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date: 18 September 2019

(p. ix) List of Figures

(p. ix) List of Figures

  1. 3.1 The valley of the Vézère River near the Cro-Magnon shelter 28

  2. 3.2 Section of the Cro-Magnon burial site 29

  3. 3.3 Section of the cave of Goat's Hole at Paviland, showing the human skeleton found in the shelter 30

  4. 3.4 Human skeleton discovered in the Mentone Cave 31

  5. 3.5 The Laugerie-Basse body 34

  6. 5.1 Plaque outside an elementary school in Paris 60

  7. 5.2 Children in central Madagascar playing by the tomb of their ancestors 70

  8. 6.1 Example of bone formation fusing together four vertebrae 82

  9. 6.2 Example of bone destruction on the head of a femur in joint degeneration 82

  10. 6.3 Frequency of three dental diseases 84

  11. 6.4 The Health Index resulting from the study of skeletons in the Western Hemisphere Health Project showing a decline in health through time 90

  12. 7.1 Electrophoretogram showing a partial DNA sequence 110

  13. 7.2 Alignment of part of an HVS-I sequence (individual Drestwo 2) 111

  14. 7.3 Partial alignment of an ancient mtDNA molecule sequenced with an Illumina platform after target enrichment 114

  15. 8.1 Local archaeological fauna are essential for the interpretation of human data, in this case bone and dentine collagen δ13C and δ15N 128

  16. 8.2 Stable carbon and oxygen isotope data for tooth enamel from Australopithecus africanus (2.5 Mya) and Paranthropus robustus (1.8 Mya) from the Sterkfontein Valley, South Africa 129

  17. 8.3 Breastfeeding patterns can be studied both for populations and at the intra-individual level using δ15N or δ18O 131

  18. 8.4 Bone collagen δ15N and δ34S values for two European locations, demonstrating differences in local range of variation for sulphur isotopes 132

  19. 9.1 Temperatures recorded at 15-minute intervals in (a) modern crematoria and (b) an experimental pyre cremation 159

  20. 9.2 Cremated bone from a modern cremation prior to cremulation (pulverization) 160

  21. 9.3 An experimental pyre cremation showing quantities of charred soft tissues remaining after main body of pyre has burnt down (c.2 hours) 161

  22. 9.4 Large size of bone fragments in an archaeological cremation burial devoid of soil 164

  23. 10.1 Grave 400 from Skovgårde on Zealand in Denmark 184

  24. (p. x) 11.1 The cinerary urn and artefacts from grave 1296 from Alwalton, Cambridgeshire 198

  25. 11.2 A Thor hammer-ring retrieved from a cremation grave in a late Iron Age cemetery at Väsby, Vallentuna parish, Uppland 201

  26. 11.3 A clay paw found in a late Iron Age grave on the Åland Islands, Sweden 203

  27. 11.4 A Viking Age cremation urn from Vittene in Västergötland, with large flakes of rock included with the ashes 204

  28. 12.1 ‘Kerma’ burial with pottery deposits and accompanying animal burials of earlier 2nd millennium bc, northern Sudan 212

  29. 12.2 Tombs of Islamic notables (18th–19th century?), near Ed Debba, northern Sudan 214

  30. 13.1 The mahastupa at Sanchi (top) and a schematic diagram of a typical pilgrimage stupa (bottom) 228

  31. 13.2 Early Buddhist archaeological sites in South Asia 232

  32. 13.3 The main chaitya at Karla (left) and a schematic diagram of a typical monastic chaitya hall (right) 234

  33. 13.4 The varieties of mortuary features found near Thotlakonda monastery 235

  34. 14.1 Muslim grave at Kunya Urgench in northern Turkmenistan 244

  35. 14.2 A series of mechanically excavated grave pits to allow rapid burial at Zekreet in western Qatar 246

  36. 14.3 Diagram of different types of burial 247

  37. 14.4 Cemetery next to the 18th century Ottoman Hajj fort of Dab’a in Jordan 250

  38. 14.5 Cemetery attached to Corlulu Ali Pasha Madrassa in Istanbul showing the integration of cemeteries into the urban fabric 251

