐control‐based309
leading to sales force sizing errors278–80
declarative knowledge362
DeConinck, J. B.118
De Jong, A.375, 376, 381, 385, 390, 391, 392
deliberation mindsets11
Dell, Michael388
Dell Computers24
implicit CRM focus347
(p. 608)
supply chain efficiencies346
demand106, 201, 215
analyzing and managing risks525
customer‐centric perspective on what drives349
forecasting algorithms436
generation and managing353
procurement350
relative supply and357
targeted352
demand elasticity181
demassification79
customer co‐production and107–8
Dent‐Micallef, A.444
depression255, 264
De Reuver, R.377
Deshpandé, R.377, 559
detergent manufacturers589
DeVincentis, J.28, 29, 30, 105, 392
Dewsnap, B.545, 547, 548, 551
Dhaliwal, B.111
Dickson, M. W,387
Diener, Ed405
Dietvorst, R. C.121, 123
Differential Advantage Principle579
differentiation26, 37, 53, 60, 493
competitive27
sales‐service436
strategy351 see also product differentiation
digitization588, 509
diminishing returns280–1, 287
direct consensus model385
direct sales force45, 201, 206, 208, 211, 212, 353
buyers favoring354–5
costs associated with203, 205, 207, 210, 219
essential work expected from428
reducing internal uncertainty with209
relationship between customer and204
risk associated with205
direction267, 272, 375
explicit388 see also strategic direction
Dirks, K. T.559
disaggregated approach324
discrete transaction context357–9
Disney theme parks592
dispersed leadership59, 62, 63, 64, 68
dispersion composition model385
dissemination events175, 176, 177, 183–4, 185, 187, 189, 193, 194, 197, 201
perceived intelligence quality and usage190
distribution channels182, 187, 201, 210, 212, 214, 594
strength in205
distribution systems587
diversity climate376
Dixon, Andrea L.9, 105, 122
doctors26
domain selection371
domesticated markets363
Domino's Pizza592
Dorenbosch, L.377
Dove, R.527–8, 534
downsizing23, 33, 285, 302, 304–7
imminent466
significant279
Doyle, S. X.20, 102
dramas113
drive‐thru services181
Droge, C.551
Droll, M.192
drug usage255
Dubinsky, A. J.461
Dutta, S.211
Dyer, B.547, 558–9
Dyer, J. H.479
dynamic sales environment5
dysfunctional conflict546, 547–8, 549, 556, 561
help to manage563
increase in557
E2E (enterprise‐to‐enterprise) relationship254
strategic collaboration363
Easingwood, C.302
e‐Business systems354
eCommerce solutions369, 507
economic wellbeing405, 406
economies of scale34, 206, 213, 438
economies of scope206, 213
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange)438, 446
education266 see also learning
Edward Jones brokers421, 500–1
effectiveness4–5, 77–101, 132, 141, 149, 150, 151, 154, 167, 172, 392, 403, 404, 461, 540
achieving a high level of396
challenges to166, 374
determined partly by informal influence554
factors influencing549–53
important drivers309
increasing298
key obstacles to improving39
maintaining153, 155
marketing351, 545
network linkages enable and constrain479
perceived546, 555
reduced295
relationship selling417
training235, 440 see also effectiveness and efficiency
effectiveness and efficiency143, 144, 146, 147, 430
interfirm STs can improve438
learning and knowledge factors driving345
real problems in232
testing sales promotion347
efficiency137, 142, 172, 511
conversion484
coordination158
cost593–4
customer management369
ERP systems may improve439
promotional365
returns on430, 443
sales contact484
TQM focus on368
effort allocation8–9, 84, 155, 292
control of149–50, 151
improving147–8
profit‐maximizing306
ego411
Ehret, M.430
Ehrhart, M.387
Eisenhardt, K. M.494–5
electronic delivery methods107
Electronic Markets438
electronic training234
email:
marketing campaigns316
mobile devices110
emergent strategy52
Emerson, M.213
emotional exhaustion263, 264
emotions118, 235
empathy:
balance between ego and411
listening and362
empowerment29, 187
Enron388
enterprise strategies369, 370–1
core345, 349
customer intimacy345, 346 see also ERP; EZE
Enterprise System OEMs204
entrepreneurial orientation/behavior493, 501
entrepreneurship269, 510
generalist approach encourages147
higher‐order skills495
role for492
sales function the natural home for29
entry barriers355, 533
environmental changes102–27, 491, 498
environmental dynamism214
eProcurement websites466
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)438, 439
ethical climate260, 268
ethical conflict254
evaluation235, 239, 301, 359
(p. 610) established procedures for233
meaningful measures236
teacher404 see also performance evaluation
Evans, Kenneth R.6, 116, 187, 236, 245, 393
evolutionary adaptability494
Excel439
expectations61, 79, 110–11, 440, 441, 445
behavioral and outcome268
changing103, 113, 176
customer service362
demanding80, 471
experience351
job183
key customer366
normal526
performance259
product/service meets or exceeds316
rewards and punishments to clarify268
trying to understand and meet270 see also role expectations
expertise65
market446
technical589
explicit information360
externalization process12, 360, 362, 461
extraversion59, 60, 388
Exxon179
face‐to‐face contact325, 500
Facebook365
Fahey, L.219, 490
Fang, E,179, 393
Federal Express588
feedback176, 185, 187–9, 229, 234, 236, 258, 322, 355, 367, 482
asking for283
attention to347
consistent67
customer linking and362
customer participation through471
listening and responding based on332
market‐oriented458
positive186
solicited180
solution‐selling elevates importance of360
supervisor266, 383, 388
value propositions and470, 473, 475
Ferrell, L. & O. C.43, 44
Festervand, T. A.185, 188
financial institutions388
financial performance13, 81, 321, 324, 381, 578
impact on505
performance influence on23
long‐term/short‐term552
marketing orientation culture influences501
top three determinants of40
variation in377
financial ratios281–2
financial services companies33, 156, 320, 334, 336
top priority among313
vertical teams established for141
Fiol, C. M.469–70, 475, 476, 493
Firat, A. F.108
firing strategy315, 328–30
firm‐level orientation493, 505
firm‐specific assets499
Fisher, R. J.556
Five Forces model533
fixed costs287
Flaherty, K. E.63
flexibility59, 147, 155, 165, 396, 523
management239
network linkages enable and constrain479
Folkman, S.69
Foote, N.469
Ford, N. M.77, 186, 375
Ford Motor Company368, 431
foreign countries181–3
cultural barriers204
market entry strategy204
formalization260, 550
Forrester Research438
Foti, R. J.62
(p. 611) Fournier, C.103
Fox, E. J.330
fragmentation:
effective sales leadership63
modern markets characterized by36
franchises181
Franke, G. R.521
Frazier, G. L.211
Friege, C.330–1
Friends Provident33
functional conflict546–7, 548–9, 561
functional team leadership59, 61
Futrell, C. M.258
GAM (global account management)39, 44–5, 580
centralizing164
Garcia, J. R.123
Garrett, T. C.118
Gassenheimer, J. B.457 n.
