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date: 19 November 2019

(p. 687) Index

(p. 687) Index

Aberdeen
civil and religious strife103, 249
cooperation between Jacobites and Whigs358
criminality and lawlessness387, 393
cultural influences198, 200, 372–4
customs revenue248
defiance of Kirk212
effects of industrialization406
changes to housing462–4
environmental health464–5
major 20th century developments467–73
physical environment466
population growth456
scale, mass, density and complexity457–62
family life275
farming and agriculture133
harsh climate22
impact of urban detritus28
impact on modern Scottish history6–9, 11
new humanist university196
oil boom of late 20th century657–8, 666–7
population changes47, 49, 53
returning migrants168
Afforestation35
Agriculturesee Farming and agriculture
Air pollution
greenhouse gas emissions34
impact of increasing food energy after 175029
Assimilationism531
Bonnie Prince Charlie
historical obsession with12
overseas displays of Scottishness529
subject of popular culture76
Borders
economic devastation23
effect of stability on economy243
net inward migration173
nuptiality and marital fertility54
population47
Catholicismsee also Jacobites; Reformation
acceptance of devolution597
anti-immigration campaigns590
control over the education588
Counter-Reformation186
creation of a distinctive national Church193
declining numbers593–4
effect of union331
highland planters290
history of Ireland's Great Famine (1845–51)298
intellectual continuities and traditions258
Jacobite dynasty to the British thrones341–5, 356–8
loyalty to the British constitution aft after 1840481
Mary, Queen of Scots76
members of the Relief Church89
migrants to Scotland93–5
motives and rationale for migration323
negative attitudes towards Irish immigrants498–501
persecution81
place in ‘post-Christian’ Scotland600
political awareness442
political manifestation in tyranny and absolute monarchy74
popular cultural credentials590
primary purpose of marriage276
‘rabbling’ of the clergy259
(p. 688) Catholicism (cont.)
rabid anti-Catholic polemics557, 582–3
removal of civil disabilities90
response to ecclesiastical discipline265
significant working-class membership595
social mobility680–1
veto of Catholic emancipation in 1800635
war volunteers557–63
Charles I224–5
Charles IIsee Restoration
Chivalry192–3
Clanship
lingering military traditions359
perceived excesses244–5
ties of blood and marriage280
Class
central questions440–1
changes in modern Scotland
Catholic mobility680–1
influence of distinctive politics677
measuring of deprivation676–7
middle and working class misconceptions678–9
role of education680
similarities with England677–8
social mobility679–80
middle-class suburbs of major cities460
‘middling sort’304, 440
modern Scottish identity682
reform movements after 1816447–8
rise of organized labour and socialism573–4
working-class hierarchies413–14
working-class influences on literature of twentieth century121–6
Clearances
Highlands and Islands
development of crofting151–7
‘expulsive clearances’ in favour of sheep145–9
meaning and process130–2
most dramatic effect145
restructuring of touns149–51
Lowlands
clearance of touns133–6
gradual disappearance of small farmers138–40
impact of removing multiple-tenancies136–8
meaning and process130–2
social consequences of restructuring140–2
transformation of landscape132–3
Southern Uplands143–4
transformation of landscape157–8
Climate
constraint on Scotland's economy238–40
difficulties of garnering photosynthetic energy21–4
risk strategies245–6
road to disaster 1950–20034
sixteenth and early seventeenth century constraints238
Colonizationsee Empire building
Commemoration of Great War563–6
Commercesee Trade and commerce
Covenanters
decline and re-emergence217
filling of ‘coercive vacuum’226–7
impact on government and statehood227–30
religious aspirations216–17
rise83
Criminality and lawlessness
early modern period
conclusions399–401
harmful violence396–7
homicide393–5
limited historiography388–91
overview386–8
property crime391–3
protest crimes397–9
focus of Highland annexation244–5
impact of Reformation80
Irish Catholic immigrants498
Irish Protestant immigrants501–2
Scotland's major cities455
Cultural influences
city spectacles466
developments during 17th century
challenges to negative views309–10
Church influences311–13
disregard for philosophy310
literature310–11
(p. 689)
modern challenges to old interpretations318
science310
‘doomsday’ scenario in 1970s and 1980s128–9
emigrants after 1815
assimilationism523–5
ethnic retention525–7
interaction with other people528
material culture527–8
Enlightenment
contested definitions370–1
continuing impact until present day380–5
continuities with pre-Enlightenment arts374–7
continuities with pre-Enlightenment science377–80
origins in high culture 1500–1700372–4
participants371
pessimistic caricature of Scotland's economy237
powerhouse of ideas370
prominent doctrines374–80
role of Union settlement371–2
women's history 1899–1969606
impact on Scottish historians3–4
industrialization419–21
intellectual reaction to Great Depression577–8
linguistic differences128
literature
ballads and songs103–4
civil war after 1630102–3
classicism of Edinburgh103
collecting the past104–5
developments during 17th century310
dissemination of Empire by press and publishing546–9
distrust of modernity124–6
‘doomsday’ scenario in 1970s and 1980s128–9
early modern myths of origin63–7
first emigration communications169
Fragments of Ancient Poetry 1760105
Hume's history112–13
impact on Scottish historians3
importance99–101
intellectual reaction to Great Depression577–8
linguistic differences126–8
mythical Scotland62–3
new pantheon of industrial heroes417–19
Ossian epics67–70, 105–6
poetry invoking the past107–10
portrayal of industrialization408
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history72–7
radicalism115
Reformation80
relationship with English literature101–2
resistance to realism116–21
romantic discovery of Highlands70–1
Romanticism107–12
Scottish Renaissance196–7
Scott's novels113–14
women's history 1899–1969603–17
working-class influences of twentieth century121–6
modern Scottish identity682–3
mythical Scotland
early modern myths of origin63–7
Ossian epics67–70
overview62–3
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history72–7
romantic discovery of Highlands70–1
practical and visible effects of empire-building437
