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date: 03 August 2020

(p. 749) Subject Index

(p. 749) Subject Index

Agrarian League (Finland)244
Åland Islands246
Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ)183
Alternative and Reformist Democratic Party (ADR, Luxembourg)132, 133
Amsterdam Treaty (1997)6
Assembly of European Regions7
Association of Local and Regional Governments of Latvia (ALRGL)612
Association of Local Authorities in Lithuania624
Ataka (Bulgarian political party)667
Attali Report (2008, France)326
Austria, and subnational democracy192–3
and administrative reforms191
and the Bundesrat178
and citizen participation:
municipalities188–9
provinces185
and consensus democracy177, 189–90
and country characteristics173
and direct democracy185
and districts (Bezirke), competencies of186
and electoral system180, 187
and European Union191
and federalism:
nature of174
unitary federal state176–7
and globalization190
and historical background174
and impact of neo-liberal doctrines190
and municipalities (Gemeinden):
citizen participation188–9
competencies of186
executive187–8
finances179
interest representation189
mayors186–7
number of180
political culture188
political parties188
representativeness of councillors187
size of180
and network governance191
and political parties:
municipalities188
provincial182–4
and proportional representation180, 187
and provinces (Landër):
bureaucracy182
citizen participation185
competencies of178–9
Conference of the Provincial Governors178
elections180
finances178, 179
historical context174
interest representation185–6
legislation181
number of180
Office of the Provincial Government182
parliaments179–80
political culture184–5
political parties182–4
Proporz governments176, 181–2, 193
provincial governors182
and referendums185, 189
and state traditions:
consociationalism175–6
corporatism176
federalism176–7
legalism175
and transborder cooperation191–2
and turnout183
Austrian Convention190–1
Austrian People's Party (ÖVP)174, 175, 177, 182–3, 184
Azores396–400, 405, 406–7
Balkan States, see Bulgaria; Romania; Slovenia
Balladur Commission (2009, France)326
Baltic States, see Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania
Basque Country, and terrorism377–8, 379–80
Basque Nationalist Party (PNV)368
Belgium, and subnational democracy:
and citizen participation88–9, 93
and consensus democracy75–6, 90–1
and constitutional guarantees78
(p. 750) and country characteristics71
and decentralization:
resistance of pillar organizations73
state reforms74
and elected local politicians87
and electoral system76, 86
and finances:
earmarked subsidies81
local taxes81
municipal fund80–1
and historical background72–3
and intergovernmental relations90
and linguistic communities74, 75
and local agencies90
and local political organization87–8
and mayors84–6
and municipalities77
co-governance79
competencies of81, 82
earmarked subsidies81
local taxes81
mayors84–6
municipal fund80–1
political autonomy78–9
regional authority over80
regulation by regions81–4
and national cleavages:
economic72
ideological72
impact of73
linguistic division73
and neo-corporatism72
and participatory democracy89, 91
and pendulum democracy90–1
and pillarization72, 90
and political autonomy78–9
and political localism74, 77, 79, 81, 83, 90, 93
and political parties:
fragmentation of76
at local level86
right-wing parties91–2
and proportional representation76, 86
and provinces77–8
roles and position of78
and public-private partnerships73, 90
and referendums89
and regions74–5
authority over municipalities80
competencies of77
democratic characteristics90–1
earmarked subsidies81
expenses of81, 83
municipal fund80–1
municipal organization81–4
public employment81, 83
and state structure73–5
federalism75
federal level74
impact of linguistic division73
linguistic communities74, 75
regions74–5
and trust in local government89
and voter democracy93
and weakness of73, 92
Bloc of the Left (BE, Portugal)388, 400–1
Brainport Initiative (Netherlands)734
Bretton Woods system:
and collapse of3, 4
and establishment of2
British Isles13, 716
and democratic model720
participatory democracy719
pendulum democracy719
and institutional change731
and reform challenges738
and representative democracy719
and state traditions719–20
and subnational democracy722
and voter democracy720see also Ireland; United Kingdom
Bulgaria, and subnational democracy:
and administrative reforms679–80
and challenges facing:
commercialization of politics678
corruption678–9, 682
encouraging participation677, 681
European Union accession676–7
public expectations677, 682
weak administrative capacity677, 682
and citizen participation674–5, 681
and country characteristics664
and direct democracy674–5
and districts (oblast)669
district governor669–70
and electoral system:
Local Elections Act (1995)670
local level670
national level666–7
and financial decentralization678
and historical background665–6
post-communist transition666
and institutional framework668–72
constitution668–9
and local ombudsman680
(p. 751) and Local Self-Government and Local Administration Act (LSGA, 1991)670
and majoritarian democracy666, 670
and mayors670
and municipalities:
administrative reform679–80
associations of679
directly elected council670
finances670–2
ombudsman680
and municipalities (obshtina)669
and national democratic institutions666–7
and non-governmental organizations676, 681
and political parties:
local level673
national level667, 668
and proportional representation670
and referendums667, 674
and regions669
regional development policy676
and subnational governance675–6
and subnational politics673–4, 681
de-politicization673
independent candidates673
political parties673
and trust in political institutions667
and turnout667
Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP)667
Canary Coalition (CC)368
Catalan Socialist Party (PSC)370
Centre Party (Estonia)588
Centre Party (Finland)244, 248
Centre Party (Sweden)265
Christian Democratic Party (DC, Italy)335, 336, 343, 344
Christian Democratic Party (PCD, Romania)691
Christian Democratic Party (Sweden)265
Christian Democratic Union (CDU, Germany)154, 156
Christian Democratic Union-Czech People's Party508, 516, 518
Christian Social People's Party (CSV, Luxembourg)132–3
Christian Social Union (CSU, Germany)154, 156
citizen governance, and United Kingdom38–9
citizen participation:
and Austria185, 188–9
and Belgium88–9, 93
and British Isles717–18
and Bulgaria674–5, 681
and Czech Republic518–19
and Denmark231–2
and Estonia588–9
and Finland252, 255–6
and France319–20
and Germany147, 151, 157–9, 163–5
and Greece422–3
and Hungary542
and Ireland61–3
and Italy349–52
and Latvia608, 610–11, 616
and Lithuania624–5, 629–30, 631–3
and Luxembourg134–7
and Netherlands107–9, 110, 116–17
and Norway294–6, 300–1
and Poland497–8
and Portugal402–4
and Romania690, 702–4
and skewed nature of741
and Slovakia566–7
and Slovenia650–1, 661
and Spain372–4, 379
and Sweden272, 276, 277
and Switzerland206, 209
and United Kingdom37–9see also participatory democracy
Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria (GERB)674
citizens' initiatives:
and Austria185, 189
and Germany151, 157, 163–4
and Luxembourg136–7
and Norway301
and Slovenia650
and Spain373
and Sweden270
and Switzerland199, 205–6
city managers, and Ireland55
city-regions, and strengthening of10
