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date: 22 September 2019

(p. 817) Index

Abercromby, John21–2
Aboriginal communities738, 749
Aboriginal people3, 713, 715, 717–18, 734–45, 750–1, 753–4
Aboriginal worldview737–9
accounting227, 765–6, 784
Achilles284, 287
Adelaide717–18, 738–9
aDNA see ancient DNA
adobe-lined chambers604
adolescents350–1, 545
adorned body parts (ABPs)330, 333–4
adorned Gravettian individuals331
adornments
bodily561, 565, 568–9, 572
personal350, 513
adult cremation154
adult females322–3, 383, 546, 552, 585, 587
adult males362, 367, 549, 565, 587–8
adults129, 162–3, 199, 245, 328, 367, 543–5
affective objects599
affiliation
cultural126, 702
ethnic2, 551, 568–9, 572, 581
racial702, 719
tribal566–7, 573
Africa86, 209, 213, 218, 285, 632–5, 637
Central215
North566
South89, 129, 135, 139, 784
Sub-Saharan209, 211
West49, 210, 217–18, 447
African mortuary archaeologies209–15
African perspectives209–19
afterlife5, 187–8, 242, 486–7, 517–19, 522–3, 643–4
Christian beliefs about260–1
agency66–8, 70, 180, 290, 359, 444–5, 448–9
agents61, 176, 379, 505, 512, 517, 649
social54, 64, 379, 625
agricultural production227, 384–5
intensified378, 384, 386
primary382, 384
agriculture89, 104, 213, 250, 584, 737
AIAS (Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies)735
air-burials506
Åland Islands200, 202–3
alignment110–11, 114, 249, 261, 412, 428, 433
alleles103–4
altars271, 292, 360, 394, 623
high271, 273
ambiguity67–8, 150, 180, 360, 363, 771, 792
ambivalences230, 236, 448, 453–4, 743, 770, 792
American Indians695–703, 747 see also Native Americans
graves of701
American soldiers287, 768–9
amplification108–9, 111–13
(p. 818) amplified DNA108
Amud633, 636
amulets27–8, 202, 205, 486, 519, 603
analytical methods47, 52, 54–5, 84, 88, 106, 376
analytical strategies127, 134, 137, 362
Ananda230
anatomically modern humans (AMH)139, 632, 634–5
anatomists42, 80, 83, 286, 625–7, 711
ancestor cults363–4
ancestor rituals461, 466
ancestor shrines360
ancestor veneration217, 610
ancestor worship216, 401, 583, 588
ancestorhood363, 446
ancestors2–3, 216–18, 393–8, 465–6, 701–3, 743–6, 751–4
Dreaming738
engendering of581–94
ancestresses585, 590, 593
ancient burials36, 39, 210, 807
ancient DNA
analytical methods for analysis of hard tissues106–14
definition100
kind of information furnished by analysis102–5
laboratories107, 110
pathogen84–6, 91
sources from burial context101–2
ancient DNA (aDNA)86, 99–100, 105, 111–12, 115
ancient identities543, 545, 547, 549, 551, 553
ancient pathogen DNA84–6, 91
Andalucía376–9
Andes610 see also late Moche
animal bones105, 355, 464–5, 469
animal burials212
ankles333–4
anniversaries275–6, 290
Antequera376
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland42, 719
anthropological knowledge215–19
Anthropological Society of London29, 38
anthropologists38, 67–8, 107, 696, 699, 735, 750–1
biological700, 702, 733, 735–7, 740–1, 748, 753
cultural64, 68–9
physical8, 80–1, 680, 689, 697, 720, 749
social6, 281–2, 460, 740
anthropology3, 38, 49, 64, 80–1, 782–3, 807–9
biological81, 455, 734–5, 740–5, 751–3
forensic254, 715, 752, 768
physical8, 80–1, 467, 547, 680, 689, 714
anti-science views742, 753
anticlericalism32–3, 37–8
antiquities markets681–2, 684–6, 688
Anyang586, 591–2
apical burials367–8
Appadurai, A.686–7
Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices49–50
aqueducts400–1
Årby gravefield621
archaeological analyses2, 7, 9, 50–1, 527, 531, 658
archaeological collections283, 452, 733
archaeological cultures22
archaeological data3, 35, 37, 41, 70, 79, 83
traditional141
archaeological examples123, 462
archaeological excavations see excavations
archaeological practice196, 209, 218, 442, 444–6, 673, 686
traditional678, 686
archaeological record8–9, 47–8, 52, 70–1, 281–2, 631–2, 684–6
of death449–50
archaeological research8–9, 55, 126, 180, 401, 665, 677
archaeological traditions174–6, 444
architecture
ceremonial608
funerary392, 466, 632
megalithic422, 425, 428
monumental601, 604, 766, 774
Arene Candide322–3, 335
Argaric377–8, 381–7
Argentina287, 289, 781, 791–2, 794–5, 806, 808
aridity125, 132
aristocracy266, 271, 273, 392
arms186, 261, 330, 333–4, 468, 483, 747
(p. 819) Army Medical Museum697, 718–19
Arnold, B.2, 65, 531, 535, 547
artefacts19, 48, 50, 197–9, 205, 679–81, 683–8
looted678, 680, 687
sale681, 688
Artelius, T.176, 204–5, 810
artificial caves383, 385
‘Aryan’ race22
ascribed status347–8, 363–4, 367
ash pits590
ashy diet736
Asia
Central253, 255, 411
Inner see Inner Asia
South227–37
Southeast89, 218, 770, 781
southwest305
assemblages162, 533, 547, 654
burial643–4, 658
Assmann, J.643–4, 647
associated grave goods350, 352, 665, 685–6
Ategnissa, Silvanus564–5, 571
Athens544–7, 549, 552
Atlantic Europe405, 407–8
atrocities782, 785, 791
Auckland War Memorial Museum (AWMM)716, 718
Aurignac35, 40–1, 43, 311
Australia710, 715, 718, 720–1, 764, 772–3, 807–8
Museums720
north-west747–8
repatriation, reburial, and biological research733–54
South741, 751
Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies (AIAS)735
Australian soldiers767, 773–4
Austria54, 289–90, 528
autosomal DNA103
aviation archaeologists770
AWMM (Auckland War Memorial Museum)716, 718
Bab adh-Dhra678, 680–5, 687–9
bacterial DNA105, 108
Badajoz376–7
balance of power38, 765, 772
baliya242
Baltic Sea130, 202, 432
Baousso da Torre305, 320
barcoding112
barrow openers18–19
barrows17–21, 424, 434, 483, 521, 564 see also mounds
long20–2, 434, 464
Pazyryk483–4
battlefield archaeology774, 794
battles67, 245, 260, 274, 288, 719, 773–4
Bawden, G.601, 604–5, 607–10
beads184–5, 253, 330–1, 333–4, 350, 519–21, 684
pearl364, 367
shell365, 367, 637
tooth348, 353
Beaker People21–2
Beattie, Owen481, 490
beavers202–3
behaviour48, 61–2, 303–6, 460, 513–14, 634–5, 686
gendered568, 571, 583
symbolic327, 335, 632
Belfer-Cohen, A.11, 632, 635
belief discourses618, 622–3
belief systems216, 218–19, 335, 515, 599, 619, 672
beliefs40–1, 43, 61–3, 435–6, 515–17, 608–9, 617–28
Christian259–61
cosmological5, 11, 406
cultural63, 618, 723
and the dead618–19
early modern Britain622–7
instrumentality621–2
landscape405–14
multi-modality621, 627
personal62, 617
problems with622
reasons for importance618–22
religious11, 32, 35–6, 39–41, 43, 608, 619–20
scientific617, 619, 623
social frameworks618
bench burials599, 604–11
in-house601, 608–11
bereavement2, 7, 609, 622, 795
Betanzos, Juan Diez de392–6, 402
Bhaja233–4
bicultural research737–9
biers244–5, 547
Binford, L.47–53, 62, 174, 285, 347, 363, 512–13
bioapatite133, 136–7, 139–40
bioarchaeologists83, 86, 91–3, 443–4
bioarchaeology of health and wellbeing79–93 see also palaeopathology
biomolecular analyses85–6
