Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 20 May 2019

(p. 530) Subject Index

(p. 530) Subject Index

Notes: Page numbers in bold indicate chapter extents, and those in italics indicate illustrations and diagrams.

absorptive capability264
academia122–3, 253–4
Academy of Management Journal40
accountability
in forecasting337
formalization of347
improved strategic335–8
accounting/accountancy89, 155
accreditation in project management118–19
actant concept405
action
-based entrepreneurialism51
feedback/adjustment cycles469
orientations501–2
research350
‘actionable knowledge’466
ACTIVE162
activities
‘configuration’210
information management367–8
integration479
in process and practice502
Actor Network Theory/actors378–9, 405
adaptation213, 415
adaptability of organizations303
adaptive capability264
‘adhocracy’20, 202, 276
adjustments326
feedback/action cycles469
mutual48, 380
adversarialism157
adverse selection problem300
aerospace industry/defense113, 253, 255, 276, 379
agency theory47, 328
corporate governance299, 303
project governance299–301, 312–13, 314–15
‘aggregate project plan’256
‘Agile’ approach/techniques28, 366, 374
agile pragmatist/governance paradigm310
agreementssee contracts
Air Force, US224–5
air transport283
air traffic control (ATC)245–7
airfield163
design373
European (SESAR)246–7
Joint Undertaking247
alliances47, 445
Alliance Leadership Team/Program (ALT, Australia)410, 411, 419–33 passim
as approach to contract418–19, 422 see also mega-projects; partnerships
‘alliancing’445
ALTsee Alliance Leadership under alliances
ambidexterity, need for261, 276
ambiguity214, 449
AN/FSQ-7 computer370
analytical frameworksee project business
analyzability207, 467
complexity468
anchoring325–6, 353
Andrew facilities alliance project441
ANOVA97–8, 102
APM (Association for Project Management)29, 31, 118, 135, 266, 312
and academia122
APM BOK120
membership (1972–2009)114, 117
PRAM Guide26
and program management255
qualifications framework119
Apollo space mission18, 113
Aristotle33
arm's-length control165
Asea Brown Boveri (ABB)20, 218
asset
life cycle of374
specificity and TCE311
(p. 531) Association for Project Managementsee APM
asymmetry144
ATC (air traffic control)245–7
Atlas weapons system281
auctions, reverse381
auditing166
Australia31
Alliance Leadership Team (ALT) and Program410–11, 419–33 passim
Sydney Olympics311, 335
water contamination426–8
Austria331
authority47
automation367, 370–1
automotive industry277, 280, 370
autonomy166
‘autonomous team’216
individual415
autopoietic ‘ideal we’422–6
availability bias in heuristics353
avionics systems283
BAA (British Airport Authority)see trust in relational contracting
balanced scorecard strategy-cascading tools232–3
banks339
baseline planning371–3
base-moving projects274, 287–8
batch production205
behavior
Behavioral Decision Theory354
change164
complexity493–4
control303–4
opportunistic47, 139
-oriented organizations310 see also under organizations
benchmarking337
benefits
-cost ratio337
overestimated328
shortfalls338
underestimated329
benevolence422, 426–30
bias
in decision-making331
in heuristics353
reduction353 see also optimism bias
Bilbao Guggenheim Museum322
biomedical projects155
biosciences159
biotechnology156, 366
‘black swans’ (extreme events)324, 357
blame game422
‘block grants’337
blogs369
Board of Directors306–7
Bodies of Knowledge22
B2 ‘Stealth, bomber’381
Boston Consulting Group (BCG)237
Boston (USA)340
BOT26, 83
bottom-up approaches226–30, 287, 312
bounded rationality346, 413
BP (British Petroleum)443
Risk Management Guidelines348–9
breakthrough projects45
British American School351
broad-scale integration212
Broker and Steward model309
Bruntland Commission25
budget, inadequate322
building industrysee construction industry
bureaucracy379, 511
Burke, Admiral Arleigh A.224
business
-centric view145
Change Managers (BCM)266–7
logic in project-based organizations146–7
network, management of134–5, 140–2, 148
projects44
strategysee business strategy
studies89, 100
-to-business marketing393–4
business strategy and project execution (top-down cascading tools)230–40
negotiation and stakeholders238–40
portfolio diagrams/views230, 234–7
strategy-cascading230–4
CAD (Computer Aided Design)28, 367, 372
‘calculative trust’450, 452
‘calibration’353–4
Canada118
Candidate Drug (CD)472
capability
-building52, 146, 287
absorptive, adaptive and innovative264
‘combinative’209–10
and complex product systems285–7
dynamic263–4
key role in complex product systems285–7
maturity modelsee CMM
in project-based organizations145–6
capital goods systems282
capital risk338
career development31
(p. 532) Carnegie School349, 354, 358
case studies97
CATC (Collaborative air traffic control)246–7
categorical grants337
causal ambiguity214
CCF (Construction Clients' Forum)163
Center for Integrated Facility Engineering371
centralization210–11
CERN373
Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)119
Certified Project Manager118–19, 135, 373
Certified Projects Director119
Certified Senior Project Manager119
chain
critical28
supply23, 89, 99, 264
challenges for P-form corporation214–18
decomposition into projects214–15
reintegration216–18
temporary decentralization of decision rights203, 210, 214–6
time orientation206–7, 216
challenges of projects-as-practice approach510–14
pattern challenge510–11
change
Change Managers, Business (BCM)266–7
compensation for444–5
deliberate262
as developing process159–60
emergent262
management teams485
projects44–5
resistance to440
Channel Tunnel27
benefits overestimated325
faulty estimates for330
lasting cost of321
CHAOS reports21
Chartered Insitute of Building162
chemical industry326, 365–6, 379
China118
Chrysler442
CIB (Construction Industry Board)161
civil engineering162–3
clan concept304
clients
-centred affiliation, product versus185–6
technical vs. personal lock-in183–4
value and corporate membership121–2
closure, occupational109
CMM (capability maturity model)30, 372–3
coalition-building311–12
cognition/cognitive
approach346–7
to risk and uncertainty354–9
knowledge377
managerial and organizationalsee MOC
‘problem’42
cohesion in teams491
cold war275
collaboration/collaborative
air traffic control246–7
and competitive relationships, dynamic142, 144
importance of163
inter-organizational419
interaction and strategies156, 164–5
and knowledge464
long-term141
projects and partnerships157, 164–6
structures301
teams489
trust in relational contracting441 see also cooperation; partnerships
collective competence146