Gates, Bill388
Gazzaniga, M. S.121
GE (General Electric)41, 181, 203
GE Medical Systems366–7, 504
Gebhardt, G. F.505, 508, 512
gender differences95–6
general managers541, 552, 553, 554
General Mills421
generosity422
inherent lack of409
Genesis333
Gensch, D. H.392–3
Gentry, J. W.118
George, W. R.543
Gerhardt, M. W.60
Germain, R.551
Gerstner, Lou489, 490
gestalt69
Getz, G.327
Ghosh, M.215
Ghoshal, S.480
Giddens, A.473, 477, 481
Gillette585
GlaxoSmithKlein26
Glazer, R.464, 468, 469
global positioning devices110
globalization79, 94, 103, 106, 110, 534
aggressive44
coping with the demands of113
GM (General Motors)365, 479, 496, 509, 573
go‐to‐market strategy351, 369, 490, 507
goal‐achievement59, 559
goal‐setting58, 150, 158
high61
positive effects achieved through267
goals27, 42, 58, 70, 137, 206, 332
aligning company objectives with225
collective375, 383, 384, 397
defining61
diverse385
dramatically and unexpectedly altered214
group259
hedonistic409, 416, 417, 419, 420
improving effort allocation using147
joint354
long‐term11
macro list of169
non‐conscious418–20
quotas based on238
revenue353
rewards and236, 247
salespeople's influence on403–25
shared215
short‐term11, 66–7, 409
stated383
strategic21, 41, 64
success in attaining149
team155, 165
training program designed to achieve235
unconscious417, 419, 421 see also learning goals; organizational goals
Golembiewski, R. T.558
Gonzalez‐Roma, V.386
Good, R. E.175
Goodell, P. W.262
Gordon, G. L.178
Gore‐Tex142
(p. 612) grand competence459, 460–4, 466
Granovetter, M.477, 480
Grant, K.89, 93
granularity36
Greece93, 94
greed422
Greenberg, H. M.411
Griffin, A.547, 553, 556
Griffin, J.330, 331, 332
Grojean, M. W.387
Grönroos, C.543
Grossenbacher, Samuel13
“groupthink”549
Grove, S. J.175, 183, 185, 188
Gruner, K.507
Gu, F. F.498, 507
Guanxi network model507
Guenzi, P.540, 545
Guinness591
Gummesson, E.543
Gunnlaugsdottir, J.469, 472
Gupta, S.324, 335
Hafer, J. C.262
Hair, J. F.462
Hall, J. A.120–1
Hanvanich, S.469
happiness406, 410, 416, 421, 423
gross national422
hedonistic goals bring409
long‐term customer417
“hard sell” era26
Harder, Del S.431
Hari, J.120
Harley Davidson365
Harrah's348
Harreld, J. B.490, 508, 512
Hart, S.64, 67, 68
Hartley, S. W.77, 186
Harvard Business Review24
Breakthrough Idea of the Year (2009)122
Hauser, J. R.547, 553, 556
hazard analysis365
He, X.217
heart rate255
hedonism404, 408, 409, 410, 415, 416, 417, 420, 421, 423
constant bombardment of messages advocating419
national goals defined away from422
selling of413
Heide, J. B.202, 208, 211, 213, 215, 216
Heitger, L. E. & D. L.323, 324
Henderson, R.509
Henneberg, S.470
heroic leadership67
Hershey Foods179
Heschel, M. S.302
Hewlett Packard166, 171–2, 490, 501, 519
high pressure tactics392
Hill, N. C.60
Himalayan mountains422
hindrance stressors265
Hipple, E. von479
“hired hands”56
hiring and screening processes500
Hite, R. E.118
Hitt, L. M.444
Hogan, D.120
Hogan, J.60
Hogan, R.60
Hollet, S.103
Homburg, C.20, 192, 377, 381, 495, 501, 507, 508, 540, 545, 547, 549, 551, 552
Home Depot142
home office equipment440
Honda368, 479
Honeycutt, E. D.444
Honeywell151
Horan, T.213
Horsky, D.289
Hosking, D. M.62
Howe, V.444
Howell, R.547
Howell, R. D.257
HSBC588
Huertas, Enrique333
Hughes, Mark203
Hulbert, J. M.572
Hult, G. T.469
(p. 613) Hult, T. M.498, 506
human behavior534–5
human capital346, 499–500
human resources32, 225
Hung, K.498
Hunt, S. D.118, 191, 470
Hunter, Gary K.11, 192, 369, 427, 428, 430, 431, 432, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 441, 442, 443, 445, 446, 447, 475, 490
Hurd, Mark490
Hurley, R. F.498, 506
hypercompetition108–9, 176, 494
hypothesis development/testing509
Hyundai Motor Co471
IBM139, 161, 348, 489, 490, 508, 509
DCM application512
Marketing 2.0 model365
Strategic Insight model512
idiosyncratic investments209, 210, 211, 214, 220
Iglesias, V.213
Ilgen, D. R.375
Ilies, R.60
immediacy354
and consistency362
implementation571–2, 577, 579, 580, 585, 589, 594
deliberation versus11
effective35
focusing on169–72
infrastructure for40–1
model493
practical302
support for578, 582
implementation programs582, 583, 591–3
in‐suppliers360
Inderrieden, E.176
India93, 94, 95, 165
Industry Week178
influence tactics562
good413
illicit use of413
managerial use of554–6
tactics non‐coercive555
power and potential for abuse413
socially acceptable556
upward255, 263, 265
information acquisition196, 371, 494, 495
learning process stresses358
information exchange178
high‐quality191
information filters509
information flows480
improving563
monitoring188
information‐gathering110–11, 171, 381
incurring substantial costs207
integral role of selling function in510
information management systems361
information overload480