destructive analysis techniques84–5
history of study80–1
macroscopic analyses and standards for recording86–7
macroscopic recording81–4, 86, 91
study of human skeletal remains81–7
biographies197, 205, 447, 512, 520, 523, 627
object/artefact679, 685
site447
biological age3, 467, 545
biological anthropologists700, 702, 733, 735–7, 740–1, 748, 753
biological anthropology81, 455, 734–5, 740–5, 751–3
biological data50–2, 377
biological death66, 447, 454
biological evolution35, 39, 735
biological material100–2, 111, 115
biological processes21, 35, 100, 140, 441, 446–7, 597–8
biological research733, 735, 741
biological sex3, 79–80, 347, 350, 441, 530, 546–7
biomolecular analyses85–6
birth51, 130, 395–6, 447, 462, 499, 517
bishops41, 263, 269–71
Black Death79, 106, 261, 274–5
Bloch, M.6, 67, 177, 179–80, 285, 289, 516–17
blood66, 69, 100, 243, 446–7, 584, 625
Bloody Point451, 454
Blussus569–70
bodies285–91, 441–50, 459–71, 475–87, 514–23, 528–35, 788–96
actual253, 527
archaeological443–4
buried35, 281, 529, 783
children353, 650, 792
complete81, 501
deceased527–8, 533
on display291–3
dissected627
female353, 520, 627
intact351–2
medical625, 627
mindful598
mummified6, 85, 392, 394, 517
peat477
physical63, 291, 442–3
political459–60
putrefying477, 490
sexed459, 530–1
single11, 480, 772
social266, 459, 462
treatment459–71
unidentified289, 766
well-preserved475, 490
bodily adornments561, 565, 568–9, 572
Bodo632, 634, 637
bog bodies134, 480, 483, 672
bog iron480
bogs101, 478–81
peat81, 101
wet475, 489
Bohuslän430–2
bone collagen131–2, 135
bone fragments105, 155–6, 162–4, 698, 773
bone-grinding of cremated bones507
bones1–12, 133–9, 149–52, 156–8, 160–5, 464–6, 499–502
animal105, 355, 464–5, 469
burned140, 477
compact157–8
cortical107
foot468, 470
individual4, 158
long107, 380, 425, 465, 633, 682
plastic92
postcranial292, 743
preservation162, 164, 739
single352, 503
small quantities of154–5
spine468–70
(p. 821)
trabecular157, 163
boot-shaped tombs601, 604
Bourdieu, P.178, 532
bowls184–6, 252, 463, 469, 487
box-shaped coffins647, 649, 654
boxes100, 103, 110, 112, 603, 717, 748–9
boys396, 505, 546, 564–5, 713, 719
brains35, 134, 464, 483, 485–6, 713
breastfeeding patterns125, 130–1, 133
Breton standing stones423, 428
bricks228, 246–9, 611, 770
Briggs, J.69, 115, 479, 774
British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS)29, 39
British Museum491
British soldiers769, 773
Brittany424, 428, 431–3, 435
Brno307, 320, 331, 333
Brodie, N.679, 685, 688
bronze20, 185, 199, 411, 504, 531, 545
Bronze Age21, 154, 163, 377, 411–12, 501, 520
Inner Asia see Inner Asia, Bronze Age
Brothwell, D.452, 478, 490
Brougham153, 162
Brown, J.8, 11, 49–51, 53, 359–65, 368, 583
Brück, J.176, 406, 459, 517, 519, 522
Bruyère, B.649–53, 657
Buddha228–31, 233, 236, 506
Buddhism227, 229–30, 506
early see early Buddhism
Buddhist clergy229–31, 233, 236–7
Buddhist cremation506
Buddhist inscriptions231, 234–7
Buddhist laity227, 229, 231, 233, 237
Buddhist literature227, 230–2
Buddhist monasteries232–3, 236
Buddhist monks227–8, 230–1, 235–7
Buddhist texts227, 234–5, 237
Buddhist textual sources227, 229–30, 234, 236
Buddhist theology227, 229, 231
Buddhists11, 228–30, 234–5, 237, 255
early229, 232, 234–7
Buikstra, J.52, 64, 80–1, 86, 92, 362–3, 383
Burger, J.101–2, 105, 391
burial aisles623
burial archaeology5, 10–12, 19, 24, 47, 209–10, 735–6
ethics and politics663–811
burial assemblages643–4, 658
burial chambers647–9, 651, 656, 682
Kha and Merit655
burial clusters see clusters
burial community276, 463
burial containers52, 385
burial contexts see contexts
burial customs141, 241, 551, 677, 689
burial equipment644–5, 649–50, 652–4, 656, 658
burial evidence31, 33, 35, 52, 349, 378, 549
burial forms214–15, 304, 368, 377, 587
burial goods304, 375, 636
burial grounds4, 271, 275, 277, 335, 645
burial liturgy see liturgy
burial location see locations
burial methods544, 546–7, 550–2
burial monuments273, 425, 434
burial mounds47, 50–3, 202, 255, 432, 483
burial orientation see orientation
burial pathways see pathways
burial patterning see patterning
burial pits246, 329, 377, 452, 462, 520, 533
burial plots367–8, 623
burial practices22–3, 40–1, 52, 215, 543, 607–8, 635–6
Islamic11, 241–2, 253
burial programmes362, 450–1
burial record259, 303, 328, 335, 360, 546, 551
burial remains63, 149, 154–6, 682
burial rights275
burial rites21–2, 453, 519, 559, 645, 647
burial rituals362, 378, 422, 430, 461, 609, 611
burial sites11, 185, 210, 213–15, 217, 219, 522
burial structures401, 423, 684
burial systems546, 548, 550–1, 553
burial tracts647, 653–4, 656
burial traditions259, 534
burial treatment362, 366–7, 451
burial types52, 163
burials see also Introductory Note
adult154, 163, 546
animal212
apical367–8
Argaric385, 387
(p. 822)
bench see bench burials
canoe282
cave214, 248
cemetery604, 610–11
children385, 518, 521, 544–6, 607
Christian261, 265, 666
clandestine784–5
collective123, 359, 384, 441, 585
contested801–11
cremation81, 148, 151–2, 154, 164, 199–200, 500–1
deviant216, 353, 451
disturbed123, 348, 352
divided265
double218, 333, 351, 354, 383, 479
Egyptian643, 657–8
elite212–13, 365
English451, 453
EUP325, 329–30, 334
flexed210, 607
formal149, 151–2, 216, 544
frequency325, 327
individual213, 254, 304, 336, 351, 376–7, 736
intact645, 649
intentional31, 40, 632–3
intra-settlement211, 217
intramural271, 377, 381, 383–5, 387, 477
Islamic241, 253
LUP329–30
meaning635
MP632, 636–7
multiple304, 319, 329, 335, 501, 551
non-Muslim241
normal216, 451, 479–80
normative Moche603
place of burial149, 152–3, 244, 249, 274, 276, 715
primary363, 450, 516, 587
proper286, 291, 559, 794
rapid245–6
rich214, 350, 366
richly furnished211, 366
single103, 325, 424, 521, 551
slab411–14
surrounding804
token154
triple383
unurned152, 154, 156–7
urned151, 157
buried-alive children397
Burms, A.666
burned bone140, 477
burnt bones462, 468, 497, 504
burnt-down pyres465, 468, 470
Cáceres377
cadavers100–1, 195, 200, 352, 551, 625, 627
Cahokia364
cairns234–5, 355, 431–2, 521, 680
chambered408–9, 431
Cairo251–2
Callmer, J.202–3
Cambodia287, 782
Cambridgeshire198
camelids395–6
Camino del Molino376, 380
Campbell, G.41–2
Camper, P.711
canes644, 657
cannibalism63, 282, 305, 465, 633–5, 805
canoe burial282
Canterbury Cathedral266
Cantilupe, William268, 270
capacocha395–7
Capdevila, L.764–5
carbon isotope values124, 129–30, 140
carbonate133, 136–7, 139–40, 165, 485
Cardini, L.319, 324, 332, 335
carrion461, 623–4, 627
Cartailhac, Émile33–7, 41, 375
Carter, Howard1, 651
carved images423, 566
catalytic commemoration195–205
cathedrals260, 269, 271, 274–6
Canterbury266
Hereford268–70
Lincoln266, 276
Catholic Church32, 35, 38, 293