Civic Democratic Party (Czech Republic)508, 516, 518
Commission on Local Democracy (UK)38
Committee of the Regions6, 7–8
Communal Liberation Party (TDP, Cyprus)469
communism, and collapse of6
Communist Party-Green Party Alliance (PCP/PEV, Portugal)387–8, 400, 401, 403
Communist Party of Austria (KPÖ)183
Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia508, 516, 518
competitive regionalism10
Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe8
Conferenza Stato-Regioni (CSR, Italy)348
(p. 752) Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE)8, 9, 438
and Malta439
consensus democracy16, 716
and analytical usefulness of730
and Austria177, 189–90
and Belgium75–6, 90–1
and characteristics at subnational level17
and Czech Republic509
and Denmark231
and Finland243, 244, 245, 249
and Germany147, 162, 164, 168
and Hungary530
and Ireland66
and Italy335, 338
and Netherlands98
and Nordic states721–2
and Norway284, 285
and Poland482
and Rhinelandic states719–20
and Romania690
and Slovakia569
and Spain360, 376
and Sweden263, 264–5, 270
and Switzerland199, 200
Conservative Party (Denmark)229
Conservative Party (Romania)692
consociational democracy16
and Austria175–6
and Cyprus457
Constitutional Treaty (2004)6
Convergencia i Unió (CiU, Spain)368
corporatism:
and Austria176
and Denmark231
and Spain359–60
and Sweden264–5
and Switzerland200 see also neo-corporatism
corruption:
and Bulgaria678–9, 682
and Czech Republic522
and Spain377, 379
Council of Europe (CoE)8, 725, 728
and local democracy8
Crime and Disorder Partnerships (UK)38
Cyprus, and subnational democracy:
and challenges facing470–3
Cyprus conflict470, 472–3
development of civil society471–2
European Union accession470, 472
immigration470–1
and communities465
and Comprehensive Solution to the Cyprus Problem (‘Annan Plan', 2004)456, 458, 462
impact on parties469
rejected in referendum463
and cooperation across divide472–3
and corporate consociationalism457, 459
and country characteristics455
and direct democracy472, 474
and European Union458, 470, 472, 474–5
and finances466
and historical background456–8
civil war457–8
partitioning of458
and institutional expression of democracy:
1960 constitution459–61
northern Cyprus461–2
opposing conceptions of democracy460
opposing conceptions of freedom460–1
post-conflict Cyprus462–3
southern Cyprus461
as Southern European state458–9
and institutional framework464–6
pre-independence464
Republic of Cyprus464–5
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)465–6
and majoritarian democracy459, 460
and mayors465
and municipalities465, 466
and nature of473–4
and Nicosia Master Plan472–3
and political parties:
northern Cyprus469
personality-cult leadership463–4
southern Cyprus466–8
and reunification474, 475
and robustness of473–4
and subnational politics466–70
impact of Annan Plan469–70
local elections468–9, 470
northern Cyprus469
southern Cyprus466–8
and village commissions466
and Zurich Accords457, 460, 464
Czech Republic, and subnational democracy:
and autonomy510
and central-local relations520
and challenges facing:
corruption522
Europeanization523
finances522
fragmentation of local government521–2, 523–4, 525
(p. 753) low citizen participation522
new settlements522
political legitimacy of regions522
regional spending discretion522–3
state regional agencies523
and citizen participation518–19
and classification of520–1
and collective form of local government521
and country characteristics505
and delegated powers510–11, 523–4
and direct democracy518
and electoral system507, 515–16
and functional consolidation520
and historical background505–6
and institutional framework509–11
and municipalities511–13
administrative system512–13
categorization by transferred powers511, 523–4
challenges facing521–2
characteristics of councillors517
committee system512
communities of524
constitutional protection of508, 509
cooperation between511, 524
delegated powers510–11
elections516–17
executive board512
finances513–14
independent powers of511
Law on Municipalities510
mayor512
municipal councils512
number and size of511–12
unions of524
and national democratic institutions507–9
consensus democracy509
constitutional provisions507–8
majoritarian democracy509
pendulum democracy509
state traditions508–9
and participatory democracy518
and political parties:
local level515, 516, 517–18
national level508
and post-communist reforms509, 524
and proportional representation507, 515
and public-private partnerships519
and referendums518
and regions513
administrative system513
challenges facing522–3
constitutional protection of508, 509
elections517–18
finances513, 514–15
Law on Regions510
president513
regional board513
structure of513
and subnational politics515–16
electoral systems515–16
municipal elections516–17
political parties515
regional elections517–18
and territorial fragmentation520
and territorial self-government509–10
and trust in local government520
and turnout516, 517
and voter democracy518
Czech Social Democratic Party508, 516, 518
Danish Regions225, 237
decentralization:
and democracy5
and European regional policy6–9
and factors behind trends towards9–10
and fiscal federalism5
and UN-HABITAT9
and Western Europe5
deliberative democracy:
and France319, 320
and Italy350, 351
at subnational level18
democracy:
and aggregative vs integrative democracy14
and British Isles719
and decentralization5
and formal/informal democracy18–19
and hybrid democracy729, 740
and local autonomy5
and new democracies in Eastern Europe725–6
and Nordic states721–2
and post-war welfare state2
and Rhinelandic states719–20
and South European states723–4
indirect democracy; majoritarian democracy; participatory democracy; pendulum democracy;
representative democracy; subnational democracy; voter democracy
Democrat Forum of Germans from Romania (FDGR)691
(p. 754) Democratic Alliance of Hungarians from Romania (UDMR)691, 692, 693–4
Democratic Party (DIKO, Cyprus)467
Democratic Party (DP, Cyprus)469
Democratic Party (DP, Luxembourg)132, 133, 134
Democratic Rally (DISY, Cyprus)467
Democratic Social Centre-People's Party (CDS-PP, Portugal)387, 400, 401, 403
Democratic Unitary Coalition (CDU, Portugal)388
Denmark, and subnational democracy:
and balance with central control222, 238
and challenges facing233
horizontal coordination among municipalities235–6
management of regions236–8
vertical coordination233–4
and citizen participation231–2
user boards232
and consensus democracy231
and corporatism231
and country characteristics221
and electoral system229
and finances, income sources228–9
and functions of subnational governments227–8
and historical background222–3
and local government tradition222
and mayors226
and municipalities:
coalitions230–1
coordination among235–6
coordination with regions233–4
electoral system229
executive226
functions of227
income sources228–9
national association225
political parties229–30
political system226
referendums232
size of225–6
user boards232
and national associations225
and political parties229–30
and proportional representation229
and referendums231–2
and reform of local government:
1970 reforms223
2007 reforms223–5, 238
and regions:
alliance-building237
circumscribed competence236
coordination with municipalities233–4
electoral system229
establishment of236
functions of227–8
income sources229
maintaining political capacity237–8
national association225