information provision107
information retrieval185, 193, 473
and formatting195
information‐sharing365, 381, 495
buyers guarded about/unwilling358, 359
conducted primarily through social discourse439
pre‐purchase428
strategic363
strong ties more motivated to480
information storage473
Ingram, T. N.8, 40, 54, 65, 78, 83, 105, 185
ingratiation265, 555
innovation29, 142, 181, 428, 441
accelerated adoption of440
anti‐cannibalization bias may work against510
complementary496
constant523
culture of leadership501
customer IT expectations hasten diffusion441
differentiation493
facilitation of467, 474–82
firms that value533
high‐tech, knowledge‐leveraging431
logistics and transportation204
management thinking32
open scope to partners512
(p. 614)
proprietary437, 479
software504
technological495 see also product innovation; also following headings prefixed “innovation”
innovation capacity498, 506, 510
reduced441
innovation focus512
innovation orientation493
insider information359
Insurance Advisory Board Agenda Poll313
intangibles80, 81, 457, 470, 474, 491, 493, 523
integration29, 42, 580
cross‐functional552
effective approaches to39
internal/external572
strategic34
tacit469
vertical206
integrative solutions:
identification of141, 447
persuading buyers to adopt and implement436
proposing192, 369–70, 431, 432, 446, 475
successful435
integrity42–4
Intel346, 584
intelligence6–7, 119, 174–200, 351
capabilities and resources36–8
collection and interpretation20
superior resources37
intelligence‐gathering36
intensity83, 375, 437
interactions58, 119–20, 190, 192, 194, 206, 212, 216, 234, 460, 468
based on perceived information520–1
centered on resolving conflicts of interest431
continuous193
day‐to‐day363
departments and managers543
ease and convenience of351
economic actors465
face‐to‐face526
feedback from383
multilateral470
not readily transferable209
opportunity for233
organization, hostility and distrust during547
personalized366
pursuit antagonistic to413
regular214
rules and routines unnecessarily constrain511
sales force plays a critical role in191
significant506
interactivity325, 457
interdependencies465, 480, 554, 555, 558, 560, 562
cross‐functional543
functional542–3
interest creation428
internal marketing543
customer priorities39–40
international markets182
differences between45
establishing competitive advantage in44
International Paper149
international perspectives44–6
Internet23, 24, 27, 106, 107, 110, 111, 204, 353, 466, 503
choosing a retailer321
revolutionized delivery of training234
transactional customers tend to use354
websites22–3, 330, 365, 369
inter‐organizational trust558, 560–1
interpersonal relationships481
interpersonal trust240, 555, 558–9, 560, 563
interrole/intersender conflict257
intrasender conflict255
inventory costs350, 366
IPSOS (marketing research firm)323–4
Irish pubs591
Ismail, K.106
IT (information technology)32, 178, 180, 370, 427, 428, 430–1, 434
(p. 615) considering whether solutions already exist436
customer expectations hasten innovation diffusion441
impact of444
key driver to motivating adoption in sales settings440
most firms think first about435
needs of large enterprises166
performance data from advances in215
potential impact of investments444
productivity paradox437
role of109
spending on tools426
sufficient training and support232
user evaluations as a surrogate for444
wide range of solutions439
iTunes588
Jacobides, M. G.215
Jacoby, J.217
Janda, S.25
Jap, S. D.211, 213, 214, 220
Jaramillio, F.262
JAVA software366
Jaworski, B. J.84, 86, 118, 175, 184, 367, 381, 383, 384, 468, 494, 505, 543, 556
jealousy422
Jehn, K. A.547
Jensen, O.20, 495, 540, 545, 547, 549, 551
Jermier, J. M.384–5
JIT (just‐in‐time) delivery and inventory systems363
Joachimsthaler, E. A.255
job demands265
conflicting113
exposure to69
influence on effect of leadership styles61
qualitative/quantitative69
salesperson roles54–6
job description153, 183, 185, 186
distraction seen as outside195
job interviews422
job responsibilities170
diverse147
meeting88
specialization of144
top performers should keep171
job satisfaction91
actions to improve254
ethical behavior and decision‐making positively associated with232
improving384
influence of control on65
low299
negative impact on264, 267
role ambiguity and262, 265, 26
salespeople perform to increase236
job stress8, 69, 70, 71, 112, 115
addressing253–76
widely recognized sources of55
job titles33
Jobber, D.545, 547, 548, 551
Joelson, D.324, 333
Johar, G. V.217
Johlke, M. C.262
John, G.211, 215
John Deere365
Johnson, J.217
Johnson, M.327, 337–8
Johnson, Spencer423
Johnston, M. W.7, 79, 96, 113, 114, 133, 224 n., 225, 262, 473, 476, 478, 479
Johnston, Wesley J.12, 430, 457 n.