collective knowledge464
collective performance146
collective relief and enacting benevolence422, 426–30
collegiate professions110–11, 116
co-located projects and teams44, 256, 486
‘combinative capabilities’209–10
commitment51, 323
communality187, 465
communication
in dispersed projects489–90
effective495
-intensive mechanisms466
lack of146
technologies368
communities-of-practice465
compensation for change444–5
competence/competencies
collective146
‘entrepreneurial’52
and professionalism109
program management266–7
research agenda266–7
competition/competitive
and accountability337
advantage52, 263
(p. 533) bidding, beyond393–5
and collaborative relationships142, 144
and projects and partnerships158
sustainable141–2
competitive, advantage52, 263
complementarities44–9, 53 see also cooperation; coordination
complex product systems(CoPS)44–5, 274
capability, key role of285–7
and high-technology287, 289–90
and innovation278–85
life cycle284
complexity44, 214, 276
behaviour493–4
as ‘contingency factor’48, 479
high project323–4
knowledge212
of networks144
project47, 51, 483
systemic468, 473, 476
task45
compliance309
computers277, 370, 378
Computer Aided Design367, 372
and information management371–3
-mediated communication484
simulations97
software development366
‘conceptual toolbox’42
concurrent engineering23–4
concurrent knowledge261
concurrent (portfolio) programs256
conference papers90, 101
confidence358, 452
Configuration Management18
conflict
harnessed creatively167
relational492
task492
conformist/governance paradigm310
connectivity (upgrading know-how)187–9
consensus, high level of167
‘consequentiality, logic of’216
constrained resources39
Construction Clients'Forum163
construction industry141, 380
Board (CIB)161
Building Research Establishment and Chartered Institute of162
costs underestimated332
indexical417–18
management89–90, 99
projects and partnerships155–8, 160–2, 164, 417
and coalition-building311–12
sites as organizations416
Construction Productivity Network162
constructivism359
consumer product379
content
hypothesis259
problem-solving229
context
and process51
-specific team leadership495
contingency
‘factors’ (complexity, pace and uncertainty)48, 479
framework and knowledge integration467–9, 473, 479
of P-form and M-form corporations205–8
School of Project Management research40–43, 52
theory136, 147
continuous developments301
continuous relationships141
contracts/agreements30, 297–8, 300, 303
alliancing as approach to418–19, 422
analysis of417
as artifacts416–7
between free agents413
definition of415–16
as doctrine417
hard money417
incomplete300
information management381–2
institution of411
interaction156
law of414
management83
meaning and institution of411–18
and relationships389–460
sociology of415
contrasting project ecologies178–9, 191
control380
arm's-length165
behaviour303–4
and corporate governance303–5
illusion of354
mechanism299, 301
modes renegotiated379
and trust313 see also normative control; surveillance
(p. 534) cooperation/cooperative
lack of164
problems and theoretical foundations of Project Management46–9, 53, 58
projects as50
relationships441
temporary47
within organizations381 see also collaboration; partnerships
coordination
dispersed projects490
effective, design parameters for52
information management380
modes renegotiated379
problems46, 48–9, 58
projects as50
task490
team48
core concepts for understanding projects-as-practice505–7
practices506–7
practitioners507
praxis505–6
core team (reducing v. preserving cognitive distance)179–80, 191
corporate governance298–305
agency theory299, 303
trust and control, organizational303–5
corporate groups and product versus client-centred affiliation185–6
corporate membership and client value121–2
corporate venturing, internal287
costs
-benefit ratio337
of Channel Tunnel321
engineering89, 99
incentive, target167
partnering169
target167, 445
tracking253
underestimated/overruns325–6, 328–9 see also under transaction
coupling
innovation models280–1
project logics468–9
‘creative’ ideas229
crime337
CRINE162
critical chain28
Critical Path Method18–9, 253, 373, 511
critical perspectives59
critical planning/success39–40, 44, 52
cross-functional projects45, 211, 212
cross-national projects156
(Centre for Strategic Studies in Construction) (CSSC)161
culture239–40
occupational463
organizational495
cumulative learning178–9, 191
‘customer entry’ impact141
customization205
deadline216, 219
death and afterlife of projects52
decentralization
of decisions203, 210, 214–6
and P-form corporation210–12, 216 see also temporary decentralization
deception337
decision-making/decision381
bottom-up325
fast378
gains and losses315
group466
problems212
rights, decentralization of203, 210, 214–6
risk and uncertainty management346–7, 350
strategic see under strategy
subjective probabilities351–2
decomposition
decomposable/non-decomposable dichotomy467
heuristic39
of problems208, 210–11
defense
aerospace industry113, 253, 255, 276, 379
Department of (USA)265
deliberate change262
demand uncertainty323
democratic governance, spread of339–40
Denmark331, 340
dependence and interdependence47, 490
mutual441
network programs256
‘pooled’207
resource415
-solving212
task304
team466
deregulation112, 115
derivative projects45
‘deterrence-based trust’451
(p. 535) development
mind217
process, change as159–60
projects44–5
deviations and management of474–5, 477, 502, 506, 509, 515
diesel power plants study506
differentiated knowledge212
differentiated work379
digital technologies281, 286–7
and information management368–370, 375–8
and knowledge integration in product development469–71
disciplinary practices416
discovery-driven planning243
discovery-oriented programme management146
dispersed projects, leadership and teamwork in7, 483–99
flexible vertical leadership491–2
leadership challenges486–8
team-shared leadership and teamwork quality483, 486, 488–91
theoretical implications493–4
further research494–6
dispersion/dispersal43
geographical484, 486
physical486
disruptive learning178–9, 191
distance, cognitive178–9, 191
distinctiveness logic469
distributed projects256
distrust439
‘double closure’110
dynamic capabilities263–4
dynamic environments380
dynamic networks and relationships139, 142, 144
dynamic projects483
dynamic systems348
ecologies175–6, 189
projectsee project ecologies
economics89, 412
economist/governance paradigm310
economies
‘of throughput’204
of recombination (modules and products)181–2
of repetition180–1
Eden Project360
