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date: 03 August 2020

(p. xiv) List of Tables

(p. xiv) List of Tables

  1. Introduction

  2. 0.1 State traditions 11

  3. 0.2 Models of democracy 15

    The United Kingdom

  4. 1.1 Local government scale 31

  5. 1.2 The structure of UK local government 31

  6. 1.3 Electoral systems 32

  7. 1.4 Councils with elected mayors 32

  8. 1.5 Local government expenditure in the UK, 2006– 741

  9. 1.6 Financing of local authority expenditure in Great Britain, 2006– 742

    Ireland

  10. 2.1 Structure and membership of Irish local authorities 53

  11. 2.2 Local authority current expenditure by programme group, 2007 56

  12. 2.3 Local authority capital expenditure by programme group, 2007 56

  13. 2.4 Sources of income for current expenditure, 2007 57

  14. 2.5 2004 Local elections: seats per party 59

  15. 2.6 Occupations of county and city councillors, 1999 60

  16. 2.7 Sample Strategic Policy Committee (SPC) scheme 62

    Belgium

  17. 3.1 Municipalities in the three Belgian regions 79

  18. 3.2 Sizes of municipalities in the three Belgian regions 79

  19. 3.3 Types of local government income in the three Belgian regions 80

  20. 3.4 Competencies of local governments in the three regions 82

  21. 3.5 Public employment in general and at local level, per region, 2002 83

  22. 3.6 Expenses for important policy domains, per region and per inhabitant 83

    The Netherlands

  23. 4.1 Distribution of valid votes and Second Chamber seats by party in 2009 (elections 2006) 100

  24. (p. xv) 4.2 Principal functions and responsibilities of each tier of government in the Dutch political‐administrative system 102

  25. 4.3 Distribution of municipalities and population by municipal population size, 2008 103

  26. 4.4 Development of municipal incomes 104

  27. 4.5 Municipal government operating expenses by main type of activity, 2007 104

  28. 4.6 National distribution of votes cast in the 2007 municipal council elections 106

  29. 4.7 Subject and character of local referendums, 1990 to 8 May 2008 110

    Luxembourg

  30. 5.1 Distribution of valid votes and parliamentary seats by party in the 2009 parliamentary election 126

  31. 5.2 Distribution of municipalities and population by municipal population size, 2009 129

  32. 5.3 Percentage of seats at local elections 1987–2005 (communes with PR electoral system) 133

    Germany

  33. 6.1 Results and voter turnout (preceding Landtag elections) 155

  34. 6.2 Direct democracy in German Länder 158

  35. 6.3 Revenues of local governments, 2008 160

  36. 6.4 Existence and success of independent groups in local elections 163

  37. 6.5 Regulations for citizens' initiatives and referendums 164

    Austria

  38. 7.1 Revenues of provinces and municipalities, 2008 179

  39. 7.2 Number of municipalities and population of the provinces, 2009 180

  40. 7.3 Size categories, number and population of the municipalities, 2009 180

  41. 7.4 Social representativeness of local councillors, 1998 188

    Switzerland

  42. 8.1 Expenditures of cantons, municipalities, and the Federation compared, 2005 207

    Denmark

  43. 9.1 The size of Danish municipalities before and after the 2007 reform 226

  44. 9.2 The functions of municipalities and regions (gross current and capital expenditure, budget 2008) 227

  45. (p. xvi) 9.3 The subnational system of finance (budget 2008) 228

    Finland

  46. 10.1 Party strength in the municipalities 1992–2008 and in the parliamentary elections in 2007 249

  47. 10.2 Citizen–politician ratio in the municipalities 250

  48. 10.3 Voting turnout in the municipal and parliamentary elections 1992–2008 251

    Sweden

  49. 11.1 Sources of revenue of Swedish local government, 2006 268

  50. 11.2 Party strength in the municipalities, 1994–2006, and in the national election, 2006 269

  51. 11.3 Citizen–politician ratio in the municipalities 270

  52. 11.4 Citizens' confidence in their municipal elected representatives 271

    Norway

  53. 12.1 Distribution of valid votes and parliamentary seats by party in the 2009 parliamentary election 285

