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date: 01 June 2020

(p. xvii) Notes on Sources and Abbreviations

(p. xvii) Notes on Sources and Abbreviations

CCC

Catechism of the Catholic Church. The Catechism is published throughout the world by many local publishers and the whole text is also available online at <http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_INDEX.HTM>

DH

Heinrich Denzinger (2012). Enchiridion Symbolorum Definitionum et Declarationum de Rebus Fide et Morum, P. Hünermann et al. (eds), 43rd edn (San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press).

GIRM

General Instruction of the Roman Missal. The text is available online at <http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccdds/documents/rc_con_ccdds_doc_20030317_ordinamento-messale_en.html>. A pdf of the English translation is available online at <https://www.liturgyoffice.org.uk/Resources/GIRM/Documents/GIRM.pdf

Tanner

Norman Tanner SJ (ed.) (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, 2 vols (London/Washington, DC: Sheed & Ward/Georgetown University Press).

Works of St Thomas Aquinas

There are a number of excellent online resources for the student of Thomas Aquinas. For texts in English and for the Latin originals see the following websites:

The following list provides details of abbreviations for titles (where used), and details of the translations used in this volume.

Comp.

Thomas Aquinas (2009). Compendium of Theology, trans. Richard J. Regan (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

De anima

St Thomas Aquinas OP (1984), Questions on the Soul [Quaestiones de Anima], trans James H. Robb (Milwaukee WI: Marquette University Press).

(p. xviii) De articulis fidei et ecclesiae sacramentis

‘On the Articles of Faith and the Church’s Sacraments’, in J. B. Collins (trans.) (1939). The Catechetical Instructions of St. Thomas pp. 119–131 (New York: Wagner).

De divin. nom.

Harry C. Marsh (1994). ‘A Translation of Thomas Aquinas’s In Librum beati Dionysii de divinis nominibus expositio’, in H. C. Marsh, ‘Cosmic Structure and the Knowledge of God: Thomas Aquinas’ In Librum beati Dionysii de divinis nominibus expositio’ (pp. 265–549). PhD diss., Vanderbilt University.

De ente et essentia

St Thomas Aquinas (1968). On Being and Essence, trans. A. Maurer, 2nd edn (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies).

De pot.

Thomas Aquinas (2012). The Power of God, trans. R. J. Regan (Oxford: Oxford University Press). This translation is also abridged. A full version available at <https://dhspriory.org/thomas/english/QDdePotentia.htm>

De Regno

Thomas Aquinas (1949). De Regno ad regem Cypri/On Kingship to the King of Cyprus, trans. G. B. Phelan, rev. I. Th. Eschman (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies).

De verit.

Thomas Aquinas (1952). Truth, trans R. W. Mulligan, J. V. McGlynn, and R. W. Schmidt, 3 vols (Chicago, IL: Henry Regency).

In Ioan.

Thomas Aquinas (2010). Commentary on the Gospel of John, trans. J. A. Weisheipl and F. R. Larcher, 3 vols (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press).

Metaphys.

Thomas Aquinas (1995). Commentary on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, rev. edn., trans. J. P. Rowan (South Bend, IN: Dumb Ox Press).

ST

Summa Theologiae. In this volume the Summa is cited, for example, as follows: ST I, q. 1, a.1, where I designates the first part of ST, q. stands for ‘question’ and a. ‘article’. The best complete text with facing translation available in English is that produced under the auspices of the English-speaking provinces of the Dominican Order and published beginning in 1964. It is now available from Cambridge University Press. Not yet complete, but an important supplement is the translation by A. Freddoso, available online at <https://www3.nd.edu/~afreddos/summa-translation/TOC.htm> (last accessed 9 May 2018).

SCG

Summa Contra Gentiles. A good translation is that published in five volumes in 1975 by the University of Notre Dame Press (Book One: God, trans. A. C. Pegis, Book Two: Creation, trans. J. F. Anderson, Book Three: Providence, Part I, trans. V. J. Bourke, Book Three: Providence, Part II, trans. C. J. O’Neil, Book Four: Salvation, trans. C. J. O’Neil).

Sent

Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. Not currently available in a complete translation. For details of what is available see <https://aquinas-in-english.neocities.org>.

(p. xix) Super Ep. ad Philpp.

Thomas Aquinas (2012). Commentary on the Letters of Saint Paul: Complete Set, vol. 4, J. Mortensen (ed.) (Lander, WY: The Aquinas Institute).