political parties230
political system226–7
reduced control over labour force237
reduced economic autonomy236
reduced political capacity236
reduced voter interest in238
size of225
vulnerability of237
and representative democracy231
and Scandinavian model:
differences from232–3
similarities to232
and size of subnational governments225–6
and trust in local government231
deregulation, and neo-liberalism4
Die Linke (The Left, Germany)156
direct democracy:
and analytical usefulness of730
and Austria185
and Bulgaria674–5
and Cyprus472, 474
and Czech Republic518
and Finland245
and France320
and Germany151, 157–8, 163–4
and Hungary542
and Ireland66
and Italy339, 349, 350
and Luxembourg127
and Nordic states722
and post-war welfare state2
and Slovakia570
and Slovenia646, 650
and Spain361, 373
at subnational level18
and Sweden266, 277
and Switzerland215
national level198–9, 200–1
subnational level203, 204–6
and United States727
dual mandates (cumul des mandats):
and Austria183, 184
and Belgium85, 87
and Germany162
and Ireland57, 65
and Luxembourg133–4
(p. 755) and Portugal393, 394
and Slovenia653
Dublin53–4
and elected mayor proposal58
Eastern European New Democracies, see individual countries; New Democracies in Eastern Europe
economic development, and subnational authorities10
electoral systems:
and Austria180, 187
and Belgium76, 86
and Bulgaria666–7, 671
and Czech Republic507, 515–16
and Denmark229
and Estonia587
and Finland244–5
and France310
and Germany150, 152
and Greece419, 420
and Hungary531–2, 536–7
and Ireland51–2
and Italy336
and Latvia601
and Lithuania621–3
and Luxembourg125–6, 130–1
and Malta437, 442
and Netherlands99
and Norway284–5, 291
and Poland492
and Portugal388, 391–2
and Romania689, 693
and Slovakia554–5, 562–4
and Slovenia645–6, 651–2
and Spain365–6
and Sweden263, 269
and Switzerland200, 203
and United Kingdom31–2
Elzinga Commission (Netherlands)114
EOKA (National Organization of Cypriot Fighters)457, 460
Estonia, and subnational democracy:
and autonomy of local government581, 584
curbing of584
and challenges facing:
European Union590–1
size and capacity of municipalities591–2
and citizen participation588–9
and country characteristics576
and county governments583–4
and elections588
and electoral system581, 587
and finances584, 585
and historical background577–9
and innovations in:
civil society development592
e-governance programme592
Estonian Villages Movement592–3
involvement of village representatives593
regional policy593
youth councils593
and intergovernmental relations584
local authority associations584–5
state audit body586
and Local Government Act (2003)581, 584
and local politics589–90
and majoritarian democracy580
and mayors581, 589
and municipalities:
amalgamations583, 591–2
cooperation between593
council structure and authority581–2
innovations by592–3
internal decentralization582–3
mayor581, 589
role of councillors589
size of582
transborder cooperation590–1
and national political system579–81
citizenship579–80
constitution579
policy-making580
political competition580
political parties579
president580–1
and political parties:
local level587–8
national level579, 580
and practice of586
and proportional representation581, 587
and Public Information Act (2000)592
and referendums588
and regions, municipal cooperation593
and service delivery:
contracting out582
relational contracts582–3
and trust in political institutions580
and turnout588
and values586–7
Estonian Villages Movement592–3
ethnic diversity:
and Cyprus470–1
and Ireland63
and Norway299
and representative democracy43–4
(p. 756) and Spain378
and Sweden274–5
and United Kingdom43
EuRegios191
EuRegio Oberbayern-Innviertel191–2
EuRegio SaarLorLux140
European Charter of Local Self-Government8, 9
and Ireland50, 64
and Latvia600, 615
and local autonomy728–9
and Luxembourg139
and Norway301–2
and Poland486
and Romania695
and United Kingdom30
European Commission, and regional policy7
European Commission for Democracy through Law8–9
European Community (EC), and rescue of the nation state3
European Court of Human Rights380, 462
European Court of Justice325
European integration, as response to globalization6
European Party (EVROKO, Cyprus)468
European Regional Development Fund7
European Round Table of Industrialists (ERT)6
European Social Fund7
European Union:
and Austria191
and Bulgaria676–7
and Cyprus458, 470, 472, 474–5
and enlargement of6
and Estonia590–1
and France325–6
and Ireland53, 64–5
and Italy347–8
and Latvia610
and Malta452
and multilevel governance732–3
and new democracies in Eastern Europe724–5
and Poland501–2
and regional policy6–8
Assembly of European Regions7
Committee of the Regions7–8
partnership7
Structural Funds7
subsidiarity7
and Romania695, 708
and Single European Act (1987)6
and Slovakia553, 569
Fianna Fáil51, 59, 719
finances, and subnational government, see individual countries
financial crisis (2007)4
Fine Gael51, 59, 719
Finland, and subnational democracy:
and Åland Islands246
and challenges facing253–4, 257, 258
maintaining citizen interest254
meeting demands for participation254
migration254
population ageing254
regional policy254
socio-economic trends254
urbanization254
and characteristics of politicians250
and citizen participation252
Citizen Participation Policy Programme256
Participation Project255–6
provisions for255
youth councils255
and consensus democracy249
and country characteristics241
and decrease in elected/appointed politicians249–50
and direct democracy245
and electoral system244–5
and financial pressures252–3
and Free Commune experiment249, 255
and historical background242–3
and indirect democracy249
and institutional framework245–8
and Local Government Act (1995)255
and municipalities:
administrative system246–7
bilingual authorities246
cooperation between245, 247, 253, 258
finances247
joint municipal authorities247
mergers245–6, 257, 258
number of245
political parties248, 249
referendums248–9
regional councils247–8
responsibilities of246
restructuring of local government256–7
size of245, 246, 257
women's representation250
and national democratic institutions243–5
coalitions244
consensus democracy243, 244, 245
decentralization243
electoral systems244–5
(p. 757) neo-corporatism244
political parties244
reconciliation of national cleavages243–4
semi-presidentialism243
unitary state243
and New Public Management253
and political parties:
local level248, 249
national level244
and proportional representation244–5
and public attitudes250–1
interest in politics252
and referendums245, 248–9
and regions:
Reform Project for Regional State Administration257
regional councils247–8
regional policy254
and representative democracy245, 248
strengthening of256
and structural reforms:
local government256–7
regional administration257
and subnational governance252–3
and subnational politics248–50
and turnout250, 251–2
fiscal federalism5
and Germany152
and Italy344–5
Forza Italia349
France, and subnational democracy:
and absence of hierarchy among authorities312–13
and Balladur Commission report on local government reform326–7
and challenges facing322, 328
European integration325–6
finances and expenditure322–4
multiple layers of subnational government324
transparency324
and citizen participation319–20
and communes:
cooperation between314
ineffectiveness in service delivery314
number of313
responsibilities of312
size of313–14