  39. 14.6 Muslim grave at Ruwaydha in northern Qatar 254

  40. 15.1 The shrouded body of St Bees Man as he was found in his coffin in 1981 262

  41. 15.2 Different types of medieval grave 263

  42. 15.3 Burial of a priest at St Bees, Cumbria, with lead chalice and paten 264

  43. 15.4 Early medieval gravestones 267

  44. 15.5 Fifteenth-century tomb of Archbishop Chichele in Canterbury Cathedral, constructed in his own lifetime 268

  45. 15.6 The east end of Tewkesbury Abbey, showing the location of the Despenser and de Clare tombs in the ambulatory, rebuilt c.1320–1335 269

  46. 15.7 The location of bishops’ tomb effigies at the east end of Hereford Cathedral 270

  47. 15.8 Plan of the London Greyfriars, as it appeared just before the suppression in 1536 272

  48. 15.9 Late medieval ossuary at the small parish church of St Peters, Leicester, revealed during excavation in 2006 273

  49. 15.10 Chantry chapel of Bishop William Langland (d. 1540) 276

  50. (p. xi) 16.1 Canoe burial in mangrove tree; Tarapaina, South Malaita, Solomon Islands 282

  51. 16.2 Capture of Tunis, ad 1535 288

  52. 16.3 Ten empty graves for ten miners ‘buried’ alive during 1998 Lassing mine collapse, Styria, Austria 290

  53. 16.4 Roman citizen and presumed martyr Saint Coelestina 292

  54. 17.1 Distribution of early and late Upper Palaeolithic burials in Eurasia 325

  55. 17.2 Distribution of burials over time 326

  56. 17.3 Frequency charts of all adorned body parts and total proportion of beads on each body part 333

  57. 17.4 ABP and bead count per body part for burials found before and after 1970 334

  58. 20.1 Main regions and main sites mentioned in the text 376

  59. 20.2 Plan of Argaric settlement at El Oficio, showing structures and intramural burial 381

  60. 20.3 Plans of Argaric hilltop settlement at Peñalosa and low-lying settlement at Rincón de Almendricos 382

  61. 20.4 Argaric cist grave from Fuente Álamo 383

  62. 20.5 Intensification of agricultural production from the Copper Age (phase 1) through the Argaric (phases 2–4) occupation at Gatas, as shown by the frequency of cereals and legumes per volume of excavated deposit 384

  63. 20.6 Goods of high social value from Fuente Álamo grave 9 386

  64. 20.7 Distribution of metal by weight in the different sectors of Fuente Álamo 387

  65. 21.1 Aerial photo of Pisac 399

  66. 21.2 Plan of Pisac 400

  67. 22.1 Map showing the location of the two study areas 408

  68. 22.2 Arran Island chambered cairns and their suggested territories 409

  69. 22.3 An excavated slab burial at Baga Gazaryn Chuluu in Mandalgov Aimag, Mongolia 412

  70. 22.4 A khirigsuur monument in plan view 413

  71. 23.1 Long barrow cemetery of Escolives-Sainte-Camille, Burgundy, in the process of excavation 423

  72. 23.2 North European dolmens: (a) Poppostein, Schleswig; (b) Poskær Stenhus, Djursland; (c) Toftebjerg, Zealand 426

  73. 23.3 North European passage graves: (a) Heidenopfertisch, Lower Saxony; (b) Stöckheim, Altmark; (c) Knudshoved, Zealand 427

  74. 23.4 Grønjægers Høj long dolmen on Zealand displaying bright quartz chamber capstone and reddish facade 429

  75. 23.5 Dolmen at Haga, island of Örust, Bohuslän, originally located on the shoreline 431

  76. (p. xii) 23.6 Dolmen of Aguas Tuertas, western Pyrenees, marking entrance to the upland plateau 433

  77. 25.1 Schematic depiction of the communicating of social, relational, and physical aspects of the ritual actions and the actors involved 461

  78. 25.2 Chambered grave with seven urns during excavation at Cottbus, Germany 467