  54. 12.2 Distribution of municipalities and population by municipal population size, 2008 286

  55. 12.3a Municipal government operating expenses by main type of activity, 2007 289

  56. 12.3b County government operating expenses by main type of activity, 2007 289

  57. 12.4 Sources of local government revenue, 2007 290

  58. 12.5 National distribution of votes cast in the 2007 municipal council elections 292

    France

  59. 13.1 Subnational authorities in mainland France 314

  60. 13.2 Local government finance: expenditure, 2007 323

  61. 13.3 Local government finance: income, 2007 323

    Italy

  62. 14.1 Distribution of valid votes and parliamentary seats by party in the 2008 parliamentary election 337

  63. 14.2 Distribution of municipalities and population by municipal population size, 2006 340

  64. 14.3 Principal functions and responsibilities of each tier of government in the Italian political‐administrative system 341

  65. (p. xvii) 14.4a Regional and autonomous provinces government operating expenses by main type of activity, 2003 345

  66. 14.4b Provincial government operating expenses by main type of activity, 2003 346

  67. 14.4c Municipal government operating expenses by main type of activity, 2003 346

    Spain

  68. 15.1 The number of inhabitants in Autonomous Communities, 2008 362

  69. 15.2 Range of population size in municipalities, December 2008 363

  70. 15.3 The number and types of local authorities by Autonomous Community, 2009 364

  71. 15.4 The electoral system(s) 365

  72. 15.5 The subnational system of finances and taxation: sources of finance of Autonomous Communities, 2006 366

  73. 15.6 Revenue composition of municipalities for 2004 without borrowing 368

  74. 15.7 Government formation and electoral results for state‐wide and regional parties in the last regional elections 369

  75. 15.8 Municipal elections, 2007 371

  76. 15.9 Number and type of local referendums in Spain, 1985–2009 374

    Portugal

  77. 16.1 Main political parties at local and regional level 387

  78. 16.2 The electoral system 388

  79. 16.3 Number and types of local authorities in Portugal, 2001 391

  80. 16.4 Number and percentage of municipalities (municipios) according to population size, 2003 392

  81. 16.5 Number and percentage of parishes according to population size, 2003 392

  82. 16.6 Age of incumbents in local authorities in Portugal, 2001 392

  83. 16.7 Socio‐professional structure of incumbents in local authorities, 2001 393

  84. 16.8 Gender of incumbents in local authorities, 2001 393

  85. 16.9 Local cumul de mandats among MPs in Portuguese parliament, 2009 394

  86. 16.10 Total general government expenditure at central, regional, and local level as share of GDP, 2007 396

  87. 16.11 Regional elections in Azores, 1976–2008 398

  88. 16.12 Regional elections in Madeira, 1976–2007 399

  89. (p. xviii) 16.13 Local elections in Portugal, 2005 402

    Greece

  90. 17.1 Number of prefectures and municipalities in Greek regions 417

  91. 17.2 Competencies of local government in Greece 418

  92. 17.3 Revenues and expenditures of local government, 2004 419

  93. 17.4 National and prefectural election results 420

  94. 17.5 Employees in urban and rural municipalities, 1996 424

  95. 17.6 Distribution of second‐tier local governments by population 425

  96. 17.7 Distribution of municipalities by orders of magnitude before (1996) and after (1999) the implementation of the ‘Capodistrias’ plan of amalgamations 426

    Malta

  97. 18.1 Demographic distribution of Maltese municipalities 441

  98. 18.2 Political parties at the local level in Malta 442

  99. 18.3 Local public sector expenditure, 2005 447

  100. 18.4 Local public revenues (excluding loans), 2005/6 447

  101. 18.5 Local public expenditure by function, 2005 448

  102. 18.6 State grants to local councils 2008/9–2009/10 448

    Cyprus

  103. 19.1 RoC municipal election results, December 2006 468

  104. 19.2 TRNC municipal election results, June 2006 470

    Poland

  105. 20.1 Territorial division of Poland—average sizes and their ranges, December 2006 485

  106. 20.2 Turnout in Polish local elections since 1990 498

    The Czech Republic

  107. 21.1 Size structure of municipalities in the Czech Republic, December 2007 512