and constitutional recognition of local government313
and country characteristics307
and decentralization:
1982–83 reforms312–13
2003–04 reforms313
and deliberative democracy319, 320
and départements:
bureaucratic resources315
composition of315
responsibilities of312, 315
and direct democracy320
and electoral system:
local level310
national level310
and finances322–4
and governance320–2
contrast with local government320–1
coordination321
public law tradition320
regulation321
role of321
territorial governance321–2
variety of forms of320
variety of power relationships321
and historical background308–9
and inter-communal bodies (EPCIs)310, 313, 314–15
and introduction of democratic elections311–12
and majoritarian democracy309, 310
and mayors318
power of319
and Napoleonic model311
and national democratic institutions309–11
electoral system310
majoritarian democracy309
Napoleonic state tradition309
National Assembly309–10
semi-presidentialism309
Senate310
unitary state309
and notables319
and parallel state networks311
and prefects311
and referendums319–20
and regions:
establishment of315
lack of territorial link316
political problems315
reliance on lower-level authorities313
responsibilities of312, 315–16
and reports on local government326
and role of local authorities:
classic republican view of318–19
post-republican view of319
and subnational politics316–18
(p. 758) left's dominance of316
municipal elections316–18
Free Commune experiment:
and Finland249, 255
and Nordic states721
and Sweden5, 277–8
Free Democratic Party (FDP, Germany)154, 156
Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ)175–6, 177, 181–2, 183, 184
French Revolution308
Front National (Belgium)92
Germany, and subnational democracy:
and the Bundesrat149, 150, 152, 156, 157
and challenges facing166–8
European integration167
regional fiscal imbalances167–8
regionalization of party politics167
and citizen participation147
citizens' initiatives151, 157, 163–4
direct democracy157–8, 163–4
Länder157–9
local government163–5
petitions157–8
and consensus democracy147, 162, 164, 168
and country characteristics146
and direct democracy151
and electoral system150, 152
and emergence of German state148–9
and establishment of democratic state147
and federalism147, 149
cooperative federalism149
and historical background148–9
and the Länder:
citizen participation157–9
constitutions151–2
electoral systems152
executive-legislative relations152
federal-Länder relations152–3
finances152, 153
governance159–60
institutional framework151–3
interest groups159
post-war establishment of151
regional politics154–7
and local government:
citizen participation163–5
competencies of160–1
council elections162
directly elected mayors161
finances161
governance165–6
institutional framework160–2
local politics162–3
supervision of161
and national democratic structure149–51
antagonistic cooperation150
coalitions150
interest associations150
parliamentary democracy149–50
party competition150
and participatory democracy150, 159, 160, 165
and pendulum democracy150, 169
and political parties:
local politics162
regionalization of party politics167
regional politics154–7
and proportional representation150, 152
and referendums151, 157–8, 163–4
and voter democracy151, 164, 165
globalization:
and European integration6
and financial crisis4
and neo-liberalism3, 4
and spread of new technologies10
and subnational authorities9–10
governance, and neo-liberal conception of5
Greater London Authority45
Great Romania Party (PRM)691, 692
Greece, and subnational democracy:
and citizen participation422–3
and civil society weakness413
and clientelistic political culture411, 416
and corporate interests414
and country characteristics410
and decentralization422
and democratization411, 416, 421, 422
prefectures425–6
requirements for431
and electoral system419, 420
and Europeanization414, 423, 427, 429–30
and expansion of public sector422
and finances of local government417, 419
and fragmentation411, 430
of local government423
and historical background411–12
and local elections419–20
and local interest group system429, 431
and majoritarian democracy412, 415, 416, 419, 420
and mayors417
dominant role of420
and municipalities:
amalgamations423, 426–7, 429
Capodistrias Plan (1998)426–7, 429
(p. 759) citizen participation422
competencies of418
election results420
employees424
municipal enterprises423
municipal syndicates423
new roles for422
number of416
restricted competencies of416–17
size of423
and Napoleonic state tradition411–12
and New Public Management414
and opposition to centralism422
and participatory democracy421
and political legitimacy422
and political parties:
local level417–19
national level412
and Prefectural Self-Government (PSG):
degeneration of428
establishment of425–6
loss of responsibilities428
opposition to427–8
and prefectures:
competencies of418
democratic participation422
election results420
number of416
prefectural councils422
reform of425–6
size of425
and pressure groups413, 430
and public attitudes, disillusionment413
and regions:
creation of423
new powers of426
number of416
sectoral politics428
special regional districts428
and state characteristics430
centralist state411, 427, 431
independent regulators415, 416
pendulum democracy411, 414–15, 427, 430
sectoral interests412, 413, 414, 415
weakness of state administration412–13
and subnational politics:
dominance of national politics419
elections419–20
executive dominance420–1
mayoral dominance420
political authority417
quasi-presidentialism420
and territorial structure of416
and trade unions412, 413
Green Party (Austria)175, 182, 183
Green Party (Cyprus)468
Green Party (Czech Republic)508, 516
Green Party (Finland)248
Green Party (Germany)154, 156
Green Party (Malta)438, 443
Holy Roman Empire97
Homeland Union Lithuanian Conservatives634
Housing Cooperatives (UK)38
Hungary, and subnational democracy:
and Act on Public Finance (1992)538
and centralization tradition532
and challenges facing543–4, 549
absence of debate on local democracy547–8
absence of meso-level of governance546–7
fiscal issues545–6
fragmentation of local government544
inefficient autonomy544–5
municipal cooperation544–5
political obstacles to reform545
and cities533
and citizen participation542
and confidence in political institutions541
and constitutional protection of local government532
and counties533
and country characteristics528
and democratization:
challenges arising from549
results of549
and direct democracy542
and electoral system:
different local systems537
local level536
national level531–2
and finances538–9
and governmental levels532–3
characteristics of534
non-hierarchical relationship533
number and size of533
and historical background529
and institutional framework532
and local economy542
and mayors535
deputy mayors535
mayor's office536
and municipalities532
committee system535
councils535
deputy mayors535
mayor535
(p. 760) mayor's office536
and national democratic institutions529–32
consensus democracy530
electoral system531–2
majoritarian democracy530
party structure531
state traditions529–30
and non-governmental organizations543
and political parties531
and proportional representation537
and referendums542
and regions533
and southern European model543
and subnational politics539–41
elections539
independent candidates539
influence of national elections540–1