Conciliar Documents

All the conciliar documents referenced in the book can be found in Tanner (1990). The texts from the three most recent ecumenical councils used in a number of places throughout the Handbook are referred to as follows:

Council of Trent (1545–63)

The standard translation is that to be found in Tanner. A much older translation is available online only at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/councils/trent.htm>. Only those documents that are referenced in this volume are listed here in the order in which they were issued:

On Scripture and Tradition

1546 (session 4). A decree setting out which books are canonical. Tanner 1990: 663–664

On the Acceptance of the Vulgate

1546 (session 4). A decree on the use of the Vulgate. Tanner 1990: 664–665.

On Original Sin

1546 (session 5). A decree setting out teaching on original sin. Tanner 1990: 665–667.

On Justification

1547 (session 6). A decree setting out Catholic teaching in response to the emergence of Protestant teachings on the theme. Tanner 1990: 671–681.

On the Sacraments

1547 (session 7). A decree emphasizing the dominical institution of the sacraments and emphasizing their centrality to the Christian life. Tanner 1990: 684–686.

On the Eucharist

1551 (session 13). A decree setting out Catholic teaching on the Eucharist. Tanner 1990: 693–698.

On Penance

1551 (session 14). A decree setting out the necessity of the sacrament of penance and setting out its appropriate practice. Tanner 1990: 703–709.

On Extreme Unction

1551 (session 14). A decree closely following that on penance, emphasizing extreme unction as the final event in the sacramental life. Tanner 1990: 710–713.

On Reform

1551 (session 14). A decree attempting to reform the Church, focusing on the roles of bishops and priests. Tanner 1990: 714–718.

On the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass

1562 (session 22). A decree focusing on the manner in which the Eucharist is to be understood as a sacrifice. Tanner 1990: 732–736.

(p. xx) On Reform

1562 (session 22). A decree advancing further reform, focusing on the ethical obligations of clergy, regulations for the ordering of cathedrals, and the legal and administrative duties of clergy. Tanner 1990: 737–741.

On the Sacrament of Order

1563 (session 23). A decree emphasizing the divine institution of a threefold structure to Holy Orders. Tanner 1990: 743–744.

On the Sacrament of Marriage

1563 (session 24). A brief account of marriage followed by a series of canons on marriage, and a separate series attempting to reform marriage practice, focusing on ‘secret’ and forced marriages. Tanner 1990: 753–759.

On Reform

1563 (session 24). A further decree suggesting patterns of reform encouraging appropriate structure of provincial and diocesan governance, including the importance of bishops preaching, visiting, as well as further regulation of cathedral life and practice. Tanner 1990: 759–773.

On Purgatory

1563 (session 25). A short decree insisting on the existence of purgatory. Tanner 1990: 774.

On General Reform

1563 (session 25). A further decree on the reform of the Church, covering many topics, but including much on the role of bishops and the privileges and duties of lay patrons. Tanner 1990: 784–796.

Vatican I (1869–70)

Dei Filius

24 April 1870. Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith. This text concerns God as creator, the nature of revelation, and the relationship between faith and reason. Tanner 1990: 804–811.

Pastor aeternus

18 July 1870. First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ. This text defines the role of the successors of Peter in the Church, concluding with a statement concerning the character of their infallible teaching authority. Tanner 1990: 811–816.

Vatican II (1962–5)

The standard translation for the documents of the Council remains Austin Flannery (ed.) (1996). Vatican Council II. The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents (Collegeville MN: Liturgical Press). The documents may also be found online at <http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/index.htm> (p. xxi)

Latin title

English title

Date promulgated

Sacrosanctum concilium (SC)

The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy

4 December 1963

Lumen gentium (LG)

Dogmatic Constitution on the Church

21 November 1964

Dei verbum (DV)

Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation

18 November 1965

Gaudium et spes (GS)

Pastoral Constitution of the Church in the Modern World

7 December 1965

Gravissimum educationis (GE)

Declaration on Christian Education

28 October 1965

Nostra aetate (NA)

Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions

28 October 1965

Dignitatis humanae (DH)

Declaration on Religious Liberty

7 December 1965

Inter mirifica (IM)

Pastoral Instruction on the Means of Social Communication

4 December 1963

Orientalium Ecclesiarum (OE)

Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches

21 November 1964

Unitatis redintegratio (UR)

Decree on Ecumenism

21 November 1964

Christus Dominus (CD)

Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church

28 October 1965

Perfectae caritatis (PC)

Decree on the Up-to-date Renewal of Religious Life

28 October 1965

Optatam totius (OT)

Decree on the Training of Priests

28 October 1965

Apostolicam actuositatem (AA)

Decree on the Apostolate of Laypeople

18 November 1965

Ad gentes divinitus (AG)

Decree on the Church’s Missionary Activity

7 December 1965

Presbyterium ordinis (PO)

Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests

7 December 1965

(p. xxii) Papal Documents

These documents are listed in date order under the name of the issuing pontiff (only those documents cited in the volume are noted).