joint business initiatives361
Jones, Bob205
Jones, E.13, 80, 102, 103, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 116, 175, 193, 253, 262, 263, 264, 267, 461, 462
Judge, T. A.60
Judson, K.178
just‐in‐time information234
Juttner, U.460, 461, 462
Kahn, G. N.102, 105
Kandemir, D.470
Kanungo, R. N.61
Kasser, T.409, 410
Keefer, Rick307
Keiningham, T.313, 314, 320–1
(p. 616) Kelley, H. H.480
Kelley, S. W.121
Kenny, D. A.62
Kerr, S.384–5
Kim, T.122
Kinni, T.270
kinship409, 410
Kirmani, A.214
Kitson, H. D.458
Klein, K. J.62
Knight, A. P.62
know‐how362
higher‐order skills and495
technical176
know‐what/know‐why362
knowledge acquisition168, 194, 476
knowledge co‐creation process363
knowledge development58
organizational learning and470
knowledge gaps96–8
important78
knowledge‐gathering465
knowledge‐intense organization37
knowledge management468, 470
marketing and475, 484
organizational relationships influence outcomes473
shift in the dominant logic of469
knowledge‐sharing192, 362, 369, 446, 479, 483
automation and CRM technologies could be used to support476
salespeople have highly‐developed cognitive skills through474
knowledge storage475, 482
knowledge transfer360, 476, 478
association between networks and480
Knowles, P. A.175
Kohli, A. K.174, 175, 184, 189, 190, 193, 195, 367, 370, 381, 468, 494, 490, 504, 505, 543
Kotler, P.105, 540, 545, 547, 548
Krabbenhoft, M. A.120
Kraft Foods34
Krishnan, H. S.84, 384
Krishnaswamy, S.105, 540
Krohmer, H.552
KSAs (knowledge, skills and abilities)585
Kumar, A.175, 205
Kumar, K.262
Kumar, N.417, 445, 468
Kumar, V.318, 324–5, 336, 337, 338, 365
Kuss, A.217
Kyriazis, E.543, 550
Labro, E.25
Lafley, A. G.33
LaForge, M. C.175
LaForge, R. W.8, 54, 40, 65, 78, 83, 105, 185, 289
Lagace, R. R.115
Lane, H. W.473
Lane, Nikala2, 3, 31, 33, 34, 36, 43, 54, 79, 86, 87, 96, 98
language508
LANs (Local Access Networks)438
Lassk, F. G.86
lateral linkage devices553–4
law of legitimate cross‐purposes213
law of perpetual change213, 214, 215
layoffs421–2
Lazarus, R. S.69
Le Meunier‐FitzHugh, Kenneth14, 46, 187, 188, 540, 545, 547, 548, 551, 552
lead generation364, 365
lead users479
Leader‐Member Exchange121
leadership4, 29, 33, 51–76
facilitative475
flexible59
fulfilling commitments43
innovation and engineering501
inspiration and41–2
organizational ambidexterity and395
substitutes for384–5
transformational388
value proposition512
leadership behaviors264, 266, 272, 388–9
and role stressors255, 258–9
transactional and transformational259
leadership style259, 267, 388
job demands and61
transactional and transformational268
learning404, 416
autonomous472
collective476, 477
external492
facilitating467
hedonistic pursuit devoid of413
importance as necessary sales force activity461
institutional478
interest in pursuing422
kinship and410
logical culmination of462
learning goals11, 417, 418, 422
learning role353, 358, 364, 369, 372
critical362
dominant360
predominant357, 371
systematic367
Lee, F.176
Lee, N.111, 117, 118
Leeflang, P.460, 464
legal concerns231
legitimation473
Leigh, T. W.10, 13, 54, 102, 103, 105, 108, 109, 193, 219, 346, 369, 382, 507
Lemmink, J.375
Lemon, K. N.318
Lepsinger, R.62
Lester, J.122
Lever Brothers589
Levitt, T.361
Lewin, J. E.263, 264
Liberty Mutual Group333
life satisfaction405, 409
Light, T. B.258, 259
Lilien, G. L.479
Lilly, B. S.559
LIMRA International335
Lindell, M. K.377, 386, 387
Lings, I. N.118, 467
LinkedIn365
listening332, 417
empathy and362
locus of control268, 272
external264
internal261, 264
Lodish, L. M.216, 289, 302
logistics function34
longitudinal effects97, 321
Lorimer, Sally E.6, 28, 135, 166, 168, 290, 301, 407, 426
Lovelock, C.543, 559
Low, G. S.31, 44, 45, 46, 78, 86, 89, 93, 94
low‐value customers347
Lowenstein, M. W.330, 331, 332
loyalty:
and advocacy320, 333
contractual317
group549
product317
Lund, D. J.245
Luria, G.377
Lusch, R. F.457, 458, 460, 461, 462, 464, 465, 468, 469, 470–1, 472, 473, 474, 475, 483, 492, 544
Lyles, M. A.469–70, 475
McCarty, T.444
McConkie, M.558
McCrae, R. R.60
McDonald's181
McDonnell, J. C.444
McEvily, B.473, 480
McFadyen, M. A.481
MacInnis, D. J.217, 383, 384
(p. 618) MacKenzie, S. B.262
McNeilly, K. M.258, 259
Madan, A. P.120, 122
Madsen, T. L.44
magnetic resonance imaging121
Mahoney, J. T.498
Makadok, R.174
Malaysia93, 94
Maloy, Dan205
Maltz, E.174, 189, 190, 193, 195, 556
management control259
managerial implications395–6
Manhattan147
Mannix, E. A.547
Mantrala, M. K.116, 236
manufacturer representatives201–23
market attrition25
market‐based assets349, 493
market‐driven firms344, 345, 346, 355
customer selection367–8
implied prototype for management370
organizational learning10
market entry204, 368
market expansion182
market information192, 196, 197, 201
high‐quality185, 186, 189
salesperson‐generated187–8
timely194
valuable185, 195
well‐designed and easy‐to‐use analysis188–9
market knowledge502
companies fail to use189
end‐use38
sharing192, 369
superior37
value propositions and471, 472
market leadership109
market orientation381, 464, 467, 472, 493, 494, 495, 498, 508, 512, 513, 514 n.