political parties539–40
subjugated by national politics541–2
and sub-regions533
and turnout541, 542
hybrid democracy, and subnational democracy729, 740
Indecon Report (2005, Ireland)57
indirect democracy:
and Finland249
and Italy339
and Luxembourg143
and Romania689
and Slovakia570
and South European states723
and Sweden270 see also representative democracy
institutional change, and subnational democracy731–2
interactive governance, and subnational democratic reform733–4
intergovernmental relations12
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)2
International Monetary Fund (IMF), and establishment of2
internet, and spread of10
Ireland, and subnational democracy65
and abolition of dual mandate57
and Better Local Government: A Programme for Change (1996)61
and challenges facing63–4
responses to64
and citizen attitudes towards60–1
and citizen participation61
promotion of active citizenship61–3
Strategic Policy Committees (SPCs)61–2
and city/county manager system55
and consensus democracy66
and constitutional framework51–2
recognition of role in49–50
and country characteristics48
and direct democracy66
and economic development51, 63
and elected mayors57, 58, 66
and electoral politics59
and ethnic diversity63
and European Charter of Local Self-Government50, 64
and European Union53, 64–5
and finances55–7
central control over57
expenditure55, 56
sources of55–6
state grants56–7
and functions of:
community development programmes54
reduction in54
and history of49–51
clientelism51
economic development51
impact of civil war50–1
influence on twentieth century politics51
Irish nationalism50
land issues50
religion50
and immigration63
and Ireland61–2
and Local Government Act (1991)49
and Local Government Act (2001)50, 57, 65
and Local Government Act (Ireland) Act (1898, UK)49
and majoritarian democracy51
and neo-corporatism66
as parliamentary democracy51–2
and participatory democracy65, 66
and pendulum democracy66
and Planning and Development Act (2000)55
and principal-agent relationship with central government65–6
and proportional representation51–2
and public-private partnerships54
and regionalization53–4
and socio-economic context of63
and socio-economic profile of councillors59–60
and state tradition52
(p. 761) and turnout59, 60
and two-tier system52–3
Italian Communist Party (PCI)335, 336, 343, 344
Italy, and subnational democracy:
and challenges facing:
centre-periphery relations348
economic imbalances347–8
political fragmentation346–7
representative politics348–9
and citizen participation349–52
and country characteristics332
and decentralization344
and deliberative democracy350, 351–2
and direct democracy339, 349, 350
and electoral system, national level336
and European Union347–8
and federalism, fiscal federalism344–5
and historical background331–3
containment of territorial and ideological mobilization333
emergence of regionalist parties334
post-war period333–4
and majoritarian democracy339, 343, 349
and municipalities:
employees341
local parties341
as natural cultural unit341
number of339
reforms of341
responsibilities of341, 342
size of340
and national democratic institutions:
competitive democracy336
consensus democracy335, 338
consolidation of parties336–7
electoral system336
federalism338
federal-unitary dimension338–9
indirect democracy339
institutional reform334
majoritarian democracy352
as mixed type of democracy339
modernization of336
political parties335–6
political subcultures335–6
unitary system338
and participatory democracy350, 351–2
and political parties:
consolidation of336–7
emergence of regionalist parties334
local level341, 349
national level335–6
and prefects343
and primary elections350
and proportional representation336
and provinces:
definition of342–3
institutions of343
number of339, 341
responsibilities of342, 343
and referendums350
and regions:
Conferenza Stato-Regioni (CSR, Italy)348
constitutional reform345
creation of343–4
expenditure345–6
fiscal federalism344–5
institutional structure344
number of339
reforms of343
responsibilities of342, 352–3
and voter democracy350
Keynesianism:
and opposition to2–3
and post-war consensus2
Lambert Report (2007, France)326
Latvia, and subnational democracy:
and administrative-territorial reform614–15
and central-subnational relations611–12
state supervision612
and challenges facing611
and characteristics of Latvian democracy601–2
and citizen participation610–11, 616
elections608, 616
and collaborations by local governments613–14
and councils603
administrative system605
auditing committees604–5
chairperson604
characteristics of councillors605–6
executive director604
number of councillors605
standing committees604
and country characteristics596, 597
and elections:
cancelling of results607
candidates606, 607
party finance606
voting requirements605–6
and electoral system601
local level605
and European Charter of Local Self-Government600, 615
and European Union, Structural Funds610
(p. 762) and finances609–10, 616
and historical background:
post-Soviet period598–600
pre-Soviet period597
Soviet period597–8
and local government reforms599–600
and local government system602–3
On Local Governments law (1994)600, 603
and majoritarian democracy598
and municipal councils, establishment of598–9
and national democratic institutions597
and New Public Management602
and pendulum democracy601
and proportional representation601
and public administration reforms, principles of602
and public attitudes607
and public-private partnerships614
and referendums611
and self-evaluation of local governments612–13
and size of municipalities603
and state traditions601, 615
and turnout607, 616
relationship with socio-economic development608
Latvian Popular Front598
The Left (German political party)156
Left Alliance (Finland)244
Left Party (Sweden)265
legalism, and Austria175
Lega Lombarda (Italy)334
Lega Nord (Italy)334, 345, 349
Les Trente Glorieuses (1945-75), and territorial governance1–3
Liberal National Party (PNL, Romania)691, 692
Liberal Party (Denmark)224–5, 229
Liberal Party (Sweden)265
Liga Piemunteisa (Italy)334
Liga Veneta (Italy)334
Lisbon Treaty (2007)6
and Irish rejection of65
List Dinkhauser (Austria)183
Lithuania, and subnational democracy:
and central-local relations623–4
and challenges facing:
civil service reform637
economic reforms635–6
legal system636
Soviet political heritage634
and citizen participation624–5
community centres631–2
party membership629–30
perceptions of personal influence633
weakness of civil society632–3
and civil society631
interest groups633
trade unions633–4
weakness of632–3
and community coalitions632
and community organizations632
and counties628
and country characteristics618
and electoral system:
local level622–3
national level621–2
and finances627–8
and historical background619–20
and Law on Local Self-Government627
and Law on the Fundamentals of Local Government (1990)622, 625
and municipalities:
community representatives627
delegated functions of626–7
independent functions of626
number of625
size of625–6
and national democratic institutions620–1
and non-governmental organizations630–1
and political parties629–30
and proportional representation622
and public attitudes636, 637
and referendums625, 630
and regions628
and territorial administrative reform625
and trust in local government626
and turnout621–2
Lithuanian Work Democratic Party (LDDP)635