Reformation80
relationship with industry417
religious developments during early 1960s594
Scottish Renaissance
chivalric glories 1503–1567191–7
defined185–7
early impulses 1424–1503188–91
external influences187–8
impact of Reformation197–202
need for more nuanced understanding202
(p. 690)
De-industrialization653–6
Deforestation29–30
Demography
causes of change 1801–2001
birth and death rates52
low marriage rates53–6
net emigration52–3
table of components51
causes of emigration after 1815519
changes in modern Scotland
changing migration patterns672–3
distinguishing features675
family life674–5
growing population gap with England672
impact on identity675–6
overview671–2
shifting population from west to east673
contrasting patterns 1801–2001
availability of reliable statistics44–5
comparative slow growth45–6
differences in the Highlands and Islands47–9
difficulties of garnering photosynthetic energy25
effects of industrialization409
impact of increasing food energy after 175026–8
influence on global diaspora165–6, 172–3
Irish immigrants492–3
New Millennium developments60–1
population of Scotland's major cities456–7
pre-census period
effect of migration43–4
effect of short-term crises40–1
impact of young persons marrying41–2
need for sceptical approach39–40
restrictions on population growth42–3
pressure on Scotland's economy240–1
Devolution
administrative devolution after 1880636
calls for a second Scottish Enlightenment385
changing context of Scottish politics10
Church support in 1979595, 597
emergence of political nationalism578–9
‘failure’ of referendum of 1979128
new political context597
part of modern Scottish identity683
requests of Gladstone in 1893487
rise of SNP and claims for devolution639–42
role of Scottish Office481
the role of Scottish Parliament to 2010642–8
Diaspora
analytical dangers of terminology159–60
distinctive features
expansion and change of regions164–5
longevity from thirteenth century160
scale and volume161–4
emergence at time of Ulster's colonization289, 291
influence on global diaspora
soldier emigration170–1
net migration loss 1951–2006177–81
related influences across Europe
economic history171–2
economic insecurity176–7
increasing populations165–6
industrial demand169–70
intensification in nineteenth century172–6
sources of communication and information168–9
transport improvements166–7
Scottish Jacobites359–61
significant effects181
since 1815
areas for further research530–1
causes519–23
consequences523–30
overview510–11
profile and pattern511–18
Dundee
all female households414
Catholic poverty587
civil and religious strife103, 249
criminality and lawlessness391
cultural influences373
customs revenue248
effects of industrialization406, 411
changes to housing462–4
environmental health464–5
major 20th century developments467–73
(p. 691)
physical environment466
population growth456
scale, mass, density and complexity457–62
‘Exhibition of Industry’417
few professional, commercial, and managerial classes174
impact of urban detritus28
impact on modern Scottish history9–10
infant death rates57
internal migration172
population changes49
restructuring in modern Scotland667
Economic historysee also Empire building
areas of future research250
benefits of union and empire4
changes in food consumption242
climatic and environmental constraints238–40
demographic pressures240–1
developments during 17th century
agriculture314, 316–17
challenges to negative views313–14
development difficulties315
modern challenges to old interpretations318
energy
critical developments 1750–195025–33
importance19–20
reliance on photosynthesis 1500–175020–5
family property and debts275–6
focus of Highland annexation244–5
fundamental transformations in Scottish life432
impact of Great Depression575–7
impact of urbanization246–9
influence on global diaspora171–2
interwar years of depression570–2
Irish immigrants497–8
modern Scotland684–5
need for proper comparisons to be made249–50
pessimistic caricature of Scotland236–8
restructuring in modern Scotland
areas for further research669
development of financial services662–6
nature of de-industrialization653–6
overview652
regional differences666–9
successes and failures in the industrial section656–62
risk strategies245–6
role of Scottish state since 1918
close relationship between business and government630–1
consequences of industrialization and urbanization626–7
housing as a symptom of wider problem630–1
importance of state intervention621–3
perceptions of public spending624–6
relevance of economic conditions623–4
role of women's work276
stability of the regions243
Edinburgh
demography
net outflow of population after 187053
New Millennium population developments60
disappearance of tenants and servants to Ireland297
effect of urbanization on Scotland's economy248
effects of industrialization
changes to housing462–4
environmental health464–5
major 20th century developments467–73
physical environment466
population growth456
scale, mass, density and complexity457–62
essential instability455
impact of increasing food energy after 175028
impact on modern Scottish history6
industrial enterprise after WWII629
influence of classicism on literature103
restructuring in modern Scotland667
sectarian tensions during interwar period591
(p. 692)
Education
boys279
effect on social mobility680
emigration destinations 1500–1750329–31
influence on global diaspora175
influence on Scottish Renaissance200
Irish Catholic immigrants499
modern Scottish history
achievements of 1960s and 1970s9–11
beginnings of a new era7–9
current academic health1
decline by Victorian times1–2
decline of Universities5–7
effects of cultural imperialism7
impact of Enlightenment3–4
impact of political changes5
lingering lack of confidence11–13
overview of contributors13–15
results of transformation11
religious focus in 20th century588
role of parish schools87–8
role of Scottish state since 1918623
Emigrationsee also Empire building
cause of population change 1801–200152–3
decline in modern Scotland672–3
destinations 1500–1750
American colonies331–5
areas for further research335–7
commercial influences326–9
educational migrations329–31
impact of Reformation322–3
overview320–2
seventeenth-century military migrations323–6
verifiable statistics335
diaspora since 1815
areas for further research530–1
causes519–23
consequences523–30
overview510–11
profile and pattern511–18
factor on early population figures43–4
global diaspora