Egan, Sir John: Report (1998)161, 442
Edinburgh Tram Line332–4
email369, 484, 489
‘embedded’ projects44–5, 155, 510–11
emergent change262
emergent practicessee project and partnership
emergent strategy230, 245
emotions239–40
empowerment of teams492
enacting benevolence and collective relief422, 426–30
end dates486
engineering and industry202, 275
civil163
cost89, 99
management90, 99, 368
Procurement and Constructionsee EPC
and project management368
projects and partnerships45, 155, 156, 442
Enron and scandal30, 337, 339
Enterprise Resource Planning28
Enterprise-Wide Project Management28–9
entrepreneurialism/entrepreneurship115
action-based51
‘competencies’52
professional109–11
environment25
articles on89, 100
change213
and ontological divergence25
EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) industries202
epistemic community and project ecologies182–6
clients (technical vs. personal lock-in)183–4
corporate groups (product versus client-centred affiliation)185–6
suppliers (orchestration versus improvisation)184–5
epistemic risk352
epistemology253–4
e-procurement376–7, 381–2
equilibrium, punctuated51, 262
ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)28
errors323–4
detection467, 474–5
estimation of324, 328
‘escalation of commitment’51
‘espoused theories’512
estimation324, 328, 356
ethics, articles on100
EURAM32
conference papers90
Eurocontrol (air traffic)245–6
European Union (EU) and Europe113, 246
European Commission245–6
Project Management in117
(p. 536) evolutionary cycles, hierarchically nested228
evolutionary model of problem-solving51
evolutionary view of projects229
exception-handling378
exchange relationships41
exchange theory, social494
exogenous factors and variables136
expected utility (EU) paradigm346, 349–51, 360
expert groups, power strategies of111
expert occupations115–16
exploitation288, 467
dilemma217
logic468
projects44–5, 478
exploration473
extreme events324, 357
face-to-face communication484, 489
facility managers368
feedback/action/adjustment cycles469
field studies97, 98
fifth-generation systems integration280, 281
film industry380
finance
articles on89
ratio tree, generic231
Finniston, Sir Montyxvii
firm and project ecologies180–2
economies of recombination181–2
economies of repetition180–1
first mover advantage315
Fiscal Responsibility Summit (US,2009)338–9
Fleet Ballistic Missile (USA)224
flexibility/flexible
economist/governance paradigm310
governability145
increasing419
team membership495
vertical leadership491–2
fluid phase in product innovation283–4
fluidity of team membership495
‘forebearance contract law’414
forecasting
accountability in337
need for better330
reference class330–2, 334–5
as rent-seeking behaviour336
formal tools230
formalization of lateral relationships379
four-dimensional grid312
fourth-generation systems integration281
fragmentation37–9
for commitment-building51
with progress57
framing bias in heuristics353
France117
Free Libre Open Source Software315
freeze/re-balance/un-freeze262
frequency
concept of137
and TCE311
front-end loading347
functional project structures282
functionality and time trade-off470
funding, targeted113
‘future perfect thinking’335
future projects and research141, 193–4
P-form corporation203, 219–20
project governance315–16
shaping projects and building networks404–5
future, unknowable360
Gantt, Henry16
charts39, 373, 511
gender59
General Accounting Office (US)21
General Electric287
general management77, 87,89, 100, 102
General Motors373
Geographic Information Systems367
geographical dispersion484, 486
Germany117
Global Accreditation Center122
global projects and managers43, 44, 204
goal148
-oriented projects and progress256, 259
shared, team commitment to495
sub-goal473
good practice515
Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich456
governance144
and control295–388
and flexibility145
four different types308–11
governability defined145
organizational performance and309–10
paradigms310
price445
steering297, 307
(p. 537)
theory309
idiosyncrasies listed305–6
in project networks139
three forms of (market, hierarchy and hybrid)414
and trust303 see also corporate governance; institutions for project governance; project governance
government140
and mega-projects312
Office of Government Computing, UK277
and professionalism in Project Management122–3
grand-scale projects45
Greece117, 339
‘groupthink’469
guarantee, sovereign338
Guaranteed Maximum Price312
guiding principles of project management4–5
Harvard23
health100, 102
and safety25
heartbeat256
Heathrow Airport440, 443
heavyweight project structures282
heterogeneity214
heuristics39, 350, 353–5
hierarchically nested evolutionary cycles228
hierarchy governance414
high value goodssee complex product systems
high-technology283, 287, 289–90
historical linkages and project management research274–8
history of project management, brief15–35
holistic view of projects51
HRM (human resource management)89–90, 100, 102–3
hybrids309, 414
IBM287, 370, 373
ICB (IPMA Competence Baseline)120
ICE (Integrated Concurrent Engineering)26, 371
ICES (Integrated Civil Engineering System) 372–3
evolution of project management research83, 89, 99
projects and innovation281, 289
ICV (internal corporate venturing)287
idea generation229
‘ideal we’, autopoietic422–6
identity/identification170, 424–5, 452
ideology norms380
IEEE-TEM (Transactions on Engineering Management)89, 91–102
citations98–103
methodologies used97–8
topics covered91–6
IJPM (International Journal of Project Management)80–1, 83, 91, 98, 102
citations by other papers82–3
methodologies used88
number and sources of papers cited83, 88–90, 99
research methods79–82
illusion of control354
implementing strategy through projects224–51
search theory, top-down and bottom-up contribution of226–30 see also business strategy; search theory; strategy creation tools
improvement
major project management228–40, 338–40
strategic incentives335–8
improvisation versus orchestration184–5
incentives
and BAA444
improved strategic335–8
need for better330
systems47, 139
incomplete contracts300
incremental innovation278, 286
independent professions110–11, 116
‘indexicality’ of contracts416–7
India118
indifference principle356
individual practice approach503
induced strategy230
informal leaders485
informal processes275–6
information
and communications technologysee ICT
defined377
imbalance300
management7, 30, 365–87
changing practices369–70
definitions and approaches367–70
issues and research directions382–3