Eugene IV (1431–47)

Exultate Deo

22 November 1439. A bull setting out the terms of union with the Armenians. The text contains an extended discussion of the sacraments, much of which is drawn from St Thomas Aquinas. Issued in conjunction with the work of the Council of Florence. Online at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/eugenius-iv/la/documents/bulla-exultate-deo-22-nov-1439.html>. An English translation available at <https://www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/FLORENCE.HTM>

Leo X (1513–21)

Exsurge Domine

15 June 1520. This papal bull censured forty-one propositions taken from Luther’s writings and threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted. Available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Leo10/l10exdom.htm>

Paul III (1534–49)

Laetare Jerusalem

1 November 1542. A bull calling what would become the Council of Trent.

Pius IV (1559–64)

Benedictus Deus

26 January 1564. This bull sanctioned all the decrees of the Council of Trent. Available at <https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Canons_and_Decrees_of_the_Council_of_Trent/Second_Part/Bull_of_our_most_Holy_Lord_Pius_Fourth>

Pius V (1566–72)

Mirabilis Deus

11 April 1567. This Apostolic Constitution proclaimed St Thomas Aquinas a ‘Doctor of the Church’.

Gregory XVI (1831–46)

Mirari vos

15 August 1832. This encyclical condemns early nineteenth-century claims that recognition of freedom of conscience and other liberal reforms of society could be approved by Catholics. Available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Greg16/g16mirar.htm>

(p. xxiii) Bl. Pius IX (1846–78)

Qui pluribus

9 November 1846. This encyclical emphasizes the mutual relationship of faith and reason, and opposes religious pluralism. Available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius09/p9quiplu.htm>

Ineffabilis Deus

8 December 1854. An apostolic constitution defining the immaculate conception of Mary. Available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius09/p9ineff.htm>

Quanta cura

8 December 1864. This encyclical condemns the idea that individual freedom of conscience is a right, and it asserts the power of the Church against nineteenth-century attempts to exalt the power of the state. As an annex to the text the ‘Syllabus of Errors’ was issued, which condemned eighty propositions. Available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius09/p9quanta.htm> (the encyclical) and <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius09/p9syll.htm> (the syllabus).

Leo XIII (1878–1903)

Quod apostolici muneris

28 December 1878. This encyclical opposes socialism, communism, and nihilism. The socialism that it opposes is one that seeks to take into common ownership that which has been legitimately owned by private individuals. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_28121878_quod-apostolici-muneris.html>

Diuturnum Illud

29 June 1881. This encyclical emphasizes that all worldy power derives from God. The Church does not prefer any particular political order, provided that divine authority is respected. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_29061881_diuturnum.html>

Immortale Dei

1 November 1885. This encyclical deplores political arrangements that do not respect the authority of the Church in all that pertains to the supernatural sphere. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_01111885_immortale-dei.html>

Libertas praestantissimum

20 June 1888. This encyclical on the nature of human liberty places the concept in a traditional Augustinian and Thomist framework: there is a natural law that frames true freedom, and because the Church has been given a share in divine authority true liberty is shaped by adherence to it. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_20061888_libertas.html>

Sapientiae Christianae

10 January 1890. This encyclical on Christians and citizens emphasizes that states are not ends in themselves, but aids to enable human beings to find their true end. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_10011890_sapientiae-christianae.html>

(p. xxiv) Rerum novarum

15 May 1891. This famous encyclical is often taken to mark the beginning of modern Catholic social teaching. It discusses the rights and duties of labour and capital, arguing for the legitimacy of workers organizing in unions, even as the right to private property is emphasized. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_15051891_rerum-novarum.html>

Providentissimus Deus

18 November 1893. This encyclical defends divine authorship of the Scriptures, permits some use of historical-critical methods to defend a Catholic understanding of Scripture, and sketches how biblical interpretation should be taught. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_18111893_providentissimus-deus.html>