analytical dangers of terminology159–60
distinctive features160–5
net migration loss 1951–2006177–81
related influences across Europe165–77
Scottish Jacobites359–61
significant effects181
New Millennium population developments60
seventeenth-century connection with Ireland285–6
Britain's dramatic colonization of Ulster 1610–50286–7
poverty as cause of migration 1690–1715297–8
problematic nature of Ulster settlement by Scots285
Protestant migration 1650–90294–7
transformation of views 1600–10286–7
Empire building
areas for further research438
Britain's dramatic colonization of Ulster 1610–50286–7
diaspora since 1815
numbers512
effect of retreat on Presbyterian interpretation of history77
effects of Union settlement424–6
emigration to American colonies pre-1750331–5
expansion and change of emigration164
expansion of armed forces and impact of global conflict426–9
global commerce and trade433–4
impact on Victorian Scotland
activities of civil society in Scotland544–6
importance549–50
industrialization533–5, 539
overview533
press and publishing546–9
professional employment and careers541–4
service in imperial army539–41
trade and commerce535–9
North America431–3
overview423–4
practical and visible effects in Scotland434–7
(p. 693)
shift from Europe to Caribbean429–31
source of nationalism support in 19th century475–8
Energy
critical developments 1750–195025–33
importance19–20
oil boom of late 20th century657–8
reliance on photosynthesis 1500–175020–5
Englandsee also Union of the Crowns
comparisons in modern Scotland
class structures677–8
identity681
population figures672
dramatic colonization of Ulster 1610–50286–7
Jacobite relationship with European great-power politics364–8
literary influences101–2
population growth45
scale and volume of emigration162–3
unified and centralized state223
Enlightenment
contested definitions370–1
continuing impact until present day380–5
continuities with pre-Enlightenment period
science377–80
impact on Scottish historians3
origins in high culture 1500–1700372–4
participants371
pessimistic caricature of Scotland's economy237
powerhouse of ideas370
prominent doctrines374–80
role of Union settlement371–2
Environment
constraint on Scotland's economy238–40
different historical approaches19
energy
critical developments 1750–195025–33
importance19–20
reliance on photosynthesis 1500–175020–5
literary influences604
political challenge633
risk strategies245–6
road to disaster 1950–20033–8
Scotland's major cities461
noise, bustle and smell466
sights, sounds and smells of industrialization414–17
sixteenth and early seventeenth century constraints238
Ethnic retention525–7
Family life
absence of records270
adolescence279
affection between spouses274–5
baptism of children278
building of legends107
centrality to understanding of world282
changes in modern Scotland674–5
childbirth and loss of children277–8
Church views of marriage276–7
early marriage practices270–4
early studies269–70
education of boys279
effect of industrialization409, 413–15
emigration of groups515
future areas of study282–3
girls in domestic service279
growing interest in women's history270
improvements in sanitation and baby-care57
kinship280–1
modern Scotland684–5
multiple-tenant touns141
parental responsibilities278
patriarchal households274
private baptism and private communion212
property and debts275–6
response to external pressures and events281
role of women's work276
Scotland's major cities
changes to housing462–4
environmental health464–5
population growth456
scale, mass, density and complexity457–62
significance268
transforming impact of Great War560–1
(p. 694)
Faminesee Poverty and famine
Farming and agriculture
changes in food consumption242
contrasting population patterns 1801–200149
critical developments 1750–195026–7
deforestation29
developments during 17th century
collapse of returns316–17
improvements in agriculture314
patterns of political development305–6
effect of famine on population41
environmental impact after 195034–5
grazing and burning30
Highland clearances
development of crofting151–7
‘expulsive clearances’ in favour of sheep145–9
most dramatic effect145
restructuring of touns149–51
influence on global diaspora173–4
Lowland clearances
clearance of touns133–6
gradual disappearance of small farmers138–40
impact of removing multiple-tenancies136–8
meaning and process130–2
social consequences of restructuring140–2
transformation of landscape132–3
Plantation scheme in Ulster288
risk strategies245–6
Southern Upland clearances143–4
transformation of landscape by clearances157–8
Fertility
changes in modern Scotland673–4
effect on population change 1801–200152
low marriage rates53–6
post-war baby boom58–9
New Millennium developments61
Fishing
ecological impacts after 175031–3
effect of unreliability on early population figures42–3
monopolist and Anti-Free Trade principles489
planned villages on the west coast152
profligate resource exploitation37
road to disaster 1950–20037–8
Gender
economic participation of Irish immigrants497–8
effects of industrialization
exclusion of women413
promotion of male labour411
working-class hierarchies413–14
emigrants after 1815512–13, 521
employment in modern Scotland678
literary influences 1899–1969603–17
migration flows to Ireland and Europe292
modern Scottish identity682
new influences in late 1960s617–18
women's historical role602
women's history
dangers of gender based approach to history602–3
early crime390, 392
exclusion of women by industrialization413
growing interest270
literary influences 1899–1969603–17
reawakening of interest602–3
still awaiting detailed comparative study414
story past and present618
undervaluing of other historical genres603–4
working-class hierarchies413–14
German immigrants502–3
Glasgow
Catholic poverty587
demography
mortality rates56–7
net outflow of population after 187053
dialect126
effect of industrialization406
effect of urbanization on Scotland's economy248
effects of industrialization (p. 695)
changes to housing462–4
environmental health464–5
major 20th century developments467–73
physical environment466
population growth456
scale, mass, density and complexity457–62
enlistment of Catholic Irish557
global commerce and trade434
impact of increasing food energy after 175029
impact on modern Scottish history6
industrial enterprise after WWII629
industrial restructuring in modern Scotland666
infant death rates57
international exhibitions545–6