artifacts related to377
CFRs as part of543
critical antecedents to505
defined468, 505
enhancing473
interaction with marketing mix capabilities506
market sensing and367
market penetration142, 143
market research334–5
difference between market sensing and37
international181–2, 239, 323
market segments216, 217, 320
assessing and accessing20
coverage needs294
customer selection capability and367–9
defined and substantive108
focused150
identifying577
key20
manager positions156
number of salespeople needed to cover291–3
positioning in586
processes for495
solutions to fit problems common across customers and360
targeted136, 307, 327, 345, 577
market sensing345, 357
critical sales role in36
effective37
learning role360, 371
market orientation and367
new skills and capabilities38
sales force may help integrate472
sharing explicit information to drive258
superior36, 344, 462
market sensing capability366
frequently ignored46
market share79, 180, 202, 213, 215, 245, 285, 306, 324, 368
high299
increased328, 582
loss of583
low297
operational excellence depends critically on346
set targets for544
undermining182
(p. 619) market trends26, 36, 182, 217
market volatility182
marketing10, 12, 24, 115, 239, 392, 426, 571–95
adoption of service dominant logic of32
better link between sales and354
brand extensions presumed to require less effort349
centralized156
cross‐functional business processes483
customer‐centric40
customer lifetime value model of502
defining feature as an operant resource472
definition of470
direct79
dramatic change in21
effective strategies25
effectiveness of initiatives351
evaluating the changes in484
focus shifting toward intangibles457
funds not unlimited325
hybrid346
impact of406–7
implicit reliance on strategic sales capabilities25
importance and focus as a competence465
integration of R&D and42
interaction of MO with506
knowledge management and475, 484
new organizational models for33–4
new paradigm for365
organizational learning and462, 463, 466
postmodern theories108
pressures to develop measures of performance81
primary coordinators20
prioritizing the most attractive prospects328
purchase acceleration linked to communication336
relationship393, 428, 429–31, 446
role of458–9, 460–4
sales force‐generated intelligence6–7, 174–200
service‐dominant logic of36, 458
shared research363
significant problems for departments42
specialized functions460
strategic20, 35, 204–5, 363
successful15
targeting activities324
theory and practice focused on personalizing offerings409
traditional19–20
understanding the impact of expenditures on immediate sales316
marketing value creation and470, 482 see also internal marketing; MIS sales‐marketing relationships; also under following headings prefixed “marketing”
marketing‐as‐exchange paradigm68
marketing capability benchmarking494
defined and operationalized506
internal39–40
marketing imperatives572, 574, 575–8, 580
marketing managers14, 539, 543, 544, 546, 548, 549, 554–7, 562, 563
marketing principles579–80
Marketing Science Institute81
marketing strategy351
achieving objectives77
allocating dollars or resources324
core348, 352
sales personnel not usually privy to354
Marks, M.213, 214, 215
Marriott, J.120
Marriott International422
Marshall, G. W.63, 79, 86, 113, 114, 102, 103, 105, 108, 109, 113, 133, 185, 224 n., 225, 229, 473, 476, 478, 479
Martin, J. A.494–5
Martin, W. S.444
Mason, C.498
Mason, C. H.193
Massey, G. R.540, 543, 546, 548, 549, 550, 551, 553, 555, 557, 559
(p. 620) Massey, Graham W.14
MasterCard587
materialism409–10
subjective wellbeing and411, 416
matrix reporting161–4
Matson, E.469
Maxham, J. G.113, 462
Mayer, D.388, 411
Mazursky, D.217
meaning:
shared508
synthesis about509
measurability challenges, see metrics
Med Tech203
mediators442, 445–6, 447
Mehra, A.122
Mehta, P. D.376
Menon, A.547, 549, 552, 557
mental health concerns255
Mentzer, J. T.178, 179
Mercer Consultants80
“mere frequency” fallacy557
Merrill Lynch500
meta‐capabilities498, 514
micro‐foundations of508
metrics79, 80–1, 216, 224, 228, 236, 383, 561
alternative308
aspects of corporate decision‐making349
change processes528
CLV365
commissions tied to238
complex sourcing25
customer analysis340
customer‐oriented248
enterprise‐level scorecard218
escalating importance of78
financial350, 394
intermediary350
joint354
key502, 544
loyalty and advocacy320, 333
performance395, 435, 544–5
qualitative196
shared business348
Miao, C. Fred6, 179, 187, 245
Michaels, R. E.255
microcomputer applications444
Microsoft141, 153, 167, 346
Partner Learning Center website150
Windows generations335, 366
middle managers41
Milgram, Stanley413, 419
Mintzberg, H.61, 66
mirrored alignment164–5
MIS (marketing information system)6, 175–7, 181, 186, 194, 195, 444–5
diminished196
dramatically enhanced197
high‐quality192
integrating the sales force into187–90
well‐maintained191, 193
miscommunication213
mission362
missionary selling209, 239, 266
mobile phones110, 120, 440
moderators265–7, 442, 494
Mohan, A.122
Moncrief, W. C.89, 96, 193
Moon, M. A.178, 179
Moorman, C.205, 218, 559
morale41
contests may hurt245
enhanced60, 62
low242
poor60
sales force test283–4
territory design and299
training undertaken to improve226
Morgan, G.59, 61
Morgan, N. A.64, 88, 494, 498, 506, 514 n.
