- Introduction: The Study of Modern Scottish History
- Land and Sea: The Environment
- The Demographic Factor
- Mythical Scotland
- Religion and Society to c.1900
- The Literary Tradition
- The Clearances and the Transformation of the Scottish Countryside
- A Global Diaspora
- The Renaissance
- Reformed and Godly Scotland?
- The ‘Rise’ of the State?
- Reappraising the Early Modern Economy, 1500–1650
- Scotland restored and reshaped: Politics and Religion, c.1660–1712
- The Early Modern Family
- The Seventeenth-Century Irish Connection
- New Perspectives on Pre-union Scotland
- Migrant Destinations, 1500–1750
- Union Historiographies
- Scottish Jacobitism in its International Context
- The Rise (and fall?) of the Scottish Enlightenment
- The Barbarous North? Criminality in Early Modern Scotland
- Industrialization and the Scottish People
- Scotland and the Eighteenth-Century Empire
- The Challenge of Radicalism to 1832
- The Scottish Cities
- Identity within the Union State, 1800–1900
- The Scottish Diaspora since 1815
- The Impact of the Victorian Empire
- The Great War
- The Interwar Crisis: The Failure of Extremism
- The Religious Factor
- Gender and Nationhood in Modern Scottish Historiography
- The Stateless Nation and the British State since 1918
- Challenging the Union
- A New Scotland? The Economy
- A New Scotland? Society and Culture
Abstract and Keywords
The Revolution of 1688, which brought the Dutch Calvinist Stadtholder William of Orange and his consort, Mary, to the English throne, was mainly a political event, but it also had important religious dimensions, and this was especially true of Scotland. This article provides an overview of religion in modern Scotland up to 1900, with emphasis on the movement from a unitary Calvinist state, an aspiring ‘godly commonwealth’, to a multi-denominational, increasingly pluralist society. After discussing the Reformation in Scotland, it looks at the rigorous Calvinism of the Covenanting period, and especially the Westminster Confession that was adopted in the 1640s and still remains the official standard of faith in the Church of Scotland. Following the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660 under Charles II, the Crown reimposed episcopacy within the Scottish Church, proscribed the Westminster Confession, and declared royal supremacy over the Church. For many Presbyterians, the early eighteenth century was the golden age for the Scottish Church. The article also examines pluralism and mission culture in Scotland during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Stewart J. Brown is Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of Edinburgh. He has published widely on religious and social history in modern Britain and Europe. His books include: The National Churches in England, Ireland and Scotland 1801–46 (2001); Providence and Empire: Religion, Politics and Society in the United Kingdom 1815–1914 (2008); and The Oxford Movement: Europe and the Wider World 1830–1930 (co-edited with Peter B. Nockles) (2012).
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