Praeclara gratulationis publicae

20 June 1894. This Apostolic Letter called for the reunion of the Church in East and West: the Eastern Churches are called to resubmit to papal authority. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/la/apost_letters/documents/hf_l-xiii_apl_18940620_praeclara-gratulationis.html>. An English translation is available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/leo13/l13praec.htm>

Orientalium dignitas

30 November 1894. This encyclical concerns Eastern rite Catholic Churches, calling on them to remain true to their own traditions. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/la/apost_letters/documents/hf_l-xiii_apl_18941130_orientalium-dignitas.html>. An English translation is available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/leo13/l13orient.htm>

Fidentem piumque animum

20 September 1896. This encyclical encourages the praying of the rosary. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_20091896_fidentem-piumque-animum.html>

Divinum illud munus

9 May 1897. This encyclical offers an extensive meditation on the Holy Spirit. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_09051897_divinum-illud-munus.html>

St Pius X (1903–14)

Tra le Sollecitudini

22 November 1903. A motu proprio calling for a renewal of liturgical music and especially for the use of Gregorian chant. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-x/it/motu_proprio/documents/hf_p-x_motu-proprio_19031122_sollecitudini.html>. An English translation is available at <https://adoremus.org/1903/11/22/tra-le-sollecitudini/>

Sacra Tridentina

20 December 1905. A motu proprio emphasizing the value of daily communion by laypeople. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-x/la/motu_proprio/documents/hf_p-x_motu-proprio_19050716_sacrosancta-tridentina-synodus.html> An English translation is available at <https://www.ewtn.com/library/CURIA/CDWFREQ.HTM>

Ea semper

14 June 1907. An apostolic letter regarding the governance of Ruthenian and Greek Catholics in the US. It was perceived as overly subordinating the Greek rite to (p. xxv) the Latin. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-x/la/apost_letters/documents/hf_p-x_apl_19070614_ea-semper-fuit.html>

Pascendi dominici gregis

8 September 1907. The encyclical condemns ‘Modernism’. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-x/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-x_enc_19070908_pascendi-dominici-gregis.html>

Sacrorum antitistum

1 September 1910. A motu proprio introducing an ‘anti-Modernist oath’ for all bishops, priests, and teachers in Catholic faculties, eventually abolished by Paul VI. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-x/la/motu_proprio/documents/hf_p-x_motu-proprio_19100901_sacrorum-antistitum.html>. An English translation of the concluding oath available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Pius10/p10moath.htm>

Postquam sanctissimus

27 July 1914. The decree identifies twenty-four theses as key principles of Thomism. The text of the decree is not on the Vatican website. The theses themselves are available at <http://www.u.arizona.edu/~aversa/scholastic/24Thomisticpart2.htm>

Doctoris angelis

29 June 1914. A motu proprio declaring the necessity of Thomist philosophy as a foundation for theological thought. An English translation available at <https://maritain.nd.edu/jmc/etext/doctoris.htm>

Benedict XV (1914–22)

Maximum illud

30 November 1919. This apostolic letter concerns Catholic missions. Available at <https://www.svdcuria.org/public/mission/docs/encycl/mi-en.htm>

Pius XI (1922–39)

Studiorem ducem

29 June 1923. An encyclical extolling the virtues of St Thomas Aquinas as a thinker and his works as an object of study. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xi/la/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xi_enc_19230629_studiorum-ducem.html>. An English translation is available at <http://www.ewtn.com/library/encyc/p11studi.htm>

Rerum ecclesiae

28 February 1926. This encyclical concerned Catholic missionary work. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xi_enc_28021926_rerum-ecclesiae.html>

Mortalium animos

6 January 1928. An encyclical condemning some features of the early ecumenical movement, especially the idea that the one Church is not yet visible. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xi_enc_19280106_mortalium-animos.html>

Quadragesimo anno

15 May 1931. On the fortieth anniversary of Rerum novarum this encyclical extolls the virtues of solidarity and subsidiarity in the social and political (p. xxvi) order. Government, industry, and labour are encouraged to work together, in an alternative to communism and unbridled capitalism. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xi_enc_19310515_quadragesimo-anno.html>

Divini redemptoris

13 March 1937. This encyclical exposes the errors of communism. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xi_enc_19370319_divini-redemptoris.html>

Pius XII (1939–58)

Mystici corporis

29 June 1943. An encyclical on the Church as the Body of Christ, issued during the Second World War, stimulated in part by knowledge of the Nazi programmes for murdering Jews and the disabled. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_29061943_mystici-corporis-christi.html>