project stakeholders368–9 see also practices of information management
(p. 538)
non-existent144
perspective of governance299–301, 303
processing371, 378
systems, organizations as346–7
search484
space358–9
technologies281, 380, 382
processing381
rise of27–8
weight358 see also knowledge; learning
infrastructure366
large-scale326
networking ‘memory’466
transport329
infrequency214
innovation, open source422, 430–2
innovation and projects273–94
capability, innovative264
in complex product systems282–5
complex product systems278–85
defined278–9
historical linkages and project management research274–8
incremental278, 286
links with project management274, 281–2
market pull280
models
coupling280
evolving279
integrated280
market pull280
phases of283–4
user involvement in205 see also base-moving projects; complex product systems
inside and outside views, contrast between333–5
inside-project learning145–6
institutions/institutional159–61
agencies140
analysis59
challenging142–4
constraints lacking156
environments155
logic, emergence of new161–2
and management challenges142–4
practices380–1
pressures261
processes381
and emergent practicessee projects and partnerships
for project governance306–8
Board of Directors306–7
program and portfolio management308
steering groups and sponsors307
risk144
termination, institutionalized51
theory and projects and partnerships156, 158–60, 170
insurance89, 100
Integrated Concurrent Engineering371
Integrated Logistics Support18
integration
activity479
broad-scale212
high level of167
innovation models280
networking model280–1
systems139–40, 212
vertical379
work379
integrity and professionalism109
intellectual property, managing374
intelligent buildings283
interactions, social379
interactive ‘games’47
interactive learning141
interconnectedness of praxis, practices and practitioners511
interdependencesee dependence and interdependence
interest
asymmetry144
matrices238–9
inter-firm relationships439
internal corporate venturing287
International Journal of Project Managementsee IJPM
International Management Systems Association, (IMSA)20
International Motor Vehicle Program23
International Project Management Associationsee IPMA
International Research Network on Organizing by Projects (IRNOP)32, 90, 277
International Standardization Organization135, 150
internet369, 373–5, 381
inter-organizational projects43, 45
intuition472
investments, future returns on359–60
invisible hand concept303
IPMA (International Project Management Association)20, 31, 117–8, 135
Competence Baseline (ICB)120
(p. 539)
expert seminars101
practitioner conferences90, 101–2
protected IP422
qualifications framework119
Iraq337
isolation, planned51
isomorphic pressures261
iteration and parallel trials in emerging uncertain projects242–4
Jaguar442
Japan243, 255
automobile companies280
mobile phones469
professionalism113, 118
joint-shaping of projects399–401, 406
Kariba dam357
Key Performance Indicators309, 420–1, 423
Key Responsibility Areas (KRAs)420
key success factor484
know-how, upgrading (connectivity)187–9
knowledge266, 380
‘actionable’466
based
diversity463
expert groups111
occupationssee professions
‘similarity’464–5
trust452
‘well-connectedness’464, 466–7
cognitive377
-collectivities464
communal465
complexity212
concurrent261
defined377
differentiated212
homogeneity, tacit465
integratedsee knowledge integration
known-unknowns357
perceptual377
practices literature376
-sharing145, 464
tacit261, 465
transfer218, 464
knowledge integration in product development projects7, 210, 463–82, 489
comparisons474–9
contingency framework467–9, 473, 479
‘well-connectedness of knowledge bases’464, 466–7
future478–9
know-whom, acquiring187–8
KRAs (Key Responsibility Areas)420
labor, division of463
language, forms of416
large corporationssee P-form
large projects/programs43, 144, 412
grand-scale45
and information management373–6, 380
infrastructure326
mega-projects45, 312, 374
risks and rewards47 see also major projects; programs and program management
‘last-planner’ techniques375
lateral links209
lateral relationships, formalization of379
Latham, Sir Michael: Report (1994)161–2
law
articles on89
legal contracts412
Legal Services Act (UK)112
profession110, 112, 116
leadership264–6
challenges and dispersed projects486–8
leader-centred485
projects and innovation282
research agenda264–6
sharedsee shared leadership
substitution493
team-shared, quality and483, 486, 488–92
and teamworksee dispersed projects
lean production374
learning31, 89, 275
and capabilities in project-based organizations145–6
contrasting178–9
higher110, 122–3
inside-project145–6
interactive141
phases of502
punishment restricting412–13
strategic147
trial-and-error243–4
universities and higher education110, 122–3 see also knowledge
liberal professions110–1, 116
(p. 540) life cycle
of asset374
complex product systems284
Life-Cycle Costing18
lightweight project structures282
local business environments142
Lockheed Georgia373
‘lock-in’,/‘capture’183–4, 322–3
logics
institutional, emergence of new161–2
project468–9
long-term relationships141, 439
loosely coupled organizations304
luck472
bad323–4
‘ludic’ fallacy350 see also probability
lying328
McNamara, Robert18, 26
macro and micro inseparable505
macro-level practices506–7
macro-shaping of projects399–400, 406
major projects, management of7, 321–44
characteristics321–3
improvement, signs of338–40
incentives and accountability, improved335–8
optimism bias325–7
outside view330–5
research implications340–1
strategic misrepresentation328–9
versus optimism bias329–30
underperformance, root causes of323–5 see also large projects
major systems programs, development of17–19
Malaysia118
management
challenges and research themes142–7
cost93
managerial and organizational cognition346, 354–5
managerialism109, 115
manufacturing, advanced36
marginal shaping of projects399, 401, 406
market
base of firm285–6
control and accountability337
dynamics and differentiation206
governance414
-led innovation279
as network393, 395–6
pull and innovation models280
marketing 89
mass production207, 283–5
matrix379
management282
organizations276
structure379
studies379
maturity phase in product innovation284
means-end analysis216
measurable uncertainty356
‘mechanistic’ systems or contexts261
medicine110, 116, 155, 366
meetings424–5, 508
mega-projects47, 418–19, 422 see also alliancing; large projects/programs
mental models, shared495
meso-level practices506–7
M-form (multi-divisional) corporations202–11, 218
micro and macro inseparable505