Italian immigrants506
mortality rates673
‘multiple deprivation’676–7
New Millennium population developments60
property crime391
sectarian tensions during interwar period591
sights, sounds and smells of industrialization414–15
working-class influences on literature of twentieth century122
Health and safety at work411–12
Highlands and Islands
clearances
development of crofting151–7
‘expulsive clearances’ in favour of sheep145–9
impact of increasing food energy after 175026–7
meaning and process130–2
most dramatic effect145
restructuring of touns149–51
demography
contrasting population patterns 1801–200147–9
early restrictions on population growth42
extremely low nuptiality54
difficulties of garnering photosynthetic energy23–4
effect of stability on economy243
focus of annexation244–5
formation of Free Church92
regeneration633
restructuring in modern Scotland667
role of mythology
romantic discovery by Victorians70–1
sources for Ossian epics68
scale and volume of emigration164
significance of North Channel to Ireland289–90
soldier emigration170–1
Home Rulesee also Nationalism
campaigning during 19th century475–8
changing complexity of nationalism76
developments 1885–1924635–8
Home Rule Association5, 486–8
Ireland353, 501
Labour politics of 1930s579
nineteenth-century Union state475–8
post-war agitation593
women's history610–11
Homicide393–5
Humanism187–8, 191, 196, 310
Identity
demographic changes in modern Scotland675–6
distinctive military identity of Great War559–60
early impulses of Scottish Renaissance188
emigrants after 1815
assimilationism523–5
Britishness528–9
descendants529
ethnic retention525–7
interaction with other people528
material culture527–8
returning emigrants529–30
Irish Catholic immigrants498
(p. 696) Identity (cont.)
Jewish immigrants503
myth of lowland identity71
nationhood in women's history 1899–1969603–17
nineteenth-century Union state
constitutional nationalism485–6
Home Rule Association486–8
influence of Westminster MPs488–90
nationalist campaigning475–8
overview474–5
parliamentary reform and political identity482–4
role of Scotland as local state480–2
‘Parade of the Clans’268
role of industrialization419–21
social values and attitudes in modern Scotland681–4
working-class influences on literature of twentieth century123
Immigration
contrasting hostile reactions506–9
effect on population change 1801–200153
Germans502–3
impact of Irish immigration after Famine 1845–5093
increase in modern Scotland672–3
Irish immigrants
anti-Irish attitudes495–7
Catholics498–500
economic participation497–8
Protestants500–2
Italians505–6
more favourable migration balance by 2004179
New Millennium population developments60
overview491–5
sectarian tensions during interwar period590
Industrialization
challenges to religion from early nineteenth century91–3
conditions of life
exclusion of women413
poverty and ill-health412–13
working-class hierarchies413–14
demographic changes409
demographic impact
contrasting population patterns 1801–200149
marriage rates55
effect on Presbyterian interpretation of history77
gendering of work411
health and safety at work411–12
immigrant workers
Irish Protestants500–1
Lithuanians504–5
impact of Empire on Victorian Scotland533–5, 539
impact on people's lives405–6
influence on global diaspora169–70, 172, 174–5
influence on Scottish state since 1918626–7
literary representations408
mobilization for Great War562–3
new enterprise after WWII629–30
new pantheon of heroes417–19
practical and visible effects of empire-building436
relationship with countryside406–7
restructuring in modern Scotland
areas for further research669
nature of de-industrialization653–6
overview652
regional differences666–9
successes and failures in the industrial section656–62
‘rich-country: poor-country debate’407–8
role in shaping culture and identity419–21
sights, sounds and smells414–17
underlying forces407–8
unsettling effect on Church leaders587
working-class influences on literature of twentieth century121–6
workplace changes408–9
Infanticide
crime in early modern Scotland387, 390, 394–5, 395
darker aspects of illegitimacy269
International exhibitions545–6 (p. 697)
Ireland
comparative population figures in 185147
Home Rule353, 501
impact of Irish emigration after Famine 1845–5093
Jacobite relationship with European great-power politics364
migrants to Scotland
anti-Irish attitudes495–7
Catholics498–500
economic participation497–8
overview492–3
Protestants500–2
national lacking great men74
scale and volume of emigration162
seventeenth-century connection with Scotland
Britain's dramatic colonization of Ulster 1610–50286–7
geographical proximity285
poverty as cause of migration 1690–1715297–8
problematic nature of Ulster settlement by Scots285–6
Protestant migration 1650–90294–7
transformation of views 1600–10286–7
Italian immigrants505–6
Jacobitism
abandonment of ‘ill years’ interpretation263
comparisons with other dissident Europeans361–4
doctrine of sacred kingship85
impact on early modern myths of origin66–7
influence on Scottish Renaissance
chivalric glories 1503–1567191–7
early impulses 1424–1503188–9
inspired blend of dynastic loyalty and proto-nationalism368–9
international phenomenon355
mainstream Scottish movement
interconnections with rest of society358
military importance359
nationalist rationale356–7
social power of elite356
supporters wanting a better opinion357
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history75–6
public commemoration of the Forty-Five75–6
relationship with European great-power politics364–8
Scottish diaspora359–61
James I
new cultural developments189
stirrings of the Renaissance188
venomous wave of Scotophobia in the Westminster Parliament237
James II
instability following accession296
Jacobite response to357
significant foreign marriages189
James III
‘full jurisdiction and free empire within his realm’193
origins of Scottish Renaissance191
significant foreign marriages189
support for religion189
James IV
chivalric glories191–7
significant foreign marriages189
James V191–7
James VI
accession to the English throne286
venomous wave of Scotophobia in the Westminster Parliament237
Jewish immigrants503–4
Kinship
allocation of apprenticeships508
family life280–1
family support systems467
links to the territorial/ nobility305
Law
centralization of administration225–6
development of state judicial system in 17th century307
family property and debts275–6
(p. 698) Law (cont.)
