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date: 17 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The reorientation of trade and industry in the eighteenth century towards the Atlantic and colonial trades reinvigorated the west of Scotland burghs, particularly Glasgow. The pace of economic growth, although a generation behind that of England, assumed a sufficient momentum in the early nineteenth century to attract to the Scottish cities significant numbers of migrants from highland and lowland Scotland, as well as from Ulster and the southern Irish provinces. Scale, mass, density, and complexity were key characteristics of urban change in the nineteenth-century Scottish city. Social control was never far away from the actions of authority; disorder, instability, and uncertainty increased risk and were anathema to a middle class with considerable investments in property, public positions, and political power. Under conditions of rapid urbanization, not to manage urban space was to invite social disintegration. A pleasurable aspect of the nineteenth-century Scottish city was the music and entertainment that filled the bandstands, parks, and public spaces.

Keywords: Scotland, cities, property, political power, middle class, music, entertainment, disorder, urbanization, urban space

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