micro-level practices506–7
micro-shaping of projects399, 401, 406
Microsoft27, 243, 373
‘middle range theories’43
misinformation322
misrepresentationsee strategic misrepresentation
missiles224–5
MIT23
‘Project Whirlwind’370
Mitre Corporation371
modeling97, 98
modular structure140
modules and products181–2
monitoring technologies368
moral hazard problem300
Motorola366
multi-divisional corporationssee M-form
multi-firm network143
multinationals122
multi-organization enterprise139, 155
multiple firms and projects134
multiple perspectives57
multi-project structures308–9
multi-tasking300 see also project
multi-team projects484
‘mutant organization’213
mutual adjustments48, 380
mutual dependence441
mutual support and effort490–1
NASA18–19, 113, 312, 371
National Audit Office (UK)23, 277
(p. 541) national diversity484, 486–7
NATO18
Navy, US225
need pull innovation279
negative plurality323
negative relationship313
negotiation and stakeholders238–40
neoclassical contract law414
neo-liberalism305
Netherlands331, 340
networks/networking253
building401–4
complex144
design51
firms140–1
forms of organization156, 159, 170, 415
interdependent programs256
market393, 395–6
‘memory’ infrastructure466
model and integration280–1
project management47, 103, 134–5, 138–43, 146, 148
social144
stakeholder144
new developmentssee innovation
New Engineering and Construction contract443
new market base286
New Media113
new product development22–3, 277
New public management112–3
new technology286
new-to-the-world product495
NGOs and professionalism in Project Management122–3
Nokia Siemens Networking134
non-decomposable problems208
non-existent asymmetry144
non-government organizationssee NGOs
normative control in contractual relations in Australia7, 410–37, 439
Australian Alliance Program411, 419–32 passim
autopoietic ‘ideal we’422–6
close-out432–3
collective relief and enacting benevolence422, 426–30
contract, alliancing as approach to418–19, 422
contract, meaning and institution of411–18
open source innovation422, 430–2
norms164, 379, 506 see also practices
North Sea oil277
Norway: public projects312
‘not-so-temporary’ organizations261
novelty
as ‘contingency factor’479
high degree of473
logic468 see also innovation 169
O Theory262
OBsee behaviour under organizations
Obama, President Barack338–9
objective probability and decision-making352–3
objectives313
objectivism351
observation, participatory419
occupational closure109
‘occupational cultures’463
‘occupational project’, professionalism as108–12
occupational types of expert groups111
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)298
Office of Government Computing277
OGC (Office of Government Commerce)26, 29–31, 258, 266
oil and gas industry277, 283, 347, 370, 380
Olympics, financial effect of hosting339
ontology253
divergencesee late twentieth century
open source innovation422, 430–2
open systems view136
‘open-book’ relationships166
‘operating adhocracy’202
opportunism47, 139, 166
individual300
minimizing possibility of413
opportunities and ontological divergence25–6
optimism bias51, 276
HM Treasury's use of354
and major projects323, 325–7, 330, 337, 340
strategic misrepresentation versus329–30
orchestration versus improvisation184–5
‘organic’ contexts261
organizational, architecture135
organizational, design139
organizations/organizational
architecture135
behavior102–3
change261–3
‘condition’43
culture495
design139
and information376–81
of expert groups111
(p. 542)
factors261
as information processing systems246–7
organic forms207
performance and governance309–10
practices377–82
projects as2–3
theory and research260–1, 309
transformation255
outcome-oriented organizations310
outputs380
control303–4
outside view of major projects330–5
outsourcing, limits to381
overestimated benefits328 see also optimism
pace44, 48
pain/gain-share contracts312
Pakistan, Project Management in118
panoptical control421–22
parallel strategies39
parallel trials in uncertain projects242–4
participatory observation419
partnerships/partnering44, 140–1
costs of169
public-private47, 113, 419–20
tensions in logic of163–5
and trust439, 442, 452
pattern challenge of projects-as-practice approach510–11
peer reviews337
people management and organization19, 76–7, 86
perceptual knowledge377
performance
collective146
expectations lowered327–8
key indicatorssee KPIs
organizational, governance and309–10
and trust303 see also underperformance
permanent (long-term) business network141
personal attributes266
personal computers, first372
personal networks and project ecologies186–9
communality (exchanging experience)187
connectivity (upgrading know-how)187–9
sociality (acquiring know-whom)187–8
personal probability and decision-making351–2
perspectives and theoretical foundations of project management38, 53–5, 57, 59
pluralism39–43
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)18–19, 27–8, 39, 135, 225, 372–3
Peru, project management in118
petrochemicals industry365–6, 379
P-form corporation7, 201–23
characteristics of203, 208–14
contingencies of203, 205–8
future research203, 219–20
and M-form corporation203–5, 207, 209, 210 see also challenges for P-form corporation
PgMP (Program Management Professional)119
pharmaceuticals366, 380
Pharma case471–8, 480
phenomenography261–2
physical dispersion486
physical product138
pilot studies97
planning/planned48
critical39–40, 44, 52
deviations502
disasters321, 328
fallacy325–6, 337
isolation51 see also major projects
platform projects45
pluralism/plurality39–43, 57, 323
PMA (Project Management Architect)119–20
‘PMBoK’ (Project Management Body of Knowledge)25–6, 114, 120, 225, 512
PMJ (Project Management Journal)91, 98–9, 103
citations in, number and sources of89–90
research methodologies79–88
topics covered and range of84–7
PMN (Project Management Network)103
PMOs (Project Management Offices)30, 307–8
PMP (Project Management Professional)31
PMR (Project Management Registered)119
PMS (Project Management Specialist)119
Polaris weapons system18, 224–5, 282
policiessee practices
politics89, 100, 111–12, 328
‘pooled interdependence’207
portfolio
-driven organization309
diagrams/views29, 256
business strategy and230, 234–7
project230, 235–7
management and project governance308
programs (concurrent)256
positioning projects-as-practice501–5
power
diesel, study of506
(p. 543)
and interest matrix238–9
plantsee under project-as-practice
‘Power-to-the-Edge’380
relations and contracts416
strategies of expert groups111
teams empowered492