jurisdiction of Justiciary Court387
marriage
early practices271–4
royal control over College of Justice194
Lawlessnesssee Criminality and lawlessness
Literature
ballads and songs103–4
civil war after 1630102–3
classicism of Edinburgh103
collecting the past104–5
developments during 17th century310
dissemination of Empire by press and publishing546–9
distrust of modernity124–6
‘doomsday’ scenario in 1970s and 1980s128–9
first emigration communications169
Fragments of Ancient Poetry 1760105
Hume's history112–13
impact on Scottish historians3
importance99–101
intellectual reaction to Great Depression577–8
linguistic differences126–8
mythical Scotland
early modern myths of origin63–7
Ossian epics67–70
overview62–3
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history72–7
romantic discovery of Highlands70–1
new pantheon of industrial heroes417–19
Ossian epics105–6
poetry invoking the past107–10
portrayal of industrialization408
radicalism115
Reformation80
relationship with English literature101–2
resistance to realism116–21
Romanticism107–12
Scottish Renaissance196–7
Scott's novels113–14
women's history 1899–1969603–17
working-class influences of twentieth century121–6
Lithuanian immigrants504–5
Lowlands
adequate provision of food 1500–175025
clearances
clearance of touns133–6
gradual disappearance of small farmers138–40
impact of removing multiple-tenancies136–8
meaning and process130–2
social consequences of restructuring140–2
transformation of landscape132–3
early population figures43
effect of urbanization on Scotland's economy246–7
formation of Free Church92
impact of increasing food energy after 175026–7
myth of lowland identity71
Marriage
affection between spouses274–5
changes in modern Scotland674
Church views of procreation276–7
early practices270–4
early studies of family life269–70
effect on population change 1801–2001
low marriage rates53–6
post-war baby boom58–9
key factor on early population figures41–3
New Millennium developments61
patriarchal households274
role of parish church85–6
role of women's work276
Mary, Queen of Scots
attacks by Knox214
chivalric glories191–7
historical obsession with12
hunting of wild animals25
popular allure605
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history76
women's history608
Mediasee Press
‘Middling sort’304, 440 (p. 699)
Modern Scottish history
achievements of 1960s and 1970s9–11
beginnings of a new era7–9
current academic health7
decline by Victorian times1–2
decline of Universities5–7
effects of cultural imperialism7
impact of Enlightenment3–4
impact of political changes5
lingering lack of confidence11–13
overview of contributors13–15
results of transformation11
Monarchysee also Union of the Crowns
Charles I224–5
early modern myths63–4, 66
influence on Scottish Renaissance
after the Reformation199–201
chivalric glories 1503–1567191–7
early impulses 1424–1503188–9
overview188
James I
new cultural developments189
stirrings of the Renaissance188
venomous wave of Scotophobia in the Westminster Parliament237
James II
instability following accession296
Jacobite response to357
significant foreign marriages189
James III
‘full jurisdiction and free empire within his realm’193
origins of Scottish Renaissance191
significant foreign marriages189
support for religion189
James IV
chivalric glories191–7
significant foreign marriages189
James V191–7
James VI
accession to the English throne286
venomous wave of Scotophobia in the Westminster Parliament237
Mary, Queen of Scots
attacks by Knox214
chivalric glories191–7
historical obsession with12
hunting of wild animals25
popular allure605
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history76
women's history608
politics in the five decades after 1660
bridging gulf between religion and high politics264–5
causes of rise and fall of Lauderdale and York254–5
changing menu of political options259
factional politics of royal government252–4
‘King William's ill years262–4
milestone of institutional change258–9
need for further study255–6
negative consequences of traditional interpretation255
overview251–2
road from revolution to union260–2
significance of Revolution compared with Union settlement265–6
religion in the five decades after 1660
bridging gulf between religion and high politics264–5
decisive turning point259–60
emergence of Episcopalian confessional culture257–8
overview251–2
precarious balance between radicalism and Whiggery256–7
significance of Revolution compared with Union settlement265–6
religious importance of William and Mary78–9
Restoration
agrarian expansion314
crucial phase in the formation of modern Scotland251
empire building332
evolution of central administration232
narrative of persecution and resistance259–60
origins of Enlightenment304–12
policy-making230
politics and religious debates252–8
romantic discovery of Highlands by George IV and Victoria70–1
(p. 700)
Mortality
effect on population change 1801–200152, 53–6, 56–8
effects of industrialization412
key factor on early population figures40–1
New Millennium developments60–1
rates in modern Scotland673
Mythical Scotland
chivalric glories 1503–1567192–3
early modern myths of origin63–7
Ossian epics67–70
overview62–3
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history72–7
romantic discovery of Highlands70–1
National identitysee Identity
Nationalismsee also Home Rule
Church of Scotland claims591–2
developments after 1880
devolution and the role of Scottish Parliament to 2010642–8
Home Rule 1885–1924635–8
rise of SNP and claims for devolution639–42
Scotland as a nation of Malagrowthers648–50
welfare state as basis for Unionism 1924–6638–9
interwar crisis
emergence578–9
failure to gather momentum579–84
Jacobitism
inspired blend of dynastic loyalty and proto-nationalism368–9
underlying rationale356–7
modern Scottish identity682
nineteenth-century Union state
campaigning475–8
constitutional fight485–6
religious agitation for Home Rule593
religious debate over Scottish Parliament595–6
working-class influences on literature of twentieth century123
Nationhoodsee also Statehood
role of mythology
early modern myths of origin63–4
Ossian epics68–70
overview62
working-class influences on literature of twentieth century123
Ossian epics
literary influences105–6
role of mythology67–70
Patronage
cultural loss309
decade of transformation 1600–10286
impact on established church89–91
interest in American colonial activities333
James's success in Edinburgh in 1679–82204
noble shift ‘from lordship to patronage’308
Politics
