- Introduction: The Study of Modern Scottish History
- Land and Sea: The Environment
- The Demographic Factor
- Mythical Scotland
- Religion and Society to <i>c</i>.1900
- The Literary Tradition
- The Clearances and the Transformation of the Scottish Countryside
- A Global Diaspora
- The Renaissance
- Reformed and Godly Scotland?
- The ‘Rise’ of the State?
- Reappraising the Early Modern Economy, 1500–1650
- Scotland restored and reshaped: Politics and Religion, <i>c</i>.1660–1712
- The Early Modern Family
- The Seventeenth-Century Irish Connection
- New Perspectives on Pre-union Scotland
- Migrant Destinations, 1500–1750
- Union Historiographies
- Scottish Jacobitism in its International Context
- The Rise (and fall?) of the Scottish Enlightenment
- The Barbarous North? Criminality in Early Modern Scotland
- Industrialization and the Scottish People
- Scotland and the Eighteenth-Century Empire
- The Challenge of Radicalism to 1832
- The Scottish Cities
- Identity within the Union State, 1800–1900
- The Scottish Diaspora since 1815
- The Impact of the Victorian Empire
- The Great War
- The Interwar Crisis: The Failure of Extremism
- The Religious Factor
- Gender and Nationhood in Modern Scottish Historiography
- The Stateless Nation and the British State since 1918
- Challenging the Union
- A New Scotland? The Economy
- A New Scotland? Society and Culture
Abstract and Keywords
The reorientation of trade and industry in the eighteenth century towards the Atlantic and colonial trades reinvigorated the west of Scotland burghs, particularly Glasgow. The pace of economic growth, although a generation behind that of England, assumed a sufficient momentum in the early nineteenth century to attract to the Scottish cities significant numbers of migrants from highland and lowland Scotland, as well as from Ulster and the southern Irish provinces. Scale, mass, density, and complexity were key characteristics of urban change in the nineteenth-century Scottish city. Social control was never far away from the actions of authority; disorder, instability, and uncertainty increased risk and were anathema to a middle class with considerable investments in property, public positions, and political power. Under conditions of rapid urbanization, not to manage urban space was to invite social disintegration. A pleasurable aspect of the nineteenth-century Scottish city was the music and entertainment that filled the bandstands, parks, and public spaces.
Richard Rodger, Professor of Economic and Social History, School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh
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