Morgan, R. E.472, 480
Morgan, R. M.191, 470
Morgan Stanley443
Morlacci, O.25
Morrin, M.217
Moss, N.337
motivation65, 212, 215, 216, 219, 220, 254, 437
direct240
(p. 621)
effects on227, 242, 265, 375–6, 441
extrinsic187
initiatives likely to prove ineffective92
intrinsic91, 186, 396
learning362
low299
role overload/role stressors and262, 264
tools for114
motivation theory236
Mouzas, S.,470
Mowen, J. C.63, 118
MRI machines504
MRO (maintenance, repair and operational) supply161
Muccio, Tom349
multi‐channel approach354
communication opportunities369, 507
multinational corporations139, 212, 432
multinational markets368
Murthi, B. P. S.106
mutual importance363
mutual understanding190
Myers, David G.405, 409
Nagle, T. T.180
Narasimhan, R.25
Narayandas, D.215
Narus, J. A.201, 211, 215, 507, 546
Narver, J. C.176, 179, 183, 367, 381, 464, 468, 470, 473, 494, 543
Naude, P.470
Naylor, J. C.375
Neale, M. C.376
Nelson, P.289
Nestlé SA44
Netemeyer, R. G.113
Netherlands405
networks478–82, 484
bridge between partners in460
inter‐organizational464–5
marketing role in enhancing organizational capabilities459
organizational learning within470, 474
spanning structural holes in500 see also social networks
neuroscience117, 118–21
new customers364–5, 366, 496
cross‐functional teams to win243
potential360
new products242, 347, 360
failure rate of178
launched with ineffective positioning591
rapid adoption of350
success and profitability350 see also NPD
Newbert, S. L.493, 494, 496, 498, 499, 505
Nigeria94, 95
Noble, C. H.205, 218
Nokia41
Nonaka, I.345, 357, 360, 362, 364, 371
Nonis, S. A.262
non‐coercive tactics555, 562
non‐generosity409–10
Northwestern University40
Norwegian Customer Satisfaction Barometer321
Novartis26, 44
NPD (new product development)361, 367, 368, 550
adoption process369
partially or fully successful545
planning and178
supplier involvement in363
NPS (Net Promoter Scores)314, 340
identifying right customers based on320–1
NPV (net present value)350, 351, 353, 371
O'Brien, M.458
OCB (organizational citizenship behavior)98
Olguin, D.122
Oliver, R. L.65, 84, 85, 87, 88, 92, 176, 184, 185, 208, 318
Olsen, E. M.550
on‐the‐job training225, 232–3
on‐time delivery588
online activities/communities321, 365, 366, 438
(p. 622) operational CRM352, 354, 355, 369
operational objectives581, 582
managers do not distinguish between strategic and583
operations management26
opportunism208, 210–11, 214, 215, 547
behavior monitoring and216
process controls decrease likelihood of65
opportunities526
distinctive solutions in response to500
multi‐channel communication369, 507
new430, 496
seizing510–11, 512
sensing and shaping508, 509–10
optimization models302, 306–7
Oracle22, 165, 366, 501
O'Reilly, C. A.490
Organ, D. W.98
organization behavior535–6
organizational capabilities459, 498, 507, 514
organizational change21–8, 33, 511
development of consensus for direction and512
organizational characteristics255, 259–61, 266
organizational climate374–402
organizational culture183–4, 218, 383, 552
customer‐centric447
defined260
organizational climate and377–81
organizational goals205, 375
accountability for395
behaviors improve performance against381
directing employee effort toward376, 377, 381, 384, 389, 390, 395
important376
meeting more effectively551
organizational issues10–11
commitment to sales12–13, 457–88
control systems377
norms and policies70
theories117
organizational knowledge482
adjustments to475
framing of478
organizational learning10, 58, 346, 458, 470, 474
beliefs and behaviours that support473
changes associated with484
communication is an important aspect of480
competencies and processes that facilitate491
involvement of key executives in512
marketing and462, 463, 466
Nonaka's model of345, 357, 371
value propositions and464, 468, 471, 475
organizational memory activities473, 478
organizational role348, 349
out‐suppliers360
outcome performance89, 91, 93, 94, 97, 478, 544–9
favorable92
loss in88
output control65, 68, 86
outsourcing7, 24, 142, 219, 346, 369, 462, 464, 490
factors affecting206–18
often used by smaller firms440
solutions to strategic clients504
over‐reporting patterns188
overselling392
overspecialization146
P&C (property and casualty) insurance industry330
Palmatier, R. W.175, 179, 393
Palms440
pampering418–19
Pandian, J. R.498
Parasuraman, R.432
Park, J. E.521
path dependencies511
Paul, M. C.376
PDAs (personal digital assistants)120, 440
Pearce, C. L.62
peer influence389, 396
(p. 623) peer‐to‐peer channels365
Penaloza, L.467, 470, 471, 472
Pentland, A.120, 122, 123
Penz, E.469, 475
PeopleSoft366, 501
performance32, 62, 65, 114, 118–21, 392, 545
administrative430
ambiguous209
balanced391, 394, 395
best ways to enhance31
better60, 559
business processes relate to361
changes in229
composite assessment of77
critique of234
decreased60
diagnosing86
diverse outcomes390
driving308, 490, 507
effective216
effects on68–70, 266, 267, 369, 375–6, 436–7, 492, 494, 508
efficient/optimum549
equality across ethnic groups376
ethical behavior and decision‐making positively associated with232
expectations for257
good238, 246
higher levels254, 511
impacts on254, 262, 280, 370
improving80, 384, 511, 561
incentives to encourage238
influence on385
judgements about quality of238
key metric of544
losses in26
maintaining an acceptable level of245
manager82, 86, 254
marketing81, 506
maximizing226
measured388
meeting commitments523
monitoring61, 259, 578
multiple disparate criteria396
negatively affected186
outstanding186
poor546
promotion and196
pursuit of disparate goals395
quantitative and subjective measures of442
recognition for246
relationship‐building430, 446
rewards and236, 388
role conflict/ambiguity and263, 266
safety376
sales technology and436–7, 441–6
setting standards259
short‐term goals66–7
significant results205
skills and84, 87–9, 98
specific targets238
strategic options to achieve490
stressors positively affect265
strongest antecedent of186
superior69, 396, 505, 560
supplier37
sustained391, 394, 396
team547, 559
technology and442
tracked148
true differences299
variation in377 see also behavior performance; financial performance; outcome performance; also under following headings prefixed “performance”
performance evaluation79, 229, 247, 248, 259, 300, 418
performance management6, 146, 150, 158
implementing172
improving effort allocation using147
significant investments made to improve171
performance objectives581, 582–3
integrating strategic focus with585
Perreault, W. D.186, 192, 257, 260, 261, 262, 369, 427, 428, 430, 431, 432, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 441, 442, 443, 445, 446, 447, 475, 490
(p. 624) persistence375
program510
person‐role conflict257
personal selling422–3, 514 n.
personality388
judgements of120
matching tasks/skills and132, 151
personalization409
PESTLE environment576
Peters, Linda D.12, 457 n.