cause of ‘doomsday’ cultural scenario in 1970s and 1980s128–9
class influences in modern Scotland677
developments after 1880
devolution and the role of Scottish Parliament to 2010642–8
Home Rule 1885–1924635–8
rise of SNP and claims for devolution639–42
Scotland as a nation of Malagrowthers648–50
welfare state as basis for Unionism 1924–6638–9
developments during 17th century
demilitarization of nobility307–8
modern challenges to old interpretations318
rural society305–6
urban populations306–7
vigour of parliamentary and popular politics308
early modern myths65
(p. 701)
emergence of democracy218
emergence of state as political force222
five decades after 1660
bridging gulf between religion and high politics264–5
causes of rise and fall of Lauderdale and York254–5
changing menu of political options259
factional politics of royal government252–4
‘King William's ill years262–4
milestone of institutional change258–9
need for further study255–6
negative consequences of traditional interpretation255
overview251–2
road from revolution to union260–2
significance of Revolution compared with Union settlement265–6
fundamental transformations in Scottish life432
Home Rule636
campaigning during 19th century475–8
changing complexity of nationalism76
developments 1885–1924635–8
Home Rule Association5, 486–8
Ireland353, 501
Labour politics of 1930s579
post-war agitation593
women's history610–11
immigrant participation
Irish Catholics499–500
Jews504
Lithuanians505
impact on de-industrialization656
interwar crisis
comparative overview569–70
emergence of nationalism578–9
failure of nationalism to gather momentum579–84
impact of Great Depression575–7
intellectual reaction to economic crisis577–8
period of economic uncertainty572–3
regional disparities in Britain570–2
rise of organized labour and socialism573–4
Jacobitism
inspired blend of dynastic loyalty and proto-nationalism368–9
relationship with European great-power politics364–8
modern Scottish identity682–4
New Millennium population developments60–1
public administration in Scotland's major cities461–2
radicalism
areas for further research452–4
Church position on Africa594
consequences of industrialization408
Covenanting tradition296
events during 1802–15446–51
events of 1820s451–2
legislative provision to protect Presbyterianism345
origins441–6
overview439–41
political extremism580–1
politicization of clerics587
schemes for social and political reconstitution259
women's historians615
religious agitation for Home Rule593
religious debate over Scottish Parliament595–6
role of Scotland after Union
constitutional nationalism485–6
Home Rule Association486–8
influence of Westminster MPs488–90
local government480–2
parliamentary reform and political identity482–4
role of Scottish state since 1918
areas for further research633
close relationship between business and government630–1
failure of radical restructuring631–2
importance of state intervention621–3
perceptions of public spending624–6
sectarianism597–8
SNP (p. 702) Politics (cont.)
Beware of Emigration177
election of majority government in 2011635
election results after devolution639–42
population objectives in 200760
rise after 1960S10, 595
rise of SNP and claims for devolution639–42
role in government647
urban planning in 20th century467–73
Whigs
elaboration of post-Revolution politics261
genuine patriotism356
relationship with Jacobites358
working-class reform movement447, 449
women's history 1899–1969606–7
Populationsee Demography
Poverty and famine
cause of emigration to Ireland 1690–1715297–8
causes of emigration after 1815519
church management of poor relief87
difficulties of garnering photosynthetic energy23–4
diminishing role of church93
effects of industrialization412–13
family responses281
focus on Catholics587
growth of class conflict574–5
impact of Irish emigration after Famine 1845–5093
influence on global diaspora170–1, 175–6
‘multiple deprivation’676–7
pessimistic caricature of Scotland236–8
role of Scottish state since 1918623
welfare state as basis for Unionism 1924–6638–9
Presbyterianismsee also Reformation
contribution to identity478
conventicles for clandestine worship84
effects of Golden Act of 1592209
effects of Revolution312–13
effects of war561
establishment of Kirk216
foreign-mission movement543
golden age84–91
influence on government's policy256
interpretation of Scottish history72–7
muzzling of outspoken ministers215
myth of a democratic Whig-Liberal tradition63
new level of discipline206
nineteenth century pressures of industrialization and urbanization91–3
opposition to union344–5
‘post-Presbyterianism’598–9
reorganization of Scotland's dominant religious tradition585–92
sense of institutional independence226
Solemn League and Covenant83
stuff of popular history256–7
underlying principles82
waning influence through pluralism93–7
Press
advertisements for work abroad168, 175
conflicting views of Scottish parliamentarians483
dissemination of Empire533, 546–9
first emigration communications169
frequent comments on the state of Scotland577
Irish immigration issue591
nationalist views486
new technology of 1820s451
organization of insurrection450
sectarian debate597
vilification of violence393
Primordial unionism635–6
Property crime391–3
Protest crimes397–9
Radicalism
emergence in 1930s592
areas for further research452–4
Church position on Africa594
consequences of industrialization408
Covenanting tradition296
economic restructuring of Scottish economy632
(p. 703)
events during 1802–15446–52
events of 1820s451–2
legislative provision to protect Presbyterianism345
origins441–6
overview439–41
political extremism580–1
politicization of clerics587
schemes for social and political reconstitution259
women's historians615
Reformation
appeals of the Kirk206–11
decline and re-emergence of Covenanters217
dissension between Churches and State81–3
emergence of democracy218
general observations79–81
impact on Scottish Renaissance197–202
inconsistent views of baptism212–13
issue of the sacraments211–12
the myth of godliness213–14
persecution of the godly215–16
popular resistance to godliness206–10
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history72–7
present-day links with the past204–5
problems of Puritan-inspired and discipline-imposed godliness205–7
rise of Covenanters83
role of bishops216
role of Covenanters216–17
Westminster Confession83–4
Religion
baptism of children278
Catholicism
acceptance of devolution597
anti-immigration campaigns590
control over the education588
Counter-Reformation186