PPBS (Program Planning and Budgeting System)18
PQ (Practitioner Qualification)119
practices/practice approach/policies503–7, 504, 511, 513–15
changing370–6
of information management369–70
‘turn’501
understanding376–82 see also praxis; projects-as-practice
practitioners505, 507, 511
Practitioner Qualification (PQ)119
pragmatist/governance paradigm310
praxis505–6, 508, 511, 513
‘predictable surprises’357
presentiation, meaning of414
price governance445
PRINCE2 project management methodology312
principal and agent relationship299, 301, 322
Private Finance Initiative/Public-Private Partnerships27, 83, 405
private sector
accountability336
finance339
private-public partnerships47, 113
probability
analysis356
and decision-making350–2, 355–6
objective352–3
personal351–2
statistical356
wheels353 see also subjective probabilities
problems
decomposable208, 210–1
resolution378
-solving466, 484, 489, 495
complex212
content229
evolutionary model of51
firmssee P-form
group466
practical164
procedures374
process
approach501–5
devlopment483
dynamics and phases38–9, 49–54, 56–7
innovation as278
work379
procurement30, 83, 253
and supply chain89, 99
product
development255–6, 501
and modules181–2
structure138
versus client-centred affiliation185–6 see also complex product systems
production function302
professionalism in Project Management, prospects for7, 19–20, 107–30, 119
accreditation, diversified and stratified118–19
analysis of115–17
centrality of bodies of knowledge119–21
corporate membership and client value121–2
international scope117–18
‘occupational project’108–12
professionalization ‘from within’/‘from above’122
professions and professionalism31
associations109
definitions of109, 110, 112
identity170
norms379
organizational110–11, 116
project defined109 see also professionalism
programs and program management7, 29, 252–72
competence266–7
conceptualizations of254–6
definition259
governance308
leadership264–6
Offices267
program-driven organization309
public sector258
rationale256
scholarship253–4
synthesis of256–60 see also research agenda
project business (analytical framework and research opportunities)7, 133–53, 277–8, 289
learning and capabilities in project-based organizations52, 145–6
logic in project-based organizations146–7
networks47, 103, 134–5, 138–42, 143, 146, 148
project-based firm134–5, 137–9, 143–7
trust formation chart453 see also business network; management challenges; Project Management
(p. 544) project ecologies180–2, 193–4
project governance7, 297–320
defined298
frameworks308–13
general project308–11
-specific governance311–13
limitations of305–6
research on313–4
future315–16 see also corporate governance; institutions for project governance; TCE
project governance frameworks308–11
Project Management102, 212, 267, 494
Architect (PMA)119–20
Body of Knowledgesee ‘PMBoK’
challenges and research themes142–7
enterprise-wide28–9
implementing strategy through projects225, 229
innovation and projects, links with274, 281–2
networks47, 103, 134, 135, 138–40, 143, 148
Offices30, 307–8
program management253, 267
project business135–7
research92 see also research, evolution of
schools of39–43, 51–2, 54
Project Management Institute (PMI)20, 22, 29–30, 32, 113–115, 117–19, 123, 135, 225, 266
and academia122
Body of Knowledge255
Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct335–6
Practitioner Conferences90, 101–2
and professionalism in project management, prospects for107–29
and program management255
qualifications framework119
RMP (Risk Management Professional)119
Scheduling Professional (PMI-SP)118–9 see also ‘PMBoK’
Project Management Journalsee PMJ
project networksee shaping projects
project and partnership154–74, 256–7, 259
contrasting178–9, 191
core teams: reducing versus preserving cognitive distance179–80, 191
ecologies140, 155–6, 175–98
firm see under firm
as foremost process58
future directions193–4
growth254
leadership253
-led organizations202
memory377
office92
fragmented fields and divergent interests162–3
institutional logics
co-existing and co-mingling165–6
emergence of new161–2
institutional theory perspective158–60
institutionalization in UK160–1
internal tensions in logic of partnering163–5
taken-for-grantedness166–7
‘plan, aggregate’256
portfolio diagrams230, 235, 236–7
-as-practice59, 500–18
program management256–7, 259
public43, 45
project and partnership
simplicity211
-specific governance frameworks311–13
stakeholders368–9, 439
strategy92, 136, 234
structures282
success92, 313
summary and discussion189–90
project shapingsee shaping projects
‘Project Whirlwind’ (MIT)370
project-as-practice
-based organizations and management of2–3, 134–5, 137–8, 146–7, 148, 170, 276, 282
characteristics397–9
co-creation393, 396–7
competitive bidding, beyond393–5
-in-context308
and innovation7
logics468–9
-marketing, business-to-business393–4
markets as networks393, 395–6
organization7
and partnerships7
power plant example7, 500–18
challenges and contributions of approach510–14
contributions of approach513–14
positioning501–5
relevance challenge511–13
concluding remarks514–16
risk management144–5, 345, 347–9
teams486
(p. 545)
project-formsee P-form
projectification253
prospect theory315
protected international practitioner422
protectionism and contracts430
protocols374
prototyping474
pseudo-objectivism358
P2M (Japanese) body of knowledge255
public/public sector
accountability336
funding337
interest and professionalism109
programs258
projects245, 312
public-private partnerships47, 113, 419
Public Private Partnership/Private Finance Initiative27, 83, 405
pull-down scheduling375
punctuated equilibrium51, 262
punishment restricting learning412–3
Quality Function Deployment (QFM)25
quality and quality management30
and ontological divergence25
and professionalism109
and program management259
Quality Assurance18
and research, evolution of89, 99, 104
teamwork and team-shared leadership483, 486, 488–92
quasi-relational contract and T5 agreement442–3, 456
quasifirms141
Raborn, Admiral18–20
radical innovation278
railways283
construction332–4
RAND Corporation39, 275, 326
rationalism/rationality40, 164, 275–6
bounded346, 413
RBV (resource-base view)263
RDC (research and development and system simulation) in air traffic control245–7
Reagan, Ronald456
re-balancing262
reciprocity414
recombination economies (modules and products)181–2
reference class forecasting330–2, 334–5
regulators368
reintegration challenges for P-form corporation216–18
relational conflicts492
relational and structural dimensions, interaction between303