Peterson, R. A.262, 375
Pfeffer, J.37, 59, 389
Pfizer26, 499–500, 505
Pflesser, C.377, 381, 498, 501, 508
PH (proportional hazard) model335
pharmaceutical industry154, 178, 300, 302, 439
direct sales force cut465
innovative firms505
joint ventures499–500
mirrored alignments common in165
missionary selling209, 239
reps provided with hand‐held devices359
resizing and redesigning305–7
sales training programs227 see also Glaxo; Novartis; Pfizer; Wyeth
Philipose, M.122
physiology117, 123, 255 see also psychophysiology
Piercy, N. F.2, 3, 31, 33, 34, 36, 43, 44, 45, 46, 54, 65, 78, 79, 86, 87, 88, 93, 94, 96, 98, 119, 187, 188, 514 n., 540, 545, 547, 548, 551, 552
Pinkerton, R. L.175
pipeline analysis291–2
Pisano, G.493
Polanyi, M.469, 477–8
POP retailer data439
Porter, M. E.205, 533, 541
Porter, T. W.559
portfolio selling205, 206
positioning577, 582, 586–91, 593
competitive510 see also repositioning
potentially dominant customers30–1
Pottery Barn Kids593
Poujol, J.103
Powell, T. C.444
Power (J.D.) and Associates334
PowerPoint439
Pozzebon, M.478
predictive validity386
presentation439
President's Club299
prevention versus promotion focus11
price elasticity180
pricing strategy176, 180–1
competitor trends that may undermine182
Pritchard, R. D.375
problem‐resolution361
problem‐solving270, 359, 362, 371, 465, 476, 509
creative29, 307
established heuristics511
interactions provide opportunity to enhance206
logical and understandable469
long‐term416
powerful customers demand that sellers provide38
procedural knowledge362
process control65, 66–7, 86
process‐oriented situations525
Procter & Gamble24, 33, 41, 349, 589, 590, 591 see also Wal‐Mart/P&G partnership
product innovation20, 510
CRM models that underlie strategies346
customers that directly impact ambitions348
knowledge may lead to360
sofware and504
success of178
product knowledge103, 156, 206, 209, 502
better150
product managers hope salespeople well schooled in225
time typically spent on230
product leadership347, 348, 351, 356, 364, 365, 369
(p. 625) brand loyal customer management for370–1
product lifecycles582
shortened51, 105, 109
production managers542, 555
production‐planning process439
productive assets499
productivity234, 281, 353, 390, 391
evaluating the changes in484
help to enhance359
improving201, 226–7, 240
investments in ITs do not necessarily lead to improvements in437
low277
major determinant of8
maximal296
negative climate for service‐sales relationship392
Roach paradox444
sales technology and443–4
social relationships influence500
professional control86
profit expansion502
profit‐maximizing282–3, 279, 294, 307
sales force effort allocation306
territory alignment models300
profitability26, 182, 215, 238, 241, 296, 354
best way to measure308
composite measure, see CLV
correlational coefficients between loyalty and318
current325, 329, 333, 334, 338, 340
customer lifetime503
estimating323
forward‐looking assessments324
future333, 334, 338
historical analysis327
important questions arise in relation to483
important questions in relation to483
important strategic decisions which impact directly on31
improving through cost reductions141–2
likely, potential new customer360
long‐term23, 324, 328, 329, 338, 540
major level of responsibility for25
maximizing across a time horizon283
new product success and350
positive impact on279
positive or negative impact on281–2
specific customer‐related terms349
spending negatively affects582
struggles to return to growth and502
successful573
supplier25
under closer scrutiny219
profits213, 281, 314, 355
decrease in211
direct impact on opportunities35
future333, 334, 573
higher298
long‐term324
quickly increased583
short‐term583
translating into useful organization learning484
unchanged for the future324
promotional activities11, 20, 36, 39, 316, 347, 407
expenditure on27, 365
proprietary information37
proprietary knowledge479
prospect‐scoring system503
Prudential33
psychological climate377, 381–3
psychological support258
psychology115, 123, 418
adverse responses441
cognitive117, 118, 119
motivational11
psychophysiology120, 123
psychosocial outcomes544, 545–6, 561
Pullig, C.113, 462, 474, 475
purchase sequence analysis337
purchasing350, 357, 358
emergency355
full margin314
identifying right customers based on history318–19
(p. 626)
increasing efficiencies in206
low‐margin products and services329
reducing volatility351
repeat360
strategic31
tendencies on buyer's part to simplify359
transactional databases to track cycles359
purchasing behaviors:
on‐deal364
variability in212
purchasing managers/chief officers25, 27, 541, 542, 554
purchasing power parity405
QMI (Quick Marketing Intelligence) system181
quadratic relationships481
quality prospects360
Rackham, Neil21, 28, 29, 30, 105, 392, 540
Ramaswami, S. N.246
Rangarajan, D.109, 262, 264, 462, 481
Rangaswamy, A.153
rapport and liking362
rational persuasion555
Raynor, M. E.524
RBC Bank348
RBV (resource‐based view)13, 345, 357, 362, 371, 479, 491, 492–4, 496, 498, 502, 506, 512
core tenet of492
empirical support for the basic proposition499
Reagans, R.473, 480
reality mining122
recession407
reciprocation/reciprocity56, 411, 477, 478, 480
recognition orientation187
recommendation likelihood322
reconfiguration495–6, 498, 508, 511–12
recruiting implications396
Red Hat366
redistribution477, 478
reflexivity470
Reichheld, F.320, 392
Reidenbach, E. R.185, 188
Reinartz, W.318, 336, 338, 365
relatedness417, 418, 422
relational exchanges56–8
relational view479
relationship selling345, 360, 417, 431, 475
core distinction of362
distinctive characteristic of361
knowledge‐sharing role critical in362
repeat sales357, 360, 484
generated by re‐calling and re‐selling357
reporting relationships131, 133–4, 155–65, 172
repositioning26, 591
reshaping and32, 33
reps or representatives see manufacturer representatives
repurchases359, 360
intentions/likelihood318, 322, 337
reputation320, 359, 366, 367, 561