cave burials214, 248
caves27, 30, 39–41, 248, 353–5, 380, 635–6 (p. 823)
Amud636
artificial383, 385
Celerinus, Marcus Valerius562
cells100–2, 107, 231, 233, 476, 617
Celtic cultures/groups20–1, 564–5, 568–9
cemeteries50–4, 274–5, 347–9, 351–5, 367–8, 544–5, 677–87 see also Introductory Note
execution286
Greek545, 547–8
Islamic250–2
long barrow434
parish270, 274
Scandinavian348, 350–1, 353–4
small183, 251, 261, 362, 604
cemetery burials604, 610–11
cenotaphs6, 153–4, 248, 765–6, 768
Central Africa215
Central Asia253, 255, 411
Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii (CILHI)769–70
ceremonial architecture608
ceremonies174, 261, 285, 394–6, 649, 656–7, 745–7
funeral244, 275, 288, 360, 393, 645
mourning533
Cerro de la Encantada376–7
Cerro Virtud376–7
chairs655–7, 718
chaityas233–4
chamber burials214
chambered cairns408–9, 431
chambered tombs22, 407, 410, 464, 467, 604
Chamberlain, A.476–7, 481, 483, 485–9, 491
chambers30, 380, 424–5, 428–9, 463, 649, 682–4
adobe-lined604
timber424–5
wooden183, 463, 466–7, 483
chancels270–1
Channel Islands433
chantry chapels276
chaos66–7, 201, 274, 766
chapels269, 273–4, 276
chantry276
cult647, 656
charnel houses294, 361, 364, 367–8, 684–5
charred soft tissues160–1
Chatham Islands716
Cheeseman, T.F.716–18
Chengziyai582, 586, 589–90
chests363, 651, 655
chiefdom societies48–50, 366, 378
childbirth284, 353, 451, 597
Childe, Gordon21–3, 282, 407
childhood4, 135, 441, 543, 545, 635
children131, 245, 321–4, 351, 395–7, 521–2, 543–8
bodies353, 650, 792
burial385, 518, 521, 544–6, 607
young40, 348, 397, 444, 551–2, 647
China229, 287, 581–94, 736
intellectual traditions583–4
Neolithic585–93
Chinese archaeology581–2, 584, 588
cholera83, 104
Christianity32, 218–19, 237, 453, 620, 624
beliefs259
about afterlife260–1
and treatment of the dead261–5
burial in churches, monasteries, and churchyards270–7
burial practices200, 213, 252, 255, 293, 519
Later Middle Ages259–77
memorials and tombstones265–70
Christianization213
chromosomal DNA102–3
chromosomes102–3
Church(es)32, 265–6, 268, 270–4, 276–7, 450–1, 623–4
monastic266, 271
parish265–6, 270, 274–6
churchyards270, 274–5, 451
Cieza de León392, 397
CILHI (Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii)769–70
cinerary urns197–202, 204, 528
circumambulation236
circumambulatory paths228–30, 233
cist graves385, 551
cists152–3, 261, 355, 382, 385, 424, 520
stone380, 383, 463, 624
citizenship, Roman565–6, 568, 570
civil society784, 788
civilian populations561, 764, 771, 782, 784, 786, 790
(p. 824) civilization39–41, 583, 696
clandestine burials784–5
clay paws202–3
clergy/clerics36–8, 230–1, 271, 273, 451, 454, 519
senior266, 271, 273
cloisters271, 273
clones111–12
cloning, molecular112
cloth69, 244, 462–3, 466, 468–9, 486, 649
Clottes, J.349, 355
clusters306, 351, 362, 367–8, 434, 590
coastlines421–2, 432, 434–5
coasts128–9, 335, 430–3, 435
coffins183, 185–8, 261–2, 462–3, 519–20, 625–6, 647–57
box-shaped647, 649, 654
dowel-jointed485
inscribed654
log185, 588
mummy-shaped647–9, 654
nested lacquered591
wooden261, 488, 590
cold environments476, 481–5
collagen101, 133, 136–40
bone131–2, 135
dentine128, 131, 133
collective burials123, 359, 384, 441, 585
collective commemoration775, 788, 795
collective memory327, 582, 600, 609, 636, 764
collectors682, 688, 712, 715–17, 719, 734, 741
Cologne562–4, 570
colonial contexts135
colours110, 158, 182, 196, 243, 428–9, 636–7
Colville Tribes698
combs17, 185, 188, 197–200
commemoration196, 275–6, 520, 549–50, 561–2, 763–4, 769–70
catalytic195–205
collective775, 788, 795
commemorative citations197, 205
commemorative practices10, 763–4, 772, 774
commemorative strategies196–7
commercial archaeology86, 148–9
common humanity666, 754, 786
Commonwealth War Graves Commission768, 772–3
communal tombs22, 289
communicative actions460–1, 467, 469
communicative practices459–71
communities405–7, 515–18, 520–3, 589–90, 720–2, 743–6, 790–5
descendant9, 445, 673, 802, 810
indigenous9, 568, 665, 673, 750, 790, 804
local8, 50, 274, 376, 608–9, 667, 673
monastic271
Neolithic421, 430, 432, 435, 584
comparative collections743, 751–2
competition21, 39, 63, 348, 378, 594, 673
complementary sources of evidence55, 387
complex hunter-gatherers347–9
complex relationships52, 175, 617
complex societies348, 366
complexity2, 49, 216–17, 347–9, 361–2, 378, 806–7
ritual364–5
social49, 64, 348, 361–2, 365–6, 632
concealment, and display463–4
conflict archaeology763–4
conflict victims, exhumation781–96
conflicts42, 696–7, 745, 763–5, 772–3, 794, 802–8
Confucian legacy584
connective tissues452, 480
consent672–3, 722
construction246–7, 249, 252, 424–5, 431–2, 522–3, 532–4
of gender528, 530, 532–4, 593
of megalithic tombs378, 384
social284, 454, 529, 581
containers102, 155, 157, 292, 383, 385, 469
contamination86, 99, 106–10, 138–9, 506
contested burials801–11
contexts7–11, 180–3, 216–18, 512–18, 522–3, 598–601, 685–6
archaeological127, 148, 161–2, 516
colonial135
cremation501, 508
ethical668, 740
historical68, 71, 709–10, 722, 793
political11–12, 32, 37, 54, 515, 734, 796
post-colonial9, 807–8
primary263, 305
ritual3, 180–1, 513
social49–51, 411, 735
(p. 825) contextualization of grave goods173–88
continuity196, 213, 349, 409, 414, 447, 604
contract archaeology88, 91
Contreras, D.678–9, 685, 688
controlled sites770
controlled transformation470
Contuinda564–5, 568
copper375, 383, 385, 481, 601, 605, 610
objects364, 385, 605, 607
ornaments383, 604
coprolites106, 134
Coricancha393–5
Corinth545, 548, 551
corporate group rights49, 51
corpses242–6, 281–91, 460–6, 475–8, 482–8, 499–501, 503–5
decaying263, 490
inaccessible283, 288–91
loss288, 293
missing288, 291
cortical bone107
cosmic dimensions397, 401–2
cosmological beliefs5, 11, 406
cosmology1, 4–5, 10, 449, 499–501, 503–5, 507–8
and biographical narratives447–8
cremation in497–508
and deathways442–5
Neolithic425, 428
of sacred landscapes421–36
cosmos395, 497–8, 500, 505–6, 620
Côtes d’Armor422
Cottbus467–8
court cases698, 806–7
courts396–7, 583, 699–700, 784, 805
Cox, M.79, 84, 87, 89, 162, 717, 783
craniometry19–20, 23
credibility61–2, 65
cremated bones147–55, 162–3, 165, 466–8, 500–3, 506–7, 520
lifting/transportation157
cremation6, 10, 147–65, 197–200, 202–3, 466–7, 497–508
adult154
Buddhist506
and catalytic commemoration195–205
characteristics499–501
contexts501, 508
in culture and cosmology497–508
demographic data162
graves153–4, 201
Hindu497–9, 503, 505–6
mortuary rite150, 154
pits153, 353
practices197, 199–200, 497, 508
prehistoric497–9, 503
rites/rituals148, 155, 161, 163
Roman160
and temperatures501–3
transformation from dead to living503–5
urns see cinerary urns
cremation-related contexts147, 150