Divino afflante Spiritu

30 September 1943. An encyclical on the fiftieth anniversary of Providentissimu Deus calling for new translations of the Scriptures from the original language and endorsing certain modes of historical-critical scholarship. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_30091943_divino-afflante-spiritu.html>

Sacramentum ordinis

30 November 1947. An apostolic constitution setting out norms for the conferring of Holy Orders. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/la/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_p-xii_apc_19471130_sacramentum-ordinis.html>. An English translation available at <http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius12/p12sacrao.htm>

Mediator Dei

20 November 1947. An encyclical devoted to the liturgy. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_20111947_mediator-dei.html>

Humani generis

12 August 1950. An encyclical condemning false opinions on a number of subjects. The encyclical is generally taken to support neo-Thomists against the work of those associated with the Ressourcement movement. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_12081950_humani-generis.html>

Munificentissimus Deus

1 November 1950. An apostolic constitution defining infallibly the doctrine of the assumption of Mary. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_p-xii_apc_19501101_munificentissimus-deus.html>

Evangelii praecones

2 June 1951. An encyclical on Catholic mission work. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_02061951_evangelii-praecones.html>

(p. xxvii) Doctor mellifluus

24 May 1953. An encyclical extolling the virtues of Bernard of Clairvaux. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_24051953_doctor-mellifluus.html>

St John XXIII (1958–63)

Mater et Magistra

15 May 1961. On the seventieth anniversary of Rerum novarum this encyclical emphasizes the common good, the dignity of agricultural work, and the importance of wealthier nations aiding poorer. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-xxiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_15051961_mater.html>

Pacem in terris

11 April 1963. This encyclical discusses the relationship between human beings, human beings and the state, and the need for peace among states. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-xxiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_11041963_pacem.html>

St Paul VI (1963–78)

Ecclesiam suam

6 August 1964. An encyclical on the nature of the Church. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-vi_enc_06081964_ecclesiam.html>

Mysterium fidei

3 September 1965. An encyclical directed at reinforcing traditional eucharistic piety. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-vi_enc_03091965_mysterium.html>

Sacrum diaconatus ordinem

18 June 1967. A motu proprio restoring the permanent diaconate. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/en/motu_proprio/documents/hf_p-vi_motu-proprio_19670618_sacrum-diaconatus.html>

Pontificalis romani

18 June 1968. An Apostolic Constitution approving new rites for the ordination of bishops, priests, and deacons. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/la/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_p-vi_apc_19680618_pontificalis-romani.html>

Humanae vitae

25 July 1968. An encyclical setting out the Church’s traditional teaching on the regulation of conception and rejecting most forms of artificial contraception. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-vi_enc_25071968_humanae-vitae.html>

Ministeria quaedam

15 August 1972. A motu proprio suppressing some ‘minor’ orders, and the ‘major’ order of subdeacon, and opening the orders of acolyte and lector to laypeople. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/la/motu_proprio/documents/hf_p-vi_motu-proprio_19720815_ministeria-quaedam.html>. An English translation is available at <http://www.ewtn.com/library/papaldoc/p6minors.htm>

(p. xxviii) Ad Pascendum

15 August 1972. An Apostolic Letter setting norms for the ordination of permanent deacons. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/la/motu_proprio/documents/hf_p-vi_motu-proprio_19720815_ad-pascendum.html>. An English translation available at <http://diaconate-form.blogspot.com/2012/05/ad-pascendum-english-translation.html>

Lumen ecclesiae

20 November 1974. A letter marking the seven hundredth anniversary of the death of St Thomas Aquinas. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/la/letters/1974/documents/hf_p-vi_let_19741120_lumen-ecclesiae.html>

Evangelii nuntiandi

8 December 1975. An Apostolic Exhortation on evangelization in the modern world, following a synod on the subject held in 1974. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/en/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_p-vi_exh_19751208_evangelii-nuntiandi.html>

St John Paul II (1978–2005)

Laborem exercens

14 September 1981. On the ninetieth anniversary of Rerum novarum this encyclical focuses on the dignity of work and workers. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_14091981_laborem-exercens.html>

Familiaris consortio

22 November 1981. This is an Apostolic Exhortation on the Christian family in the modern world, following the Extraordinary Synod on the Family in 1980. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_jp-ii_exh_19811122_familiaris-consortio.html>

Salvifici doloris

11 February 1984. An apostolic letter on the mystery of human suffering. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/apost_letters/1984/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_11021984_salvifici-doloris.html>