  79. 25.3 A Lusatian urn from Cottbus, Germany, containing cremated human bones 468

  80. 25.4 Aligned hip and spine bones inside an urn 469

  81. 25.5 Possible reconstruction of the recovery of the remains of a cremated individual from a burnt-down pyre 470

  82. 26.1 Tollund Man 478

  83. 26.2 The mummy of a chieftain with a loincloth, 5th–4th century bc: Pazyryk barrow no. 5 483

  84. 26.3 Tattoo on the right arm of a tribal chief, Pazyryk Barrow no. 2 484

  85. 26.4 Unprovenanced Egyptian mummy of a child 488

  86. 27.1 Cremation at Pashupatinath, Nepal 498

  87. 27.2 Inside a modern crematorium, Møllendal, Bergen, Norway 502

  88. 27.3 A widow has disposed of her jewellery on her husband's chest before he is cremated, Nire Ghat, Western Nepal 506

  89. 27.4 Bone-grinding of cremated bones before the cremated remains are mixed with clay from which figures are made, Tore cemetery, Manang, Nepal 507

  90. 31.1 Marcus Valerius Celerinus, a Roman army veteran from Spain, and his wife on a funerary monument in Cologne, Germany, c.ad 100 563

  91. 31.2 Traiana Herodiana, an Ubian woman wearing ethnic costume and her husband on their sarcophagus in Cologne, Germany, late 2nd–early 3rd century ad 564

  92. 31.3 Grave reliefs depicting Contuinda in Celtic costume and her son Silvanus Ategnissa and other male members of the family in Graeco-Roman dress at Nickenich, Germany, c.ad 50 565

  93. 31.4 Funerary portrait of the Eraviscan woman Flavia Usaiu in Gorsium, Hungary, early 2nd century ad 569

  94. 31.5 Funerary monument of Menimane and Blussus, a Celtic couple from Mainz, Germany, depicting her in local ethnic dress, c.ad 50 570

  95. 31.6 Funerary portraits of Massuia and Namio on their gravestone in Szentendre, Hungary, depicting her in Eraviscan costume, c.ad 100 572

  96. 32.1 Map of China showing the archaeological sites mentioned in the text 586

  97. 32.2 Mortuary ritual from the Neolithic period site of Shijia 586

  98. 32.3 Mortuary differentiation in the Neolithic period 589

  99. 32.4 The tomb of Fuhao at Anyang 592

  100. (p. xiii) 33.1 Map of the North Coast of Peru highlighting Late Moche period sites (ad 600–800) 602

  101. 33.2 An example of a ‘normative’ Moche burial 603

  102. 33.3 Late Moche in-house bench burial of an adult from Structure 31 at Galindo 606

  103. 33.4 Late Moche bench burial of a child in flexed position at Galindo 607

  104. 34.1 Boat-shaped stone settings from Årby gravefield, Hallstahammar, Sweden 621

  105. 34.2 Mortsafe from St Mary's, Holystone, Scotland 626

  106. 36.1 Map of the Theban necropolis showing tombs mentioned in the text; inset: map of Egypt showing location of Thebes 646

  107. 36.2 Ostracon with a non-standardized depiction of an interment, reportedly from Thebes 648

  108. 36.3 Grave p1379 in the East Cemetery at Deir el-Medina 650

  109. 36.4 Grave p1371 in the East Cemetery at Deir el-Medina 651

  110. 36.5 The depot of Sennefer and Nefertiti, p1159, in the Deir el-Medina West Cemetery 652

  111. 36.6 View into the burial chamber of Kha and Merit in the West Cemetery at Deir el-Medina 655

  112. 38.1 Location of Early Bronze Age settlements and cemeteries on the southeastern Dead Sea Plain of Jordan 678

  113. 38.2 Schematic plan of EBA IA Chamber A114 N, Bab adh-Dhra’, Jordan 683

  114. 38.3 Archaeologists Sean Bergin and Khalid Tarawneh visit the salvage excavations at the site of Fifa in 2001 687

  115. 38.4 Looted and broken ceramic vessels on surface at Bab adh-Dhra’ in 2010 688