local autonomy, and democracy5
Local Government Association (LGA, UK)37
Local Governments Denmark225, 235
London, and elected mayor34, 44, 45
Luxembourg, and subnational democracy:
and centralized form of128
and challenges facing142–4
and citizen participation134–7
citizens' initiatives136–7
consultations134
immigrant participation committee135
mayors' assessment of135–6
referendums135
transparency134
youth councils135
and country characteristics123
(p. 763) and direct democracy127
and districts129
and electoral system125–6, 130–1
and European Charter of Local Self-Government139
and finances137–8
and historical background124
and indirect democracy143
and integration of foreign residents142–4
and majoritarian democracy130, 131
and municipalities:
autonomy of129
composition of130
electoral system130–1
finances137–8
merging of141
population size128–9
supervision of129–30
syndicates of139
transborder cooperation139–40
voting eligibility130
and national democratic institutions124–7
legislative process124–5
and petitions126
and political autonomy139–40
and political parties131–3
and proportional representation125–6, 130
impact on subnational politics131–3
and public attitudes134
and referendums127, 135
and reform plans140–1
and representative democracy126
and subnational politics131–4
impact of proportional representation131–3
political parties131–3
relationship with national politics133–4
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (LSAP)132, 133
Maastricht Treaty (1993)6, 344
and voting rights142
majoritarian democracy:
and Bulgaria666, 671
and Cyprus459, 460
and Czech Republic509
and Estonia580
and France309, 310
and Greece412, 415, 416, 419, 420
and Hungary530
and Ireland51
and Italy339, 343, 349, 352
and Latvia598
and Luxembourg130, 131
and Malta437
and Norway284
and Poland482, 494
and Portugal388, 389
and Romania689, 690
and Spain360, 376
and United Kingdom30–4
Malta, and subnational democracy:
and Association of Local Councils439, 444, 446, 452
and Association of Local Councils Executive Secretaries446
and communication by councils442
and competencies of local councils444, 453
extension of450–2
and Congress of Local and Regional Authorities in Europe438, 439
and council assembly meetings444
pre-council meetings445
and council sub-committees442
and country characteristics434, 435
and dismissal of staff449
and efficiency440
and electoral system437, 442
and emancipating effects of local government439
and establishment of local councils438
and European Union funding452
and executive body of local councils445
and finances447–8, 451
and future reform453
and Gozo436–7
and historical background435–6
and inter-municipal cooperation452
and Local Councils Department445–6
and local elections438
and mayors440
election of443
no confidence motions444
no fixed terms443–4
and national democratic institutions:
legislature437
majoritarian democracy437
self-government437–8
and neighbourhood committees439
and number and size of councils440–1
and Ombudsman442
and parking laws441–2
and payment of councillors444
and performance-related pay449
and proportional representation437, 442
and referendums441
(p. 764) and regions442–3, 452, 453
and representation on international bodies444
and representative democracy439
and role of councillors445
and secretaries of councils440, 444, 445
appointment of446
autonomy of446
role of446–7
and turnout449–50
and voting rights of foreigners450
Malta Labour Party438, 443, 450
Marshall Plan2
Mauroy Report (2000, France)327
mayors:
and Austria186–7
and Belgium84–6
and Bulgaria671
and Cyprus465
and Czech Republic512
and Denmark226
and directly elected mayors736–7
and Estonia581, 589
and France318, 319
and Germany161
and Greece417, 420
and Hungary535, 536
and Ireland57, 58, 66
and Malta440, 443–4
and Netherlands105, 115–16
and Norway287, 300
and Poland492–3, 495–7
and Slovakia559
and Slovenia652, 653–5
and Spain367
and United Kingdom32, 44
microcosmic representation43–4
mobile phones, and spread of10
Moderate Party (Sweden)265, 278
Movement for Rights and Freedoms (DPS, Bulgaria)667, 680–1
multilevel governance, and subnational democratic reform732–3
National Association of the Municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria (NAMRB)679
National Coalition Party (Finland)244, 248
National Democratic Party (NPD, Germany)154
Nationalist Party (Malta)438, 443, 450
National Movement for Stability and Prosperity (NDSV, Bulgaria)667
National Salvation Front (FSN, Romania)691
National Unity Party (UBP, Cyprus)469
Navarre, and terrorism377–8
Nea Dimokratia (Greece)419
neo-corporatism:
and Belgium72
and Finland244
and Ireland66 see also corporatism
neo-liberalism:
and adoption of ideas of3–4
and central-subnational government relations4–5
and globalization3, 4
and governance concept5
and subnational democracy740
and territorial governance4–5
Netherlands, and subnational democracy102–3
and assessing democratic reform118–19
and challenges facing111
quality of local democracy112
subnational governing capacity113
and citizen participation107–9
interactive policy-making116–17, 119
reform efforts109–10
and co-governance98, 111
and consensus democracy98
informal values of government98
and country characteristics96
and decentralization117
and depillarization112
and electoral politics105–7
and electoral system99
and enhancement of local democracy114
dualization of local government114–15
improving subnational governing capacity117–18
interactive policy-making116–17, 119
mayoral selection procedures115–16
and finances103–4
and historical background97–8
and implementation of national policies111
and institutional framework101
and intergovernmental relations110–11
and Local Government Act (2002)105
and mayors105
attempt to reform selection procedures115–16
and municipalities:
amalgamations113
finances103–4
institutional structure104–5
national constraints on101
policy freedom101
population size103
(p. 765) responsibilities of101, 102
and national democratic institutions98–100
constitutional change99
formal institutions99
informal values of government98
national deliberative processes99–100
responsibilities of102
stakeholder participation99–100
and political parties99, 112
anti-establishment parties106–7
local level105–7
new local parties107
and proportional representation99
and provinces102–3
responsibilities of102, 103
and referendums100
local referendums109
rejection of Constitutional Treaty6
and representative democracy99, 108
and subnational governing capacity113
improving117–18
and turnout107–8, 112
and urban-regional authorities113
and voter democracy100, 109
network governance:
and Austria191
and Sweden272–3
and Switzerland211
New Democracies in Eastern Europe13–14, 716
and communist legacy724
and European Union influence724–5
and heterogeneity of725
and institutional change731
and reform challenges739
New Left, and post-war consensus2
New Public Management (NPM):
and Belgium83
and Finland253
and Germany161, 165
and Greece414
and Latvia602
and mainstreaming of740
and neo-liberalism4
and Netherlands116
and Poland498–9
and Portugal405
and Switzerland203, 211
and United Kingdom40
New Right:
and adoption of ideas of3
and rejection of Keynesianism3
Nice Treaty (2001)6
Nordic states13, 716
and democratic model:
consensus democracy721–2
pendulum democracy722
voter democracy722
and direct democracy722