as leader in solutions523
resellers150, 213, 214, 215, 216, 357
resource allocation154, 318, 477, 493
budgetary, time and financial470
managers better able to rationalize498
strategic direction for324 see also RBV
resource integrators460, 465, 474–8
respect61
retailers37, 318, 589
consolidation and power142
massive shift in power to25
needs of231
online321
supplier understanding of38
rewards6, 114, 183, 184, 185, 186, 195, 196, 197, 236–8, 279, 388
based on selling skills264
controversial bonus500
incentive‐based242
large proportion tied to level of sales299
perceived fairness of212
punishments and268
(p. 627)
reluctance to base on customer satisfaction248
suitable recognition195
value extraction393–4
RFID (radio frequency ID) tags122
RFM (Reach Frequency Monetary) model319
RFPs (Requests for Proposal)27
RFQs (requests for quotes)355
RFTs (relationship‐forging tasks)445–6
Rhoads, G. K.257, 261, 262
Richard, O. C.106
Richardson, R. J.302
Richins, M. L.409
Ridnour, R. E.178
right customers315–25
Riley, V.432
Rini, Joe216
risk‐averse strategy278–9, 512
risk characteristics35
risk‐management strategy361
risk‐taking managers218
Ritchie, J. B.60
Rizza, R.477
Roach, Stephen437, 443–4
Roberts, J.109, 262, 264
Roberts, J. A.461, 462
Robertson, B.105, 122
robots408
Rochberg‐Halton, E.408–10
Rockwell Collins180
Roffey Park41
ROI (return on investment)195, 287, 293, 350, 371
direct460
likely365
marketing316
smaller338
strongest10, 339
Rokkan, A. I.208, 215
role clarity258, 260
lack of263, 265
role conflict/ambiguity8, 55, 113, 186–7, 271, 384
antecedents to258, 272
consequences of261–4
controls effective in reducing259, 260, 384
job satisfaction and265, 266
key stressors255–7
low levels of267–8, 270
negative correlation with91, 265
susceptibility to69
role expectations4, 52, 55, 56, 64, 255–7
added65
confidence in understanding261
incongruity or incompatibility of186
limited to competence deployment66
primary/secondary54
providing direction as to267, 272
relational exchanges proposed under58
uniform71
unique53
role models259
role overload8, 254, 257, 263–4, 265
high266
low266–7
role‐playing233–4
role stressors8, 69, 70, 257, 262, 264
individual characteristics and261
job‐related outcomes and265, 266
job stress, job consequences and267
key255
leadership behaviors and258–9
organizational characteristics and259–61
potentially negative consequences resulting from263
Rosenthal, R.119
Ross, W. T.202, 203, 209, 211
Rottenberger, K.179, 185
Rouzies, D.547, 551, 552, 556, 557
Ruekert, R. W.205, 218, 545, 547, 550, 559
Rule, N. O.120
rules and practices473, 474
formalization of550
routines and478, 511
Russ, F. A.258, 259, 270
Rust, R. T.205, 218
Ruyter, K. D.375
(p. 628) Sa Vinhas, A.212–13
Saad, G.123
SaaS (software as a service)441
safety climate376, 388
Sager, J. K.253, 257, 258, 260, 262, 263, 264, 265
salary236–40
average for salespeople27–8
sales channels203, 204, 207, 210, 214
economics of466
expenditures349
hybrid211–12, 213
strategic choices349
sales climate390–6
sales‐customer interface530
Sales Educators, The28, 29–30, 41, 269
sales force13–14, 78, 83, 201–23, 518–38
biological and neuroscientific insights118–21
changing role of77, 79–80
classic view of482
control of65–70, 85, 267, 502
country differences in decisions46
creative29
customers and9–12, 109, 311–453
diversity challenge for106
downstream needs136
empowered29, 187
entrepreneurial269
equity and fairness perceptions114
expeditionary29
focus of activities467
function and role significantly changed467
functionality across applications439
how it is managed28
hybrid structures153, 154, 155, 213
implications for113
important questions in relation to role of483
learning as necessary activity of461
marketing intelligence generated by6–7, 174–200
MIS role in6
on‐the‐road33
organization climate in374–402
organizing, controlling and managing502
recognizing the importance of44
relationship to wider society121–2
role of467, 483
sales technology as replacement for434
size/sizing8–9, 84, 277–96
skills and performance84, 87–9
structuring for success131–73
substantial insight into leadership61
superior10
technological29
sales forecasting176, 178–9, 194, 231
coordinated, cost advantages of439
sales function, see selling function
sales management1–16, 40, 52, 53, 55, 64, 82, 92–3
control mechanisms46, 65, 83–6, 91, 93
country‐based practices45
environmental changes102–27
ethical standards43
gender differences96
impact of technology436
importance of strategies in establishing competitive advantage44
major new initiatives concerning77
microcomputer applications444
sales managers14, 29, 58–63, 86, 267–9, 541–4, 549, 550, 552–7, 559, 562, 563
conflict between marketing managers and546
good news for548
trust important in exchange relations relevant to560
sales‐marketing relationships539–70
sales organization3–4, 30
changing sales task22–3
characteristics of34–46
(p. 629)
closely integrated into business strategy26
corporate expenditure on27–8
design6
effectiveness4–5, 77–101
environmental conditions faced by52
new models31–4
new perspective on46–7
search for new type of19–21
sales response analysis293–5
sales role51–76
critical36
shaping41–6
sales technology33, 176, 178, 369, 370, 426–53 see also ST portfolios
sales unit design89–91, 94
sales volume202, 203, 213, 214, 216, 217, 218, 241, 246, 247, 248, 546, 546, 583, 585
changes in236
compensation costs vary directly with240
contests designed to stimulate245
direct link between commission and238
firm ought to pursue at any cost328
incentives based on243
short‐run239
salesperson role:
as account manager361, 369, 371
as executive363, 364, 369, 371
as persuader371
as problem solver371
Salvaggio, A. N.386
Samaraweera, Manoshi10
Samuels, S. A.302
Sanders, K.377
Sandfield, A.111
SAP (business software provider)141–2
SAS Institute333
Satmetrix320
Sato, M.560
Saudi Arabia94
SBUs (strategic business units)377
collaborative relationship operates as507