- Introduction: The Study of Modern Scottish History
- Land and Sea: The Environment
- The Demographic Factor
- Mythical Scotland
- Religion and Society to <i>c</i>.1900
- The Literary Tradition
- The Clearances and the Transformation of the Scottish Countryside
- A Global Diaspora
- The Renaissance
- Reformed and Godly Scotland?
- The ‘Rise’ of the State?
- Reappraising the Early Modern Economy, 1500–1650
- Scotland restored and reshaped: Politics and Religion, <i>c</i>.1660–1712
- The Early Modern Family
- The Seventeenth-Century Irish Connection
- New Perspectives on Pre-union Scotland
- Migrant Destinations, 1500–1750
- Union Historiographies
- Scottish Jacobitism in its International Context
- The Rise (and fall?) of the Scottish Enlightenment
- The Barbarous North? Criminality in Early Modern Scotland
- Industrialization and the Scottish People
- Scotland and the Eighteenth-Century Empire
- The Challenge of Radicalism to 1832
- The Scottish Cities
- Identity within the Union State, 1800–1900
- The Scottish Diaspora since 1815
- The Impact of the Victorian Empire
- The Great War
- The Interwar Crisis: The Failure of Extremism
- The Religious Factor
- Gender and Nationhood in Modern Scottish Historiography
- The Stateless Nation and the British State since 1918
- Challenging the Union
- A New Scotland? The Economy
- A New Scotland? Society and Culture
Abstract and Keywords
The eighteenth-century cultural movement known as the European Enlightenment contained a specifically Scottish Enlightenment that was recognized as a powerhouse of ideas in fields as diverse as philosophy, political economy, physics, chemistry, and geology. This article focuses on the Scottish Enlightenment. After identifying some of the luminaries (or ‘literati’) of the Scottish Enlightenment, it gives a brief account of what it is that makes something an ‘Enlightenment’. First, the people. They included philosophers such as Francis Hutcheson and David Hume, political economists such as Adam Smith and Sir James Steuart, mathematicians such as Colin Maclaurin and Matthew Stewart, and the geologist James Hutton. It has been held by some that the 1707 Union of Scotland and England is a major element in the explanation of how Scotland came to have an Enlightenment. The article also considers the intellectual life of pre-Enlightenment Scotland, some of the writings that emanated from the Scottish Enlightenment itself, and the question of when the Scottish Enlightenment ended.
Alexander Broadie was Professor of Logic and Rhetoric at Glasgow University and is now an honorary professorial research fellow there. He is Principal Investigator of the Leverhulme project 'Scottish philosophers in 17c Scotland and France'. Among his eighteen books are The Scottish Enlightenment: The Historical Age of the Historical Nation (rev. edn, Edinburgh, 2007), A History of Scottish Philosophy (Edinburgh, 2010), and Agreeable Connexions: Scottish Enlightenment Links with France (Edinburgh, 2012).
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