cremation-related deposits147–9, 151, 153, 155, 164, 465, 521
crematoriums, modern501–3
cremators152, 158–9, 504–5
cremulation160
Criado Boado, F.432, 434
crimes283, 286, 480, 627, 658, 782–4, 786–9
criminals285–6, 451, 666
Cro-Magnon burials29–30, 32, 37, 41, 43, 307
Crossland, Z.218, 286, 491, 768, 783, 792, 808
cult chapels647, 656
cultural affiliation126, 702
cultural alterity71
cultural anthropologists64, 68–9
cultural background697, 737
cultural beliefs63, 618, 723
cultural complexity366, 513
cultural constructions62, 405, 445, 530–1
cultural contexts, human experience across193–658
cultural descendants667, 669, 673
cultural developments211–12
cultural entanglements59–71
cultural evolutionism37, 39–40
cultural heritage689, 698, 740, 754, 805, 807, 810
cultural history1, 17–24, 744
cultural icons489
cultural identity125, 203, 564–5, 573
(p. 826) cultural items86, 699
cultural knowledge461, 469
cultural landscapes384, 405, 410, 435
cultural liminality434, 436
cultural meaning480, 636
cultural norms22, 527, 598
cultural patrimony698
cultural practices3–4, 129, 500, 560
cultural property700, 721
cultural relativism742, 753
cultural sensitivities3, 490, 749
cultural signatures22–3
cultural traditions47, 212, 561
cultural water401
culture(s)20–2, 47–9, 64–6, 497–501, 503–7, 597–600, 699
American Indian699, 703
cremation in497–508
Muslim241, 249, 255
Western62, 666, 722, 754
curation151, 164, 445, 452, 482, 743, 809–10
human remains92–3
practices710, 748
customs, burial141, 241, 551, 677, 689
Cuzco393, 395–6, 398, 400, 402
daily life79, 330, 333, 350, 454, 523, 599–601
dance396–7, 734
Danube560–1, 568, 572
darkness19, 395–7, 401, 428, 701
Darwin, Charles30–1, 38, 735
and race712
Dätgen man478–9
Davis, Joseph19–20, 712, 714
Dawenkou582, 586, 589
Dawkins, W.B.20, 40–3
de Clare tombs269
dead
(ab)use of809–10
as victims807–9
as witnesses804–7
dead Incas393–6, 402
dead persons176, 196, 205, 242, 265–6, 517–18, 620–1
Dead Sea Plain677–89
death see also Introductory Note
archaeological record of449–50
archaeological study of8, 68
bad281, 285–6, 293, 477
biological66, 447, 454
as biological and social affordances446
creating441–55
and decay476
human experience of10–11
images of188
means of518, 521
physical62, 397
rituals/rites32–3, 35, 39–41, 53, 177, 453, 599–600
social66
sociology of442, 445
violent210, 289, 425, 451, 477, 479, 482
deathways442, 454–5
and cosmology442–5
debts61–2, 286, 491, 499
decay6, 66, 100, 102, 446–7, 465–6, 477–8
and death476
decomposition176, 352–3, 360, 462, 466, 475–7, 487
Dederiyeh633
degeneration39, 66
dehydration136, 150, 157–8, 161
Deir el-Medina646, 649–52, 654–5, 657
demographic trends, Upper Palaeolithic327–9
denial6, 41, 286, 671, 784, 789–91, 806
Denmark173, 183–4, 354, 463–4, 478, 491
dental diseases81, 84
dentine102, 107, 131, 134–6
collagen128, 131, 133
deposit types148, 151, 155–6, 162
deposition5, 179, 181–3, 186–7, 199–200, 354, 380
final283, 287
of objects187–8
secondary650–2
deposits147–51, 153–7, 161, 164–5, 425, 464–5, 521–2
cremation-related147–9, 151, 153, 155, 164, 465, 521
mortuary196, 521–2, 684
descendance805–6, 808
descendant communities9, 445, 673, 802, 810
descendants368, 406, 410, 500–1, 503, 505–7, 805
cultural667, 669, 673
Deux-Sèvres423–4
development, cultural211–12
deviant burials216, 353, 451
Dia Shoma214
diagenesis100–1, 110, 115, 138–40
diagnosis80–1, 83–5, 88, 445
dialogues237, 397, 532, 740, 752, 810–11
diet1, 52, 88–90, 124–5, 129, 135–7, 140
long-term134–5
differentiation, vertical347–8
diffusion22–3, 50, 104
direct historical analogy349
disarticulation352–3, 365, 452, 461
disasters261, 283–4, 289–91, 448, 451
disease4, 10, 79–81, 83–90, 104–5, 588, 718
dental81, 84
epidemics104, 254, 451
infectious100, 104–5
Paget's Disease85
pandemics104, 106
plagues83, 85, 104–6, 254, 261, 274
processes83, 85, 90
disgust134, 281, 597–8
disillusionment791–2
disjunctures213, 227, 233, 235–7, 628
dismemberment265, 462, 464–7
and preservation464–5
display6, 92, 132–3, 283, 462–3, 466–7, 489–90
bodies on291–3
and concealment463–4
public268, 292–3, 562
disposal49–50, 52–3, 375–7, 379–82, 384–7, 405–7, 414
areas, formal50–1, 408
landscapes of406–7
ritual412, 448
disrespect294, 666, 668–9
dissected bodies627
dissection286, 443, 451, 453, 625–7, 713, 741
dissolution6, 66, 101, 198, 201, 470, 566
distribution of burials over time326
disturbance8, 152, 154, 162–3, 651–2, 673, 722
disturbed burials123, 348, 352
DNA10, 85–6, 99–103, 107–10, 113–15, 254, 535
amplified108
analysis99–115
and condition of preservation101
ancient see ancient DNA
bacterial105, 108
extraction108–9
fragments100, 108–9, 112
libraries112–13
mitochondrial100, 102, 766
Neanderthal113–15
NGS (next generation sequencing)100, 111–13
nuclear102–3
sequences99, 103, 109, 113
documentary evidence363, 453, 598, 649
dogs106, 350–2, 544
dolmens424–6
domed tombs213, 252
dominant classes378, 385, 744
donation inscriptions235–7
donor letters710, 715
Dorchester152–3
Dordogne33, 37
double burials218, 333, 351, 354, 383, 479
dowel-jointed coffins485
Dreaming ancestors738
dress396, 459, 462, 518, 561–2, 567, 571–2
ethnic568, 570–2
drinking7, 186–7, 487
drystone walling428–9
Duckworth, W.L.H.712–13
Ducrost, Antoine36
Durham267, 271
Durkheim, E.49, 284–6
dying, archaeology of441–55
new449–54
dying persons242, 445, 447, 450, 454–5
Early Bronze Age51, 375–7, 522, 677–8, 680–2, 684–6, 688–9
pots677, 679, 685–6, 688
first lives687–8
second lives688
social lives686–7
Jordan677–89
(p. 828) early Buddhism
disjunctures236–7
as shown in texts229–30
South Asian227–37
Early Iron Age54, 411–12
early medieval gravestones267
early monuments422, 435
early mortuary practices of homo631–7
Early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP)305, 327–30, 333–5
burials325, 329–30, 334
Eastern United States
domination of ethnographic models360
individual burial as interpretive subject365–6
mortuary practices359–68
politics and ideology361–3
social complexity366–8
tableaux as instruments364–5
Eatsern United States, ancestor cults363–4
eban necropolis645–6, 650, 652
ebes286, 487, 646–9
egalitarian ideology407, 514
Egypt
ancient133, 645, 652
New Kingdom Thebes see New Kingdom Thebes
reasons for equipping dead644–5
Egyptian burials643, 657–8
Egyptian cosmology670
Egyptian grave goods643–5
Egyptian grave inventories643–4
El Azuer376–7
El Barranquete376, 380
el-Hesi245, 249, 253
electrophoretogramm110
elite burials212–13, 365
elite practices213, 218, 265, 607, 610
embalming6, 101, 265, 461, 477, 485, 487–9
embodied experiences459, 599
embodied self598, 600
embodied social relations460–1
emotional engagements601, 609–11
emotional experiences7, 597, 599