creation of a distinctive national Church193
declining numbers593–4
effect of union331
highland planters290
history of Ireland's Great Famine (1845–51)298
intellectual continuities and traditions258
Jacobite dynasty to the British thrones341–5, 356–8
loyalty to the British constitution after 1840481
Mary, Queen of Scots76
members of the Relief Church89
migrants to Scotland93–5
motives and rationale for migration323
negative attitudes towards Irish immigrants498–501
persecution81
place in ‘post-Christian’ Scotland600
political awareness442
political manifestation in tyranny and absolute monarchy74
popular cultural credentials590
primary purpose of marriage276
‘rabbling’ of the clergy259
rabid anti-Catholic polemics557, 582–3
removal of civil disabilities90
response to ecclesiastical discipline265
significant working-class membership595
social mobility680–1
veto of Catholic emancipation in 1800635
war volunteers557–63
causes of emigration pre-1750
educational migrations329–31
impact of Reformation322–3
centralization of administration226–7
challenges of 21st century599–600
Church views of marriage276–7
developments during 17th century
intolerance of Kirk311–13
power of religious ideology308–9
developments during 20th century
break with Presbyterianism596
Catholic priorities587–8
continuing sectarian hostility596–7
decline of church-going594–6
emergence of liberal and radical tendencies in 1930s592
increase in post-war membership593
public culture of early 1960s594
(p. 704) Religion (cont.)
reorganization of Presbyterianism578–87
response to Great War589
sectarian tensions during interwar period590–2
early modern myths65–6
effect of retreat on Presbyterian interpretation of history77
eighteenth century golden age84–91
emigrants after 1815527
five decades after 1660
bridging gulf between religion and high politics264–5
decisive turning point259–60
emergence of Episcopalian confessional culture257–8
overview251–2
precarious balance between radicalism and Whiggery256–7
significance of Revolution compared with Union settlement265–6
foreign-mission movement544–5
impact of Irish immigration after Famine 1845–5093
importance of William and Mary78–9
increasing complex landscape after 185094–7
influence on Scottish Renaissance
after the Reformation201–2
church architecture190–1
creation of national Church under royal authority195–6
Irish immigrants
Catholics498–500
Protestants500–2
modern Scottish identity682
new challenges from early nineteenth century91–3
origins of radicalism442
Presbyterianism
contribution to identity478
conventicles for clandestine worship84
effects of Golden Act of 1592209
effects of Revolution312–13
effects of war561
establishment of Kirk216
foreign-mission movement543
golden age84–91
influence on government's policy256
interpretation of Scottish history72–7
muzzling of outspoken ministers215
myth of a democratic Whig-Liberal tradition63
new level of discipline206
nineteenth century pressures of industrialization and urbanization91–3
opposition to union344–5
‘post-Presbyterianism’598–9
reorganization of Scotland's dominant religious tradition585–92
sense of institutional independence226
Solemn League and Covenant83
stuff of popular history256–7
underlying principles82
waning influence through pluralism93–7
Reformation
appeals of the Kirk206–11
decline and re-emergence of Covenanters217
dissension between Churches and State81–3
emergence of democracy218
general observations79–81
impact on Scottish Renaissance197–202
inconsistent views of baptism212–13
issue of the sacraments211–12
the myth of godliness213–14
persecution of the godly215–16
popular resistance to godliness206–10
present-day links with the past204–5
problems of Puritan-inspired and discipline-imposed godliness205–7
rise of Covenanters83
role of bishops216
role of Covenanters216–17
Westminster Confession83–4
role of mythology
early ecclesiastical legends65–6
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history72–7
seventeenth-century connection with Ireland
effect of Plantation of Ulster290–1
Protestant migration 1650–90294–7
(p. 705)
social mobility in modern Scotland680–1
spiritual mobilization for Great War561
Remembrance of Great War563–6
Renaissance
defined185–7
early impulses 1424–1503188–91
external influences187–8
impact of Reformation197–202
need for more nuanced understanding202
Restoration
agrarian expansion314
crucial phase in the formation of modern Scotland251
empire building332
evolution of central administration232
narrative of persecution and resistance259–60
origins of Enlightenment304–12
policy-making230
politics and religious debates252–8
Revolution 1688see also William of Orange
continuance of noble dominance308
creation of ecclesiastical pluralism341
economic impact316, 352
encouragement of moderation among leading clerics312
forcing out of the established Church88
impact on migration331
religious importance of William and Mary78–9
significance compared with Union settlement265–6
soldierly concerns over dynastic loyalty324
subsequent effect of secured liberties442
watershed for Unionism342–3, 350
‘Rich-country: poor-country debate’407–8
Robbery392–3
Scottish National Party (SNP)
Beware of Emigration177
election of majority government in 2011635
election results after devolution639–42
population objectives in 200760
rise after 1960S10, 595
rise of SNP and claims for devolution639–42
role in government647
Sovereignty
relevance to statehood223–4
role of Scottish state since 1918621
Statehoodsee also Nationhood
conflicting interpretations220–1
definitional problems221–3
levels of centralization and unification224–7
profound implications230–4
relevance of sovereignty223–4
role of Scottish state since 1918
alternative approaches620–1
areas for further research633
close relationship between business and government630–1
consequences of industrialization and urbanization626–7
failure of radical restructuring631–2
housing as a symptom of wider problem627–8
importance of state intervention621–3
influence of wars628–30
perceptions of public spending624–6
problems of sovereignty621
relevance of economic conditions623–4
Stuart, Charles Edward76
Topography
difficulties of garnering photosynthetic energy21
geographical proximity of Ireland285
significance of North Channel to Ireland289–90
underlying force for industrialization407–8
variations24
Trade and commercesee also Empire building
causes of emigration pre-1750326–9
developments during 17th century
expansion of manufacturing315
(p. 706) Trade and commerce (cont.)
