Abstract and Keywords
Marxist archaeologies have represented one of the most important theoretical developments of archaeology. The approaches that go under this label can be extremely diverse, but often maintain the use of and/or the engagement with some basic ideas derived from the thought of Marx, Engels, and subsequent thinkers of the Marxist tradition. These concepts can be identified, for instance, in the notions of means, relations, and mode of production as well as in that of class. Contrarily to many other strands of archaeological theory, however, Marxism is not only a philosophy but has had an active role in recent global history, being related to both emancipatory struggles and dictatorial regimes worldwide. Because of this, the development of Marxist archaeologies (variously declined) will be discussed also in their historical development through the twentieth century and beyond, until the present day.
Keywords: Marxism, historical materialism, means of production, mode of production, relations of production, archaeological theory, critical archaeology, social archaeology, Soviet archaeology, dictatorship
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