emotional problems6
emotions7, 62–3, 67–70, 283–5, 461, 597–601, 609–11
and death600–1
and experience7
empty tombs6, 765
enamel102, 131, 133, 135–6, 618
engagements, emotional601, 609–11
engendering ancestors581, 583, 585, 587, 589, 591, 593
engendering of ancestors581, 583, 585, 587, 589–91, 593
ensouled landscapes406, 414
entrances233–4, 354, 400, 425, 428–9, 648, 656
environment6, 64, 71, 101, 106–7, 110, 130
cold476, 481–5
hot485–7
natural425, 428–9, 775
wet430, 477–81
enzymatic reactions100–1, 108, 113
epidemics104, 254, 451
epigraphic evidence233
Epigravettian304, 314–19, 333
Final326, 335
epitaphs, Latin568–9
equipment, burial644–5, 649–50, 652–4, 656, 658
estates, moral666, 668–9
ethical context668, 740
ethical practice734–6, 742, 744–7, 749–51
ethics8–9, 663–775, 802–4, 806, 808, 810 see also race
1990s onwards740–2
exhumation of conflict and human rights abuse victims781–96
of human skeleton695–703
moral obligations to the dead665–74
ethnic affiliation2, 551, 568–9, 572, 581
ethnic dress568, 570–2
ethnic identity174
Greek burials549–52
Roman funerary commemoration559–73
ethnoarchaeology62, 64
ethnographic evidence164, 282, 434–5
ethnographic methods686, 689
ethnographic record5, 49–50, 52–3
ethnography42, 47–9, 53–4, 65, 498, 679, 787
Ethnological Society of London38
Eurasia304–5, 325, 327, 329, 333, 335, 632–5 (p. 829)
Upper Palaeolithic303–36
Europe10–11, 104, 265–6, 291–2, 352–4, 713, 716
Mesolithic347–55, 460
Neolithic355, 407–11, 434, 450
north-west51, 353, 355, 421–5, 427–31, 433, 435
northern11, 186, 424–5, 430, 432–3, 435, 475
Western196, 266, 275, 306, 375, 387, 452
European passage graves425, 429
everyday death645
evidence see also Introductory Note
African634
burial31, 33, 35, 52, 349, 378, 549
complementary sources of55, 387
documentary363, 453, 598, 649
epigraphic233
historical562, 724
material631, 790–1, 794, 804
nature of77–188
palaeopathological105, 751
physical782–4, 787–91
pictorial561, 649, 657
scientific723, 795
surviving152, 163, 627
evidential analysis789
evolution35, 37, 39–40, 48, 87, 99, 754
biological35, 39, 735
evolutionism, cultural37, 39–40
excavated burials451, 801
excavated grave pits246
excavated graves590
excavated slab burial412
excavations1–3, 91–2, 107, 147–9, 155–7, 253, 801–4
illegal11, 677, 679–80, 684–5, 689
exchange348, 406, 432, 435, 449, 516, 716
execution cemeteries286
exhumation281–2, 287, 289, 516, 781–6, 790–6, 808–9
mass graves806, 809
exotic goods365, 378, 632
experience, and emotions7
experimental pyre cremation158–9, 161
expertise, archaeological806
exploration19, 49, 69, 216, 218, 599–600, 625
extinct species27, 39–40, 105
familial relationships609, 767, 793
farmers3, 104–5, 130, 421, 432, 739
Neolithic414, 425, 436
farming89, 104, 407–8, 422, 584, 684
fauna
local archaeological128
wild128, 133
faunal data126–7, 130, 132, 139
Feinberg, J.666, 670–1
female bodies353, 520, 627
female burials483, 805
female grave goods547–8
female graves186, 202, 529, 531, 587, 590
female identities528, 548
female individuals102, 583–5, 587–8, 590
females135, 350, 383, 530–1, 547–9, 587–8, 590–1
adult322–3, 546
feminist archaeology62, 65, 529
Ferllini, R.782, 785, 790
fibula184
fields of meaning182–3
Fifa678, 681–2, 687, 689
Final Epigravettian326, 335
finger bones105, 468
Finistère422, 424, 428
fiqh242, 252
fire, and Hindu cremations498–9
fish127–8, 130, 138, 394, 487
flames499, 503, 722
Flavia Usaiu568–70
flesh3, 7, 201, 204, 248, 265, 503–4
flexed burials210, 607
Flower, W.H.711, 713–14, 716
flowers60–3, 251, 290, 651
Follow the Pots project679, 683, 686
food6, 42, 125–6, 132–4, 137, 385, 480
culture134
offerings150, 588, 657
foodstuffs134, 425, 489, 651, 654
foot bones468, 470
forensic anthropology254, 715, 752, 768
forensic archaeology782–3, 796
forensic evidence788, 790, 795
forensic exhumation781–3
forensic interventions782, 785, 787
(p. 830) forensic investigation782, 789–90, 794
forensic science768, 790
formal burial149, 151–2, 216, 544
formal cemeteries348, 544
formal disposal areas50–1, 408
formalization179, 181–2, 211, 589
formation
processes70, 148, 153, 155–6, 182
tissues131, 134–5, 147, 391, 532, 543, 782
Formicola, V.304, 319, 324, 329, 335
fragmentation157–8, 161, 198, 468, 633, 649, 658
degree of161, 468
France10, 31–3, 37–9, 42, 61, 768–9, 772–3
controversies32–7
Western422–3
friars264, 271, 273–5
Fröhlich, B.682, 685
Fromelles767, 774
Fuente Álamo376, 383, 385–7
Funari, P.794–5
functions102, 174–6, 179, 181–3, 188, 401, 784
funeral ceremonies244, 275, 288, 360, 393, 645
funeral manuals242
funeral practices359, 497, 499–501, 503, 508
funeral processions244–5, 559, 568
funeral rites see funerary rites
funeral rituals see funerary rituals
funeralia654–7
funerals181–2, 186–8, 195–200, 230–1, 505–6, 514–17, 521–3
Islamic world244–5
monastic231, 235
Muslim245–6
people denied284–7
proper231, 281, 283, 287, 290, 293
state477, 772
funerary architecture392, 466, 632
funerary area400–1
funerary contexts7, 54, 91, 175, 182, 188, 653
funerary culture645, 655, 796
funerary deposits518
funerary epitaphs566
funerary evidence511, 513, 585
funerary inscriptions560, 562, 653
funerary monuments22, 421, 460, 559–61, 563, 566–7, 571–3
funerary portraits564, 566–72
funerary practices154, 211, 487, 515, 584–5, 588–9, 635
funerary remains173–4, 179, 282, 511
funerary rites62, 282–5, 500, 511, 514–16, 518, 521–2
funerary rituals28, 52–3, 177, 202, 277, 285, 293
funerary texts, Roman566–73
furnaces202, 500, 504
furnished burials211, 366
furnished graves174, 183, 348, 362
furniture466, 643, 654, 656, 698
Galindo602, 604–5, 607–11
Ganges498–9
gardens405
garments562, 564–5, 571–2 see also clothes
Gatas376, 383–5
gathering societies216–17
Geertz, C.284, 598–9
gender10–11, 65, 79–80, 200, 527–35, 543, 546–50
archaeology10–11, 441, 534
association63, 531, 535
categories533
China581–94
construction and performance in burial contexts532–4
construction of528, 530, 532–4, 593
dichotomies581, 584
differentiation590, 593, 654
Greek burials546–9
hierarchies547, 582, 583–4
historiographic review528–30
identities527–8, 531, 546–9, 582, 587–8, 590, 593
importance in mortuary studies527–8
inequality583, 593
methodological reflections530–2
mutability of69
performance of530, 533–4
prospects534–5
relations66, 216, 527, 534, 582, 584, 588
roles3, 174, 546, 562, 568, 581, 584
Roman funerary commemoration559–73
gendered behaviours568, 571, 583
(p. 831) gendered identities522, 532, 588–90, 592–3
gendering532
generic rhetoric408
genetic information99–100, 115 see also DNA
genetic inheritance99
genetic relationships4, 106, 767
genetics, population100, 103, 106, 744
genocide289, 764, 782, 787–8, 794
genome100, 104–5, 108, 110, 112–13