Redemptoris mater

25 March 1987. An encyclical discussing Mary’s role in the plan of salvation, and then specifically in the life of the Church. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_25031987_redemptoris-mater.html>

Sollicitudo rei socialis

30 December 1987. An encyclical on the twentieth anniversary of Populorum progression concerning the social teaching of the Church. True development consists not in the multiplication of goods, but the creation of conditions in which human persons can flourish. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_30121987_sollicitudo-rei-socialis.html>

Redemptoris missio

7 December 1990. This encyclical speaks of the urgency of the Church’s missionary task on the twenty-fifth anniversary of AG. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_07121990_redemptoris-missio.html>

Centesimus annus

1 May 991. Issued on the hundredth anniversary of Rerum novarum this encyclical examines contemporary social and political issues, including the errors (p. xxix) of communism and other dictatorial regimes. Social and political systems that enable and respect human dignity are commended. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_01051991_centesimus-annus.html>

Gratissimum sane

2 February 1994. A letter to families on the occasion of the Year of the Family. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/letters/1994/documents/hf_jp-ii_let_02021994_families.html>

Evangelium vitae

25 March 1995. An encyclical treating the value of human life and actions that do not respect this, including abortion, the death penalty, murder, and euthanasia. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_25031995_evangelium-vitae.html>

Orientale lumen

2 May 1995. An apostolic letter emphasizing the value of the Eastern Christian traditions, issued on the centenary of Orientalium dignitas. Available at <https://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/apost_letters/1995/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_19950502_orientale-lumen.html>

Ut unum sint

25 May 1995. This encyclical considers how the Catholic Church should embrace the ecumenical movement and some fundamental questions that must be studied if progress is to be made. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_25051995_ut-unum-sint.html>

Apostolos suos

28 May 1998. A motu proprio on the theological foundations of and regulatory norms for episcopal conferences. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/motu_proprio/documents/hf_jp-ii_motu-proprio_22071998_apostolos-suos.html>

Fides et ratio

14 September 1998. An encyclical dealing with the relationship between faith and reason, and appropriate understandings of philosophical thinking. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_14091998_fides-et-ratio.html>

Ecclesia in Asia

6 November 1999. An apostolic exhortation following the special Asian synod held in Rome in 1998. The document explores the task of proclaiming the Catholic faith in modern Asia. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_jp-ii_exh_06111999_ecclesia-in-asia.html>

Benedict XVI (2005–13)

Deus caritas est

25 December 2005. This encyclical celebrates love as a theological virtue. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_ben-xvi_enc_20051225_deus-caritas-est.html>

Spe salvi

30 November 2007. This encyclical concerns the theological virtue of hope. It teaches that Christ brings a hope that may shape human lives towards encounters (p. xxx) with God. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_ben-xvi_enc_20071130_spe-salvi.html>

Caritas in veritate

29 June 2009. An encyclical asserting that economic actions must be rooted in Christian ethical principles. The encyclical also discusses many isues concerning current global development and economic inequality. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_ben-xvi_enc_20090629_caritas-in-veritate.html>

Anglicanorum coetibus

4 Novembe 2009. An Apostolic Constitution providing for the creation of ‘personal ordinariates’ for former Anglican groups wishing to enter the Catholic Church and retain a distinctive rite. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_ben-xvi_apc_20091104_anglicanorum-coetibus.html>

Verbum Domini

30 Septembe 2010. This encyclical concerns the place of Scripture in the Church. It begins with a discussion of God speaking through the Word and then discusses how the written word of God is to be interpreted. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_ben-xvi_exh_20100930_verbum-domini.html>

Francis (2013– )

Lumen fidei

5 July 2013. An encyclical celebrating faith as a light that can shape a life. The encyclical complements Spe salvi and Deus caritas est. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/encyclicals/documents/papa-francesco_20130629_enciclica-lumen-fidei.html>

Laudato si’

24 May 2015. This encyclical critiques consumerism, identifies environmental crises, and calls for Christians to take action. Available at <http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/encyclicals/documents/papa-francesco_20150524_enciclica-laudato-si.html>

Amoris Laetitia

26th March 2016. This post-synodal apostolic exhortation concerns the nature of families, and the pastoral care of families. Available at https://w2.vatican.va/content/dam/francesco/pdf/apost_exhortations/documents/papa-francesco_esortazione-ap_20160319_amoris-laetitia_en.pdf