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date: 24 June 2021

Abstract and Keywords

For its size, Scotland has a very diverse natural environment. Historically, there have also been major regional differences in landholding practices, industrial development, and popular and religious culture. All these produced a highly differentiated spatial demography; and this means that we always need to go below the national level if we are to fully understand Scottish population change and its implications for the people of Scotland. Scotland's first official census, in 1801, showed a national population of somewhat over 1.6 million, with figures for every civil parish. In spite of some problems with data collection, the results for most places are probably accurate for the civilian population to within a few per cent. It seems that, as in England and many other countries, opportunities for marriage were a major control over Scottish demographic change during this period. This article, which analyses Scotland's demographic history and looks at contrasting patterns of population change between 1801 and 2001, also discusses fertility, mortality, and migration in Scotland during the same period.

Keywords: Scotland, demography, population change, population, fertility, mortality, migration

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