- Introduction: The Study of Modern Scottish History
- Land and Sea: The Environment
- The Demographic Factor
- Mythical Scotland
- Religion and Society to c.1900
- The Literary Tradition
- The Clearances and the Transformation of the Scottish Countryside
- A Global Diaspora
- The Renaissance
- Reformed and Godly Scotland?
- The ‘Rise’ of the State?
- Reappraising the Early Modern Economy, 1500–1650
- Scotland restored and reshaped: Politics and Religion, c.1660–1712
- The Early Modern Family
- The Seventeenth-Century Irish Connection
- New Perspectives on Pre-union Scotland
- Migrant Destinations, 1500–1750
- Union Historiographies
- Scottish Jacobitism in its International Context
- The Rise (and fall?) of the Scottish Enlightenment
- The Barbarous North? Criminality in Early Modern Scotland
- Industrialization and the Scottish People
- Scotland and the Eighteenth-Century Empire
- The Challenge of Radicalism to 1832
- The Scottish Cities
- Identity within the Union State, 1800–1900
- The Scottish Diaspora since 1815
- The Impact of the Victorian Empire
- The Great War
- The Interwar Crisis: The Failure of Extremism
- The Religious Factor
- Gender and Nationhood in Modern Scottish Historiography
- The Stateless Nation and the British State since 1918
- Challenging the Union
- A New Scotland? The Economy
- A New Scotland? Society and Culture
Abstract and Keywords
In the late twentieth century, Scotland's economy underwent restructuring no less radical than in the Industrial Revolution. Whereas almost one in three Scots was in industrial employment in 1979, by 1986, fewer than one in four were. On the other hand, Christopher Harvie's characterization of the Scottish experience under Margaret Thatcher's government of 1979–1990 as ‘instant post-industrialization’ is open to two modifications. First, economists were discussing what they already called de-industrialization before she became prime minister, and second, the decline in industrial employment continued long after she resigned. This article examines the nature of de-industrialization and how it fits into long-term trends in Scottish history. It also considers how Scottish industries and services have fared since 1965, and how economic restructuring affected the different regions of Scotland.
G. C. Peden, FRSE, Emeritus Professor of History, University of Stirling
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