and Free Commune experiment5
and institutional change731
and reform challenges738
and regions721
and representative democracy722
and state traditions721
and subnational democracy721–2 see also Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden
Northern Ireland49
Norway, and subnational democracy:
and central-local cooperation284
and challenges facing297–9
citizen as consumer298
earmarked grants298
immigration299
professionalization of public service delivery298
responses to299–301
rise in individualism298–9
stipulation of national standards297–8
and citizen participation294–6
public attitudes295–6
strengthening of300–1
and citizens' initiatives301
and consensus democracy284, 285
and counties:
finances289–91
functions of287–8, 289
governance296–7
increased autonomy297
loss of responsibilities288–9
number of286
size of286
structure of287
and country characteristics282
and decentralization288
reversal of288–9
and electoral system:
local level291
national level284–5
and erosion of local autonomy302
and finances289–91
central control over taxation levels290–1
(p. 766) earmarked grants298
and historical background283
and information and communication technologies299
and institutional framework286–7
and lack of constitutional recognition of local government301–2
and majoritarianism284
and mayors287, 300
and municipalities:
central intervention in289
cooperation between297
finances289–91
functions of287–8, 289
governance296–7
increased autonomy297
number of286
size of286
structure of287
unrepresentativeness of293–4
and national democratic institutions284–5
coalitions285
electoral system284–5
parliament284
state traditions284
and political parties291
and proportional representation285
and public attitudes294–6
and referendums300–1
and regional policy, reform failure286–7
and subnational governance296–7
and subnational politics291–4
elections291–2
electoral system291
political parties291
turnout292
unrepresentativeness of293–4
women's representation292–3
and tension in central-local relations302
and trust in local government294
and turnout292
and uncertainty over future of302
Norwegian Association of Local Authorities299–300
Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK)417
paradiplomacy9
participatory democracy16, 716
and Belgium89, 91
and British Isles719
and Czech Republic518
and decline in participation10
and Germany150, 159, 160, 165
and Greece421
and interactive governance733–4
and Ireland65, 66
and Italy350, 351–2
and partial success of initiatives729
and post-war welfare state2
and Rhinelandic states719
and Slovakia567, 570
and Slovenia650
and South European states723–4
at subnational level18
partnerships, and United Kingdom39–40
Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS, Germany)156
Party of Moldavians from Romania (PMR)691
Party of New Democracy (PND, Portugal)401
Party of Social Democracy from Romania (PDSR)691
Party of Transylvanians (PA)691
Peasants' Christian and Democratic National Party (PNTCD, Romania)691, 692
pendulum democracy15, 716
and analytical usefulness of730
and Belgium90–1
and British Isles719
and characteristics at subnational level16–17
and Czech Republic509
and directly elected mayors736
and Europe/United States comparison727
and Germany150, 169
and Greece411, 414–15, 427, 430
and Ireland66
and Latvia601
and Nordic states722
and Portugal388, 389
and Rhinelandic states719
and Romania689–90
deviations from690–4
and South European states723
and Spain361
and Sweden270
People's Party (Estonia)588
People's Party (PP, Spain)368
petitions:
and Bulgaria674
and Germany157–8
and Luxembourg126
and United Kingdom39
Poland, and subnational democracy:
and capital spending488–9
(p. 767) and central-local relations486
and citizen participation497–8
and consensus democracy482
and counties (powiat)484
elections492
functions of487–8
number of484
size of485
and country characteristics480
and decentralization:
1998 reforms483
fear of481
future reform plans494–5
post-Communist reforms483
and electoral system492
and European Charter of Local Self-Government486
and European Union:
accession to481
Europeanization501–2
and finances:
capital spending488–9
expenditure484, 485
revenue sources489–92
and functions of local government487–9
and historical background481
and local governance498–500
barriers to development of500
factors encouraging499–500
and Local Government Act (1990)483
and local government associations486
and local political system492–4
characteristics of councillors495
elections492
electoral systems492
Europeanization501
independent councillors and mayors496–7
low level of partisanship495
mayors492–3, 495–6
political parties495–6
reduction in number of councillors493
referendums493
women's representation495
and majoritarian democracy494
and majoritarianism482
and mayors492–3, 495–6
independents496–7
and municipalities (gmina)484
constitutional protection of484
elections492
functions of487
number of484
property tax489
revenue sources489–90
size of484, 485
and national democratic institutions482
and New Public Management498–9
and political parties:
instability of482
local level495–6
and post-Communist reforms483
and proportional representation492
and rebirth of483
and referendums493
and regions (województwo)484
elections492
Europeanization of policy501–2
fear of regional autonomy481
functions of488
growing role of502
Integrated Regional Operating Programme502
number of484
size of485
and revenue sources:
borrowing491–2
equalization mechanisms490
European Union funding491
evolving structure of491
general purpose grant490
property tax489
shares in national taxes490
specific purpose grants490–1
and territorial organization484
and trust in local government498
and turnout497–8
and Warsaw484
political parties:
and Austria
municipalities188
provincial182–4
and Belgium76, 86
right-wing parties91–2
and Bulgaria:
local level673
national level667, 668
and Cyprus:
northern Cyprus469
personality-cult leadership463–4
southern Cyprus466–8
and Czech Republic517–18
local level515, 516
national level508
and Denmark229–30
and Estonia:
local level587–8
(p. 768) national level579, 580
and Finland:
local level248, 249
national level244
and Germany:
local politics162
regional politics154–7
and Greece:
local level417–19
national level412
and Hungary:
formation of531
local level539–40
and Italy:
consolidation of336–7
emergence of regionalist parties334
local level341, 349
national level335–6
and Lithuania629–30
and Luxembourg, in subnational politics131–3
and Netherlands99, 105–7, 112
anti-establishment parties106–7
new local parties107
and Norway, local level291
and Poland:
instability of482
local level495–6
and Portugal387–8
and Romania:
local level693–4
national level690–2
and Slovakia, local level563
and Slovenia, national level646–7
and Spain368, 370–1
and Sweden:
local level268–9
national level265–6
and Switzerland206–8
and United Kingdom local government32, 33
poll tax (UK)37–8
Portugal, and subnational democracy:
and accumulation of positions (cumul de mandats)393–4
dual mandates394–5
and autonomous regions of Madeira and Azores396–400, 405–6, 406–7
and challenges facing406–7
and changes in local governance404–6
Intermunicipal Communities404–5
inter-municipal enterprises405
public-private partnerships405
supra-municipal structures404
and citizen participation:
citizens' lists402–4
low levels402
and country characteristics384