gentry266, 271, 273–4
Germani corporis custodes/Germanic bodyguards566–7
Germany21, 99, 292, 306, 350, 467–8, 563–5
northern478
southern292, 463
gifts174, 395–6, 464–5, 512, 600
Gilchrist, R.263, 265, 451, 477, 488, 519–20, 530
glass152, 183, 185, 187
Roman184–5, 187
gods199, 393, 395–7, 480–1, 498–9, 503, 506
household622
gold objects601, 603
Goldstein, L.G.51–2, 336, 359, 361, 363–8
goods150, 164, 351, 421, 518–19, 545–9, 587
burial304, 375, 636
grave see grave goods
prestige378, 588, 590, 685
pyre150–1, 153, 155, 158, 160, 164, 197
trade215, 227
Gorzalzcany, A.249
grave clothes243–5
grave facilities362, 364
grave goods50–2, 173–5, 185–8, 350–2, 529–31, 545–50, 653–8
associated350, 352, 665, 685–6
contextualizing173–88
Egyptian643–5
meaning of181–2
Upper Palaeolithic329–34
grave inclusions330, 590
grave inventories643, 651, 653, 658
Egyptian643–4
grave markers520, 547, 549, 560, 599
Islamic world249–50
grave monuments294, 414
grave offerings363, 584, 587
grave pits see burial pits
grave plundering643, 649, 652
grave reliefs565
grave robbers485, 626, 697, 734, 742, 753
grave robbing626, 649, 649–50, 658, 748, 751
grave stele568–9, 571
grave wealth363, 548
graves151–3, 173–6, 179–88, 245–50, 349–53, 519–22, 545–8 see also Introductory Note
Argaric cist383
cremation153–4, 201
empty290
excavated590
female186, 202, 529, 531, 587, 590
furnished174, 183, 348, 362
Greek545, 547
individual325, 585, 652
Islamic world246–8
late Iron Age203
Muslim244, 248–9, 253–4
orientation249, 513
passage see passage graves
single329, 351, 361, 521, 601
trench245–7, 546
unmarked277, 701
graveside243, 245, 252, 360, 645, 647
rituals188, 652
gravestones549, 561, 564, 566–7, 571–2, 765
early medieval267
recumbent266
Gravettian304, 306–14, 325–6, 328, 333 see also Pavlovian
burials306, 328, 330, 333
graveyards271, 281, 286, 294, 364, 623, 625
‘great names’23
Greek burials, age, gender and ethnicity in543–53
Greek cemeteries545, 547–8
Greek world284, 543, 545, 547–51, 553, 622
Greenland482
Greyfriars, London271–2
grief5, 7, 61–2, 284, 293, 445, 609
grinding stones381, 384
Grotta del Romito132, 315, 322
Grotta delle Arene Candide309, 315–17, 320, 322–3, 331, 335
Grotta di Baousso309, 320, 331
Grotta di San Teodoro317, 323
(p. 832) Grotte des Enfants309, 320–1, 323–4, 331
ground-level features413–14
group identity368, 449, 460, 567, 724
groups
Argaric377, 385–6
human4, 631
social49–50, 53, 162, 216, 285, 328, 608–9
tribal567, 699, 703, 743, 745
Guatemala131, 287, 289, 781–2, 790
hairpins184
Hamard, P.36–7, 42
hammer-rings200–2
Hao, Lady591–3
haplotypes103
hard tissues99, 101, 106, 108 see also bones; teeth
Härjedalen806
harm11, 453, 666–8, 670–3, 739, 784
headdresses185, 519, 568–9, 571
headrests644
headstones249, 599 see also gravestones
health3, 52, 79–81, 83, 87, 89–91, 752
problems83, 88–91
heat158, 476, 480, 501, 504
heaven260, 396, 447, 499, 519, 581, 746
Heidenopfertisch427
hereafter, the68–70, 260, 265, 275, 645, 657
Hereford Cathedral268–70
heritage218, 687, 696, 700, 733, 742–4, 752–3
archaeological679, 686
legislation733–4, 740
Hertz, R.49, 67, 69, 195, 281–5, 500, 503
Herxheim465
hierarchies271, 273, 349, 360, 365–7, 407, 515
gender547, 582–3
racial712, 714, 723
social48, 51, 271, 366–7, 408
high status burials486, 589
hill-top settlements377
hilltop settlements382, 385
Hindu cosmology499
Hindu cremations497–9, 503, 505–6
and role of fire498–9
histology84–5
historical context68, 71, 709–10, 722, 793
historical evidence562, 724
historical record715, 784–5
historiography392
history of archaeology23, 43, 807
history of disease80, 87, 672
HLA (human leukocyte antigen)104
Hoare, Sir R.C.18–20
Hodder, I.52–3, 175, 210, 410, 535
Hofreiter, M.112–13
Hohokam society514
Hollimon, S.E.530, 533–4
holy places453, 498, 506
holy rivers497–9
hominin burials633
Hormes651–2
Hoshower-Leppo, L.769, 781
hot environments485–7
Hottentots709, 719
household gods622
household members599, 609–11
households54, 514, 527, 583–4, 597, 599–600, 609–10
houses177, 230, 271, 383, 516, 605, 684–5
human anatomy748
human antiquity41, 43
human behaviour see behaviour
human bodies see bodies
human bones see bones
human identification768, 782–3
human leukocyte antigen (HLA)104
human remains as a culturally important substance452
human rights734–5, 782, 784–5, 808
investigations783, 790
legislation697, 782
human rights abuse victims, exhumation781–96
human sacrifices211, 213, 215, 425, 461, 480, 499
human skeleton30–1, 33, 40, 81, 695, 751
humanity3, 37, 63, 66, 667–9, 754, 782
common666, 754, 786
humidity101, 125, 139
(p. 833) Humphrey, C.177–9, 505
Hungary54, 501, 518, 533, 568–9, 572
hunter-gatherers104, 130, 421, 430
complex347–9
mobile335, 348
husbands505–6, 564, 569, 581, 584, 588
Huxley, T.H.20, 713–14
hybridization113
hydroxylapatite101–2
hyenas285, 464, 466
Iberia, prehistoric375–88
iceman482–3
iconography599–601, 608, 703, 771
ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda)782, 787
ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia)782, 786
ideals391, 412, 513, 522, 570–2, 592, 768
identification85, 547, 722–3, 748, 764–5, 767, 791–2
human768, 782–3
identities174–9, 198–200, 461–3, 532–3, 560–2, 572–3, 723–4
deceased persons197, 203, 205, 504
female528, 548
gendered522, 532, 588–90, 592–3
group368, 449, 460, 567, 724
individual103, 359, 406, 766–7, 775, 783
living352
personal3, 450, 519, 522, 535, 627
social3, 5–6, 351, 460–2, 470, 512–14, 534
in transformation511–23
ideology53, 175, 277, 285, 291, 395, 435
egalitarian407, 514
ijtihad242
illa397
illegal excavation11, 677, 679–80, 684–5, 689
illness105, 397, 446, 736 see also disease
Illumina112–14
images109–10, 175, 203–4, 281, 393, 460–1, 523
of death188
imagination, archaeological68
immune system83, 85
in-house bench burial601, 608–11
inaccessible corpses283, 288–91
Inca6, 391–402, 610
ancestors397
dead393–6, 402
light and darkness395–7
living391, 395, 397, 402
power391, 402
time, bodies, and space392–5
water, ancestors, and landscape398–401
inca, death392, 396–7
Indians (American) see American Indians
indigenous communities9, 568, 665, 673, 750, 790, 804
indigenous groups552, 703, 710, 715, 720, 722, 724
individual life histories752
individuality434, 460, 782
individuation66, 743, 748, 767, 775
indulgences260, 263, 292
inequalities7–8, 348, 379–81, 513–14, 582, 621–2
infant burials248, 367, 647
infanticide328, 544
infants199, 328, 350–1, 353–4, 367, 544, 605
infection83, 105, 245, 809
infectious diseases100, 104–5
inheritance102, 218, 231, 235, 237, 362, 583–4
inhumation48, 81, 183, 462–3, 499–500, 507, 550–1
initial class societies378–9
inking532
inland locations430, 435
Inner Asia
Bronze Age405, 411–12