exports315–16
investment in overseas trade317
marketing networks314–15
modern challenges to old interpretations318
effect of urbanization on Scotland's economy247
German immigrants502
impact of Empire on Victorian Scotland535–9
interwar uncertainty572–3
Irish Protestant immigrants501
Italian immigrants505–6
Jewish immigrants503
‘rich-country: poor-country debate’408
trade and commerce
alternative historical approaches316–18
Transnationalism522, 531
Transport
impact on major cities458–9
influence on global diaspora166–7
Union of the Crowns
confirmation of Presbyterian settlement85
consequences for empire-building424–6
English perspectives351–2
European perspectives349–51
influence on Enlightenment371–2
influences leading to Union341–5
interpretation as rational and principled decision345–9
Irish perspectives352–4
negative view of preceding century303–4
no effect on early modern myths of origin66
overview of historiographies338–40
political developments after 1880
devolution and the role of Scottish Parliament to 2010642–8
Home Rule 1885–1924635–8
rise of SNP and claims for devolution639–42
Scotland as a nation of Malagrowthers648–50
welfare state as basis for Unionism 1924–6638–9
role of Scottish state since 1918
alternative approaches620–1
areas for further research633
close relationship between business and government630–1
consequences of industrialization and urbanization626–7
failure of radical restructuring631–2
housing as a symptom of wider problem627–8
importance of state intervention621–3
influence of wars628–30
perceptions of public spending624–6
problems of sovereignty621
relevance of economic conditions623–4
significance compared with Revolution265–6
‘Unionist-nationalism’
effect of industrial dislocation and the retreat from empire77
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history72
replacement by Home Rule76
Urbanization
challenges to religion from early nineteenth century91–3
effect on Scotland's economy246–9
impact of increasing food energy after 175027–8
influence on global diaspora172
influence on Scottish state since 1918626–7
paradox of emigration after 1815513–18
Scotland's major cities
changes to housing462–4
environmental health464–5
essential instability455–7
major 20th century developments467–73
physical environment466
scale, mass, density and complexity457–62
unsettling effect on Church leaders587
(p. 707)
Violent crimes
conclusions399
harmful violence396–7
homicide393–5
robbery392–3
Wars
consequences for empire-building426–9
development of crofting152
early modern myths of origin63–4
establishment of standing regiments during 17th century307
impact of Empire on Victorian Scotland539–41
impact on government and statehood229
influence on Scottish state since 1918628–30
Presbyterian interpretation of Scottish history72–3
profound implications for statehood230–4
seventeenth-century military migrations323–6
soldier emigration from Highlands170–1
source of radicalism447
transforming impact of Great War
commemoration and remembrance563–6
dynamics of volunteering555–8
growth of class conflict574–5
industrial mobilization562–3
links between family and home life560–1
the ‘living’ regiment558–9
new popular memory567–8
overview553–5
religiosity of soldiers561
religious response589
strengths and limits of military manpower reserve566–7
survival of distinctive military identity559–60
Water pollution28
‘West Lothian Question’644–6, 650
Westminster Confession83–4, 87
Whigs
elaboration of post-Revolution politics261
genuine patriotism356
relationship with Jacobites358
working-class reform movement447, 449
William of Orangesee also Revolution 1688
alteration of Stuart multiple monarchy341
continuing noble dominance308
dependence on war and support of elites259, 307
development of politicized narratives260–1
harvest failures140
period of migration between Ireland296
political betrayal252
reputation for disaster262–3
role of Presbyterian Church312
subsequent military and political migration325
subsequent political struggles258
terminal moment in history258
watershed in focusing debate342
Women's history
dangers of gender based approach to history602–3
early crime
receiving stolen goods392
witchcraft and infanticide390
exclusion of women by industrialization413
growing interest270
literary influences 1899–1969603–17
reawakening of interest602–3
still awaiting detailed comparative study414
story past and present618
undervaluing of other historical genres603–4
working-class hierarchies413–14