relationships139
continuity/discontinuity of projects44, 141
long-term141, 439
relevance challenge of projects-as-practice approach511–13
renewal of projects44, 45
rent-seeking behavior, forecasting as336
repetition44–45, 180–1
representation technologies378
representativeness bias in heuristics353
research89, 102
academic32 see also project management research
and development (R&D)245–6, 275, 277, 286, 466
management90
methodologies and Project Management Journal79–88
opportunitiessee project business
research agenda260–7
competence266–7
leadership264–6
organization theory and260–1
organizational change261–3
strategic management263–4
resource
-base view263
dependency415
pooling419 see also human resources
responsibility266, 419
fiscal338–9
responsiveness logic469
(p. 546) retention in evolutionary cycles229
reverse auctions381
rights, decentralization of203, 210, 214–6
ring-fenced profit444
risk47, 52, 322
articles on89
capital338
defined357
institutional144
and insurance100
management93, 119, 144–5, 354
guidelines, BP348–9
and ontological divergence25–6
register347–8
/reward formula166
social144
spreading419
risk and uncertainty management7, 345–64
cognitive approach354, 356–9
concepts revisited (1920s)355–6
expected utility (EU) paradigm346,349–51, 360
heuristics and biases tradition, research in353–5
project risk management, state of art in347–9
subjective probabilities and their elicitation351–3, 356, 358
robustness145
role games97
routinized behaviour506
rules506 see also practices
SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Techique)/IDEFO (ICOM Definitions)373
SAGE (Semi-Automated Ground Environment, US)365, 370
sales teams485
scanning technologies368
schedule tracking253
scheduling, project39
logics468
scope changes323, 324
search facilities, automated367
search theory, top-down and bottom-up226–30
security, data374
selection, evolutionary229
selectionism243–4, 348
self-contained tasks379
self-control495
self-governance/autonomy166
self-interested actors413, 422
self-leadership485, 495
self-management495
self-regulation495
self-serving nature300
‘semi-structures’213
semiconductor industry379
senior responsible owner (SRO)266
separating logic468
sequencing concepts listed51
sequential projects256
‘serial emergence’ of leaders485
service-providing firms137
servitization145, 147
SESAR (Single European Sky Advanced Research)246–7
shaping projects and building networks7, 391–409
approaches, setting up404
future research issues404–5
identification of actors402–3
joint-shaping399–1, 406
macro-shaping399–400, 399, 406
marginal shaping399, 401, 406
micro-shaping399, 401, 406
network- building401–4
practices and phases399–401, 405
targeting in client network403 see also project-shaping; project -marketing
shared experience465
shared leadership264–6, 483, 485, 488–91, 495–6
shareholder orientation309
short-term projects/short-termism141, 164, 466
simplicity211, 479
simulation programmes367–8
SimVision379
Singapore368
single firms and projects134, 202
single project structures308–9
‘sites’511–13, 516
skills266, 380
scarcity of109
small batch production207
small projects, managing change through241–2
social exchange theory494
social interactions379
social networking369
Social Network Analysis311–12
social relations415
social risks144
Social Sciences Citation Index91
social skills495
‘social trusteeship’ concept121
sociality187–8
socialization, importance of465
socially oriented trust453–6
(p. 547) sociology
of contract415
of technology378
software and globalization of30, 374–5, 383
South Africa331
sovereign guarantee338
specialization as trap57
sponsors267, 307
SRO (senior responsible owner)266
stakeholders135–6, 144
information management368–9
management253
maps238, 239
negotiation and238–40
orientation309
power and interest matrix238–9
project368–9
business135, 136, 144
shifts245
stand-alone projects257
standardization48
standards374
Standish Group21
start dates486
start-up ventures326
failure rate323–4
state and professionalization110
statistical, probability356
steering297, 307 see also governance
stewardship theory300–1
storage and retrieval systems367
strategy/strategic501
alignment104
articles on89
-cascading tools230–4
balanced scorecard232–3
contracts and e-procurement literature376–7
creation tools, projects as240–8
iteration and parallel trials in emerging uncertain projects242–4
small projects, managing change through241–2
strategic mission, shaping and evolving244–8
emergent230, 245
incentives and accountability, improved335–8
information management381–2
learning147
management, research agenda263–4
misrepresentation and major projects
management of323–4, 328–9, 337
versus optimism bias329–30
mission, shaping and evolving244–8
projects92, 136, 286
Studies in Construction Centre161 see also implementing strategy through projects
Structural Design Language (STRUDL)372–3
structures/structuration138–40, 160, 303, 484
subcontractors137–8
subjective probabilities and their elicitation351–3, 356, 358
sub-project teams484
substitution, leadership493
success278
critical planning39–40, 44, 52
factor, key484
and failure studies20–2
importance of470
project92, 313 see also critical planning/success
supervision380
suppliers184–5, 368, 446–8
supply chain23, 164
and procurement89, 99
support, mutual490–1
‘surprises, predictable’357
surveillance of work412, 416
‘survival of unfittest’329
sustainable competition141–2
Sweden277
‘swift trust’47
Switzerland33, 340
Sydney Olympics311
synoptical control422
system
complexity468, 473, 476
dynamics348
information management367–8
integration139–40, 212, 280–1
-relevant problem character208
view164
system development17–20, 467
major systems programs17–19
people management and organization19
professional associaton19–20
T5 agreement (Terminal 5 at Heathrow)
contractual terms and conditions443–5
intent and practice446, 448–50
mutual trust441–5
as quasi-relational contract442–3, 456 see also trust in relational contracting
tacit knowledge261, 465
(p. 548) tactics of project management117–23
academia, government and NGOs, shifting relations with122–3
accreditation, diversified and stratified118–19
centrality of bodies of knowledge119–21
corporate membership and client value121–2
international scope117–18
targeting
in client network403
costs167, 445
funding113
task
analyzability207
conflicts492
coordination490
-optimization375
uncertainty45, 486–7
variability207
Tavistock Institute160
TCE (transaction cost economics)47, 141