social and monumental change411–14
innovations23, 175, 607–8, 765
innovative ritual practices608, 610
inscribed coffins654
inscribed names592, 765–6
inscriptions213, 249, 405, 552, 562, 566–7, 654–5
Buddhist231, 234–7
Insoll, T.215, 217, 219, 241, 250, 252, 619
institutions32, 62, 92, 216, 715–16, 719–24, 749
research710, 712, 722
intact bodies351–2
intact burials645, 649
intellectual context54, 733, 742, 788
changing740–2
intensified agricultural production378, 384, 386
(p. 834) intentional burials31, 40, 633
recognizing632–3
intentionality181, 186, 325, 632, 788
international community786, 788
International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)782, 786
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)782, 787
Intiwatana398, 400
intra-cultural robbing649
intra-individual data127, 131, 133, 135
intra-settlement burials211, 217
intramural burial271, 377, 381, 383–5, 387, 477
Inuit65, 69, 482
invaders20–1
inventories86, 649, 653–5
Iraq4, 243, 252–4, 679, 772, 782, 786–7
IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectrometry)126, 138
iron151, 198–202, 215, 504, 626, 772
bog480
Iron Age478, 480, 483, 501, 504, 528, 531
Early54, 411–12
Islamic world11, 215, 218–19, 241–55
archaeological excavation of burials253–4
cemeteries250–2
death on the move254–5
funerals244–5
grave markers249–50
graves246–8
non-Arabic traditions255
orientation248–9
preparation of the corpse243–4
Shia and Sunni247
special cases245
tombs and mausolea252–3
islands18, 183, 201–2, 218, 248, 354, 430–2
isolated human bones354, 604
isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)126, 138
isotopes10, 124, 126
introduction to124–6
isotopic signatures4, 135–6
isotopic values134–5, 140
Israel449, 635, 681, 688–9, 801–2
Italy38, 132, 306, 329, 545, 552, 559–60
northern561
Jackson, Michael61–2, 69
jars68–9, 501
jaws81, 107, 243, 716
Jelderks, J.699, 701–2
Jequetepeque Valley604, 608
Jerusalem251, 253, 680, 684, 688, 801–2
jewellery150, 174, 182–3, 545–6, 548, 569, 649
Jewish cemeteries251, 452
Jiahu582, 586–8
Jing, Lady591–3
Johnson, Elden697
Joint Prisoner of War/Missing in Action Accounting Command see JPAC
joints3, 452, 470
Jordan250, 406, 677–89
Early Bronze Age677, 679, 681, 683, 685, 687, 689
facts on the ground681–6
mortuary record680–1
journey67, 201, 254, 285, 289, 517, 620
JPAC (Joint Prisoner of War/Missing in Action Accounting Command)769–70
justice443, 449, 668, 786–8, 795
karma229, 237
Kebara633
Kennewick Man698–703, 808
Kent18, 173, 718
kerb stones249–50, 424, 428
Kerber359–63
Kerma burials211–12
Kha654–5
khipu393
Khirbat Khanazir678, 681
khirigsuurs412–14
Kirk, R.624–5
Kirk, T.355
Kligman, G.534
Knapp, M.112–13
Knight366–7, 476
knives487, 517, 520–1, 592
knowledge
anthropological215–19
archaeological739
cultural461, 469
scientific625, 698, 767
(p. 835) Knudshoved427
Koran241–3, 245, 247, 250, 255
laboratories99–100, 106, 108, 110, 147–8, 736
labour7, 65, 186, 362, 378–9, 584, 588
social52, 379, 384, 387
lacquered coffins, nested591
Lafrenz Samuels, K.686
Lagar Velho306
lahd246–7, 253
Laidlaw, J.177–9, 505
laity227, 230–1, 236–7, 271
Lake Mälaren Region200
lakes123, 394, 425, 478, 739
land ownership375, 405–14
landmarks336, 432, 435
landscape belief405–14
landscape contexts406, 408
landscapes7, 66, 401–2, 405–7, 409–10, 414, 737–9
cultural384, 405, 410, 435
of disposal406–7
ensouled406, 414
and monuments429–35
natural421–2, 428, 435
sacred421–2, 425
Lapp, N.680–1
Lapps19
Laqueur, W.763, 765–6, 781, 784, 789
Lartet
Édouard27–8, 39, 41
Louis27, 41
Lassing289–90
Late Bronze Age463, 467, 500–1
late Moche597–611
burial practices601–8
private death and household burial608–10
Late Upper Palaeolithic (LUP)89, 132, 305, 322, 324–5, 328–30, 333–5
burials329–30
Later Middle Ages259–77
Latin560, 564–7, 569, 573
epitaphs568–9
Laugerie-Basse31, 33–4, 318
laws9, 35, 38, 62, 699, 701, 737–8
religious242
leadership366, 368, 489, 515, 609
ledges183, 185–7, 588
earthen590
legal personhood765
Legendre, J.P.773
legends195, 199, 447
legislation9, 623, 697–8, 722–3, 741
heritage733–4, 740
human rights697, 782
legs19, 333–4, 468, 483
Leisten, T.247, 249–50, 252
letters709, 717–19, 774
Levant632, 634–5, 637, 682
Lewis-Williams, D.349, 355
libraries59–60, 736
DNA112–13
life-cycle rituals505–6
life-death continuum/dichotomy448, 455
life histories54, 135, 587, 685, 752, 772
Liguria304, 306, 335
Lima106, 602
limestone30, 385, 486, 562, 654, 657, 794
liminality61, 67, 462–6, 477, 521, 523
cultural434, 436
Lincoln17, 271
Lincoln Cathedral266, 276
Lindow Man81
linen462, 478, 486, 488
lipids136, 138
liturgy270, 359–61, 365
lived gendered experiences534–5
living, societies of the350–2
living memory771–2
living societies2, 7, 52–3, 176–7, 182
local communities8, 50, 274, 376, 608–9, 667, 673
local traditions11, 241, 406
locations50–1, 269–71, 380–1, 430–1, 434–5, 591, 767
coastal354, 431
Locmariaquer423, 428
log coffins185, 588
Lolland429, 433
London41, 79, 89, 261, 273–4, 711–13, 720
citizens271, 273
Greyfriars271–2
long barrows20–2, 434, 464
long mounds355, 364, 421–4, 431
(p. 836) looted artefacts678, 680, 687
looted cemeteries678, 683
looted tombs683–4, 687
looters9, 679, 681, 684, 686–9, 742
looting9, 392, 649–50, 652, 677–89
reasons for importance679–80
Los Cipreses376, 382
Los Millares376, 378, 380–1
low-lying settlements377, 382, 385
‘lower’ races712–13
Lubbock, John39–42
Lull, V.54, 378–9, 383, 385, 388
Lyell, C.39–41
maceheads682, 684–5, 687
macroscopic analyses86–7
macroscopic recording81–4, 86, 91
Magdalenian burials33, 37, 314, 318–19
magical201–4, 451
mahastupas228–30, 233–4, 236
Maiherperi649
Mainfort, R.C.362–3, 366
Mainz99, 271, 570–1
maize124, 127
agriculture361–3
malaria85, 105
male graves531, 547–8, 587, 592
males135, 199, 202, 531, 548–9, 585, 587–8
Mali214
Mal’ta306, 311
Mamilla cemetery801–2
Manchester Museum488, 491, 648
marine resources130
marked cemeteries701
markers103–4, 108, 113, 394, 408, 765, 769
grave249, 520, 547, 549, 560, 599
place765–6
territorial394, 409, 434
marketplace677, 679, 751
markets59, 625, 678–9, 681
martyrs245, 250, 292–3, 449
political289
mass graves103, 245, 785, 790–1, 793–5, 806, 809–10
exhumation806, 809
Massuia571–2
Matarrubilla376
material details66–8
material objects2, 504, 681, 789
material offerings587–8
material personhood6
material representations379, 796
material symbols59, 180, 405, 463, 514
materiality64, 69–70, 188, 196, 306, 529, 534
and meaning179–80
materialized memory398, 600
matriarchy584–5
mausolea252–3, 270, 560, 623
Mays, S.4, 81, 86–8, 535
McCreery, D.681, 683–4, 689
meaning174–83, 282, 327–8, 336, 565–6, 621–2, 773–5
cultural480, 636
grave goods181–2
and materiality179–80
