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date: 19 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

As the nation transformed between 1760 and 1914, large numbers of immigrants settled in Scotland. Several hundred thousand came from Ireland and England. Smaller but still significant groups arrived from India, the British colonies and dependencies, the German and Italian states, and the Russian Empire. The 1911 Census recorded the presence in Scotland of almost 400,000 persons born outside the country, accounting for about 9 per cent of the total population. No comprehensive study has been made of the history of immigrants and their descendants in Scotland. This article compares the experiences of immigrants in Scotland, focusing on four of the largest groups in the main settlement area before and during World War I: the Irish, Germans, Russians, and Italians in central Scotland. It looks at Irish Catholics and Protestants, along with Jews and Lithuanians.

Keywords: Scotland, immigrants, Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Lithuanians, Irish, Germans, Russians, Italians

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