and normative control413–15
and project governance298–9, 301–3, 306–7, 310–11, 313–5
teams/teamwork211
-based knowledge212
coordination48
defined486
development253
empowerment492
interdependencies466
leadership
context-specific495
and quality483, 486, 488–92 see also dispersed projects and team-shared below
members, contributions of490
self-leadership485
technology/technical
-based firms137, 285
information27–8
management and ontological divergence24–5
managers and project management368
push models of innovation279
representation378
sociology of378
technicians163–4
transfer159
transformational378
uncertainty44, 323
vs. personal lock-in183–4
Telecom case
product development projects469–71, 477
project management474–6, 480
telephones/telecommunication134, 366
mobiles369, 469–71
projects and innovation283–4 see also Telecom
temporalitysee time
temporary business network141
temporary cooperation47
temporary decentralization217–8
of decision rights203, 210, 214–6
temporary enterprises and projects48, 51, 289
‘temporary organizing’219
tensions in logic of partnering163–5
termination, institutionalized51
Texaco326
text messaging369
themes in journals102–4
diversity of literature, increased103
growing research and literature base102
research methods, evolution of103–4
theoretical foundations of project management: problems2–64
birth of51
‘capabilities’52
classification39–43
context of51
Enterprise-Wide Project Management28–9
fragmentation37–9, 57
networks: cooperation and coordination46–9, 58
process (dynamics and phases)38–9, 49–56
reflective research7
research40
role of theory3–4
scheduling39
‘shaping’52
theoretical implications of dispersed projects493–4
types and typologies43–5 see also perspectives; professionalism in project management; projects-as-practice
theory
Actor Network378–9, 405
Behavioural Decision354
contingency136, 147
contract441–2, 447–8
E262
exchange494
institutional156, 158–60, 170
O262
(p. 549)
organizational260–1, 309
project360
prospect315
search226–30
social exchange494
stewardship300–1 see also agency theory and under governance
third wave of project management1–11
early history of1–2
guiding principles4–5
organization, projects as2–3
positive signs8–9
researching5–8
theory, role of3–4
‘thought worlds’ concept463
3M (firm)326
‘throughput, economies of’204
‘tiger team’211
time/temporality
change over503
and functionality trade-off470
global216
inadequate322
orientation217–8
challenges for P-form corporation206–7, 216
pacing213
of project work378
underestimated325, 329
Tinker Bell theory of projects360
Tokyo Digital Phones469
top-down
approach to Norwegian public projects312
cascading toolssee business strategy
contribution of search theory226–30
initiatives287
perspective503
topics covered by IJPM72–9
contracts75–6
finance75
functions74–5
general73–4
general management77
geography77
industry77–8
people76–7
Toyota23, 243, 442
‘trading zones’466
traditional projects256
trainingsee learning
trainssee railways
transaction
cost47, 141, 381, 441
economicssee TCE
three main types of414
as unit of analysis413
transformational technologies378
transitional phase in product innovation284
transparency and accountability336
transport329 see also air
Treasury (UK)329
trial-and-error475
learning243–4
trust47
-building484
and confidence452
and control313, 414–15
and corporate governance303–5
development of415
mutual165–6
and performance303
‘vigilant’449
trust in relational contracting7, 438–60
analysis445–8
building and evolution of454–6
as critical attribute450–1
and partnering439, 442, 452
socially oriented, mobilizing453–6
sources of451–3
suppliers and clients446–8 see also relational contracting; T5 agreement
tunnels335 see also Channel Tunnel
turboprop engine industry284
Turkey26
turn-around process in complex projects51
two-way interaction between corporate enterprises and projects7 see also P-form corporation; project business; shaping projects
‘Type 1 firms’202
types and typologies of project management43–5
U-form (unitary form)203
unanimity, emphasis on424
‘unawareness’242–3
uncertainty
as ‘contingency factor’48, 479
in decision-making331, 355–6
demand323
and drug development472–3
information management378–81
and innovation275–6
iteration and parallel trials in projects242–4
management509
(p. 550)
measurable356
task45, 486–7
and TCE311
technological44, 323
unmeasurable256 see also risk and uncertainty
underestimation of problems324, 327
underperformance of major projects and root causes of323–5, 327–8
understandingsee cognition
‘unforeseen contingencies’242–3
unique projects44, 45
unit production205–7
unitary form (U-form)203
United Kingdom
Department for Transport332
financial problems339–40
major projects331
Office of Government Commerce261
project management117
projects and partnerships161
United States
aerospace industry and space programs113, 276
American Planning Association331
armed forces224–5, 381
Defense, Department of265
Fiscal Responsibility Summit (2009)338–9
information management375
missiles224–5
multinationals122
partnerships161
P-form corporation203
Project Management113, 118, 255
projects and innovation275
SAGE (Semi-Automated Ground Environment)365, 370
transit planning329
unity/unification, need for57
universities and higher education110, 122–3
‘unknown unknowns’ (‘unk-unks’)242–3, 357
unmeasurable uncertainty256
utilitarianism415
value
Analysis (VA)26
client, corporate membership and121–2
creation264
Engineering (VE)18, 26
management (VM)26
networks140
stream147
values506 see also practices
vanguard projects44–5, 286–8
variation
in evolutionary cycles229
and normative control422
task variability207
VDT (‘Virtual Design Team’)379
VE (value engineering)26
Vee24
versatile artist/governance paradigm310
vertical integration379
vertical leadership, flexible491–2
vertical links209
‘vigilant trust’449
virtual projects43–4, 484
virtual teams486, 490, 492
‘Virtual Design Team’379
visualization382
VM (value management)26
vulnerability and trust439
water contamination in Australia426–8
Waterfall24
‘We, ideal’ (autopoietic ‘ideal we’)422–6
weapons systems/military industry275, 366
development281–2
Polaris missile224–5, 282
Webb, J.E.19
‘well-connectedness of knowledge bases’464, 466–7
‘wicked problems’242
Wikis368
Windows373
work
breakdown253
-flows374
knowledge377–8
mundane details ofsee projects-as-practice
-oriented studies of competence266
process280, 379
Work Breakdown Structure18
World Bank39
Worldcom30
organizational, architecture135