objects175, 181
positional180
social175, 623
symbolic174, 180, 570
means of death518, 521
Mecca242–3, 245, 248–9, 255
direction of248–9
medical body625, 627
medical science243, 625, 627, 722
medieval burials259, 277, 477
medieval context264–5
medieval graves263
medieval society259–60, 273
meditation229–31
megalithic architecture422, 425, 428
as symbolic reflection of cultural and natural landscape428–9
megalithic chambers428, 435
megalithic missionaries23–4
megalithic monuments217, 422, 430
megalithic tombs23, 51, 376–7, 385, 408, 421–2, 431–2
construction378, 384
megaliths218, 407, 410, 464–6
and the Neolithic in Atlantic Europe407–11
north-west Europe421–36
(p. 837) memorial practices763, 765, 769, 774
memorial services61, 450
memorialization393, 412–13, 444, 450, 585, 764–5, 772–4
memory68, 195–7, 199–203, 393–4, 448–9, 599–600, 609–11
collective327, 582, 600, 609, 636, 764
living771–2
objects of197, 205
social196, 275, 385–6
work450, 601
menhirs422–3, 425, 428, 431, 433, 450
Menimane569–71
mental illness20
Mentone caves35, 43
merit229–30, 236–7
Merit654–5
Meseta, southern376–7
Meskell, L.2, 67, 70, 462, 517, 530, 686
Mesolithic210, 306, 347–51, 354, 414
East Baltic127
Europe347–55, 460
future direction in studies of mortuary practices355
hunter-gatherers51
metal objects199, 561, 604, 607, 618, 649–50, 682
metaphors7, 67, 202, 429, 498, 503, 619–20
of death620–1
microarchaeological approach471
Middle Ages11, 260–1, 263, 265–7, 269–71, 273, 275–7
Later259–77
Middle Nile209–10
Middle Palaeolithic139, 303, 632–6
burials632, 636–7
hominins632–3, 635–6
Middle to Late Moche transition604, 607–8
migration1, 133, 435, 535
Milan680
military death
archaeology and material culture of modern763–75
contested monuments and vernacular memorialization772–4
distribution and emplacement of military dead768–71
representations of soldier's body771–2
mindful body598
miners289–90
miniature furniture653, 656
minorities9, 197–8, 411, 414
missing corpses288, 291
missing persons791–2
missing subject669–72
missionaries, megalithic23–4
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)100, 102–5, 766
mixed sex burials588
mobile hunter-gatherers335, 348
mobiliary art327
mobility85, 88, 125, 133, 327, 381
Moche
late597–611
religion608–9
Moche Valley604
modern humans105, 635–7, 712
molecular cloning112
Molène archipelago432
Møn429, 431
monasteries231, 234–6, 265, 270–1, 277
Buddhist232–3, 236
monastic churches266, 271
monastic community271
monastic funerals231, 235
Mongolia11, 411–12
monks23, 230–2, 236–7, 264, 275, 277
Buddhist227–8, 230–1, 235–7
ordinary230, 233, 237
prominent230
monumental architecture601, 604, 766, 774
monumental forms406, 412
monumental landscapes407, 409
monumental space414
monumental tombs380, 408, 600–1, 643, 653
monuments23, 266, 290–1, 406–8, 410–14, 421–3, 771–2
burial273, 425, 434
and landscapes429–35
megalithic217, 422, 430
placement435, 441
moral estate666, 668–9
moral obligations to the dead665–74
Moravia329
mortality
humans marked by63–5
rates245, 351, 544, 559
Mortillet, Gabriel de33, 35–7, 40, 42–3
Morton, Samuel696–7
mortuary activities230, 511–15, 518
mortuary analysis52–3, 55, 65, 347, 359, 366, 529
mortuary archaeologies2–3, 10–11, 47, 195–6, 209–10, 216–19, 529 see also Introductory Note
mortuary behaviours294, 631–5, 637
mortuary contexts2, 65, 174, 512–13, 530, 532–5, 618
mortuary deposits196, 521–2, 684
mortuary evidence22, 516–17, 584, 677
mortuary landscapes149, 164, 405–7, 410–11, 679, 688
mortuary monuments7, 365, 405–8, 410
mortuary practices49–51, 61–4, 66–9, 174–7, 511–14, 520–3, 631–4
mortuary process511, 513–15, 518–22
mortuary rite of cremation150, 154
mortuary rites5, 8, 148, 150, 512–14, 516, 518
mortuary rituals3, 5, 7, 51–2, 66–9, 384, 514–16
Moshenska, G.291, 490, 764, 770–1
Moss cemeteries367
mounds361–8, 380, 413–14, 423–4, 428, 521–2, 696 see also barrows
burial47, 50–3, 202, 255, 432, 483
long355, 364, 421–4, 431
Moundville50–1, 366–8
mourners197–8, 200, 252, 462–4, 521–2, 593, 600
mourning ceremonies533
mourning rituals283–4, 599, 791
mud486, 774
Muhammad, Prophet242, 249, 252
multi-modality of belief621, 627
multiple burials304, 319, 329, 335, 501, 551
mummies4, 6, 85, 102, 486–7, 648–51, 657
mummification6, 464, 466, 485–7, 503, 517, 652
mummified skin102
mummy-shaped coffins647–9, 654
murder451, 479, 625, 738, 790, 792
ritual499
murderers284, 286, 625, 627
muscles3, 102, 134–5, 483
museum collections8, 672, 744–5
Museums Australia720
Muslim burials241, 246, 249, 253
Muslim cemeteries251, 253, 801–2
Muslim culture241, 249, 255
Muslim funerals245–6
Muslim graves244, 248–9, 253–4
orientation248–9
Muslims241–3, 248, 252–5, 802
mutability of gender69
mutations103–4, 106, 110, 112
mutual respect92, 739–40, 742, 753
NAGPRA (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act)9, 86, 444–5, 697–700, 703, 720, 805
naming764–6
Namio571–2
Nandi285
Naqa681–2, 687, 689
narratives514, 519, 522–3, 593, 599, 792
Natchez360, 363, 368
nation states9, 66, 772
National Historical Museum, Sweden201, 205
National Museum of Australia (NMA)748–50
nationalism32, 766
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act see NAGPRA
Native Americans86, 286, 360, 697–700, 702–3, 805–6, 808–9 see also American Indians
natural environment425, 428–9, 775
Natural History Museum, London712, 718, 720, 751
natural landscapes421–2, 428, 435
(p. 839) natural resources421, 750
natural symbols66, 459
naves270–1, 273–4, 624
Neanderthal DNA113–15
Neanderthals4, 37, 63, 105, 114, 632, 635–7
necropolis, Theban645–6, 650, 652
needles184–6
Nefertiti651–2
negotiated research736
Neolithic35, 43, 84, 375, 380, 428–32, 584–5
China585–93
communities421, 430, 432, 435, 584
cosmology425, 428
Europe355, 407–11, 434, 450
farmers414, 425, 436
and megaliths in Atlantic Europe407–11
monuments411, 432
Nepal498, 505, 507
nested lacquered coffins591
New Archaeology64, 528
New Kingdom Thebes643–58
burial in647–8
grave robbing649–50
procurement and composition of burial equipment652–6
secondary deposition650–2
from the statics of burial to the performance of ritual656–7
New Zealand105, 710, 713, 716, 720
next generation sequencingsee NGS
Nez Perce697–8
NGS (next generation sequencing)100, 111–13
niches245–7, 398, 401, 564, 625, 650
Nickenich564–5
Niger214
Nile, Middle209–10
nirvana229–31, 236, 518
nitrogen100, 125–6, 130–1, 133, 135, 137
nobility266, 268, 273–4
nobles230, 395–6, 672, 700
non-archaeologists3, 63
non-burial281–2
non-capitalist societies48
non-collagenous proteins136
non-Muslim burials241
nonevents599–601, 607, 610
nonlocal prestige items588, 685
Norfolk17, 162
normal burial216, 451, 479–80
normative Moche burial603
North Africa566
No