  108. 21.2 Results of the 2006 elections to local councils 516

  109. 21.3 Results of the 2008 election to regional councils 518

  110. 21.4 Citizens' trust in subnational government, 2007–2008, compared with trust in other political institutions 520

    Hungary

  111. 22.1 The Hungarian political system in the majoritarian–consensus model 530

  112. 22.2 Local governments by size of population in Hungary 533

  113. (p. xix) 22.3 Characteristics of subnational levels in Hungary 534

  114. 22.4 Distribution of annual sources of revenues of local governments, 2006 and 2007 538

  115. 22.5 National and local government expenditures 538

  116. 22.6 Total mandates won by independents and organizations obtaining the most mandates in 2006 540

  117. 22.7 Confidence in political institutions 541

  118. 22.8 Election turnout at local and parliamentary elections, 1990–2006 541

    Slovakia

  119. 23.1 Slovak municipalities by size 558

  120. 23.2 Self‐governing regions in Slovakia 561

  121. 23.3 Distribution of votes in the regional councils by political affiliation 563

  122. 23.4 Subnational government spending and revenues 564

    Estonia

  123. 24.1 Trust in main political and administrative institutions in Estonia 580

  124. 24.2 Power resource of actors in local government in Estonia 582

  125. 24.3 Size of local government units in selected new EU member states 582

  126. 24.4 Sources of local revenue, 1998 and 2007, and the rate of change 585

  127. 24.5 Attitudes of councillors in Estonia 587

  128. 24.6 Evolution of actors at local elections in Estonia, 1993–2005 587

  129. 24.7 Support to parties at national and local elections in 2000s 588

  130. 24.8 Electoral success of the winning party in communities of different size at the 2005 elections 589

    Latria

  131. 25.1 Number of councillors in the different‐sized local authorities 606

  132. 25.2 Voter turnout in local elections, 1994–2009 607

  133. 25.3 Evaluation of collaboration of local governments, 2008 613

  134. 25.4 Evaluation of future tendencies of collaboration of local governments 613

    Lithuania

  135. 26.1 Electoral turnout in presidential elections 621

  136. 26.2 Electoral turnout in parliamentary elections 621

  137. 26.3 Electoral turnout in local government elections 622

  138. 26.4 Number of parties that received mandates in elections to the parliament and to local government councils 623

  139. (p. xx) 26.5 Strikes and warning strikes, 2000–8 624

  140. 26.6 Tax return sources of municipalities 628

  141. 26.7 Number of registered political parties 630

    Slovenia

  142. 27.1 State tradition in Slovenia 645

  143. 27.2 Breakdown of municipalities by number of inhabitants 649

  144. 27.3 Participation in Slovenia in direct and indirect forms of democracy 651

  145. 27.4 Candidature of parliamentary deputies as mayor and vice versa, 1992–2006 654

  146. 27.5 Local community spending in Slovenia as percentage of GDP, 2002–7 656

  147. 27.6 Local community revenues in Slovenia as percentage of GDP, 2002–7 656

  148. 27.7 Local community spending as a proportion of overall central government and local community spending, 2002–7 658

  149. 27.8 Local community taxes in Slovenia as a proportion of overall taxes, 2002–7 659

    Bulgaria

  150. 28.1 Principal political parties 668

  151. 28.2 Bulgaria's territorial organization according to the NUTS classification 669

  152. 28.3 Local self‐government in Bulgaria 670

  153. 28.4 The municipal budget 672

    Romania

  154. 29.1 Results of local elections, 2004, 2008 693

  155. 29.2 Territorial administration in Romania, 2008 695

  156. 29.3 Type and content of competences 696

  157. 29.4 Dynamic of local public revenues, 2004–6 698

  158. 29.5 Execution of the local budgets by development region and county 699

  159. 29.6 The attributions of regional institutions 701

  160. 29.7 Turnout in Romanian local and national elections, 1996–2008 703

  161. 29.8 Citizens' participation in associations 703

    Conclusions

  162. 30.1 The local referendum in Europe 734

  163. 30.2 The elected mayor in Europe 736