and districts (distritos)389, 390
and electoral system388, 391–2
and historical background385–6
and local elections388–9, 400–4
citizens' lists402–4
election results402
national impact of389
political parties400–1
volatility of electorate400
and majoritarian democracy389
and municipalities (municipios):
associations of404–5
characteristics of councillors393
competencies of395
coordination problems404
council leader392–3
electoral system391–2
executive-legislative structure390–1
finances395–6
municipal enterprises394, 405
number of390, 392
size of391, 392
supra-municipal structures404–5
women's representation393
and national democratic institutions387–8
legislative-executive relations388
majoritarian democracy388
political parties387–8
and New Public Management405
and parishes (freguesias):
characteristics of councillors393
citizens' lists403
competencies of395
council leader392–3
electoral system391–2
executive-legislative structure390–1
finances395–6
number of390, 392
size of391, 392
women's representation393
and pendulum democracy388, 389
and political parties387–8
local elections400–1
and proportional representation392, 400
and referendums389
and regionalization407
proposals for389
rejected in referendum389, 404
as springboard to national politics394–5
(p. 769) Portuguese Association of Municipal Enterprises394
Primary Care Trusts (UK)38
privatization, and neo-liberalism4
Progressive Party of Working People (AKEL, Cyprus)457, 466–7
Pro Patria Union (Estonia)578, 588
proportional representation:
and Austria180, 187
and Belgium76, 86
and Bulgaria671
and Czech Republic507, 515
and Denmark229
and Estonia581, 587
and Finland244–5
and Germany150, 152
and Hungary537
and Ireland51–2
and Italy336
and Latvia601
and Lithuania622
and Luxembourg125–6, 130, 131–3
and Malta437, 442
and Netherlands99
and Norway285
and Poland492
and Portugal392, 400
and Romania689
and Slovakia554–5
and Slovenia646, 651
Pro Transylvania Civic Foundation704
Provisional Turkish Cypriot Administration (PTCA)458
public-private partnerships (PPPs):
and Belgium90
and Czech Republic519
and Ireland54
and Latvia614
and Portugal405
and Slovakia568
and Sweden273
QuattroPole network140
referendums:
and Austria185, 189
and Belgium89
and Bulgaria667, 674
and Czech Republic518
and Denmark231–2
and Estonia588
and Finland245, 248–9
and France319–20
and Germany151, 157–8, 163–4
and Hungary542
and Italy350
and Latvia611
and Lithuania625, 630
and Luxembourg127, 135
and Malta441
and Netherlands100, 109
and Norway300–1
and Poland493
and Portugal389
and Romania690
and Slovakia566–7
and Slovenia646, 650, 661
and Spain373, 374
and subnational democracy18
and subnational democratic reform734–5
and Sweden269–70, 277
and Switzerland199, 204–5, 205–6, 734–5
and United Kingdom33 see also direct democracy; voter democracy
Reform Movement (Sąjūdis, Lithuania)619–20
Reform Party (Estonia)588
regional policy:
and Assembly of European Regions7
and Committee of the Regions7–8
and Council of Europe8–9
and divisions in740–1
and economic development10
and European Union6–8
and partnership7
and Structural Funds7
and subsidiarity7 see also individual countries
Renewal Impulse for Dualization and Local Democracy (Netherlands)114
representative democracy:
and British Isles719
and Denmark231
and ethnic minorities43–4
and Europe/United States comparison727
and Finland245, 248
strengthening of256
and Luxembourg126
and Malta439
and Netherlands99, 108
and Nordic states722
and post-war welfare state2
and Slovenia645, 646, 650
and Spain361
and Sweden262–3
strengthening institutions of276 see also indirect democracy
(p. 770) Republican Turkish Party (CTP, Cyprus)463, 469
Res Publica (Estonia)588
Rhinelandic states13, 716
and democratic model718–19
consensus democracy718–19
participatory democracy719
pendulum democracy720
voter democracy719
and institutional change731–2
and reform challenges737
and state traditions719–20 see also Austria; Belgium; Germany; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Switzerland
Richard Report (2006, France)324, 326
right-wing political parties:
and Austria175–6
and Belgium91–2
Romania, and subnational democracy:
and administrative reforms695–7
and challenges facing:
creation of democratic regional bodies706
improving cooperation706
regional policy706
socio-economic development706–7
and citizen participation690, 702–4
and citizenship development707–8
and competencies of local government696
and consensus democracy690
and constitutional framework695–7
and Consultative County Commission (CJC)690
and country characteristics685
and decentralization695, 698–700
and deconcentration697
and electoral system:
national level689
variety of693
and enhancing participation in decision-making707
and European Charter of Local Self-Government695
and European Union695
gaining access to resources708
and finances of local government697–700
disparities in resource distribution698
distribution of equalization funds698
own revenues697
reliance on state budgets698
state transfers697–8
and historical background686–7
and indirect democracy689
and institutional framework695
and majoritarian democracy689, 690
and national democratic institutions689–90
diversity of electoral systems693
instability694
parliament689
political parties690–2
president689
and non-governmental organizations703
and pendulum democracy689–90
deviations from690–4
and political parties:
local level693–4
national level690–2
and proportional representation689
and referendums690
and regions:
establishment of development regions700
institutions of regional development700–1
National Agency for Regional Development (ANDR)700
National Council for Regional Development (CNDR)700
Regional Development Agencies (RDAs)701, 705
Regional Development Councils (RDCs)701, 704
Regional Development Fund (RDF)701
regional institutions701
and state traditions686, 687–9
centralized state688
communist centralist legacy688
external influences on state reform688–9
regions687–8
unitary state687
and subnational governance704–6
balancing local-regional levels708
evolution of708
local government associations705
multi-level governance705–6, 709
regional level704–5
and trust in political institutions702
and turnout702–3
and voter democracy690
Romanian Humanist Party (PUR)692
Shannon Development54
Skeffington Committee (UK)37
Slovakia, and subnational democracy:
and challenges facing570
number of municipalities570–1
role in economic development571–2
and citizen participation566–7
and consensus democracy569
and constitutional status558
(p. 771) and country characteristics552
and direct democracy570
and electoral system:
municipalities562–3
national level554–5
regions563–4
and European Union:
accession to553
influence of569
and finances:
borrowing566
revenue sources564–6
and governance567–8
and historical background553
economic transition553
and historical development of555–7
post-Communist reforms556–7
and indirect democracy570
and local state administration556, 557
and mayors559
and municipalities:
Association of Towns and Villages of Slovakia567
borrowing566
chief auditor560
chief officer560
committee system559
constitutional status558
cooperation between571
cooperation with other institutions567
electoral system562–3
executive560
forms of service delivery567–8
mayor559
municipal council559
municipal office560
number of557, 558
responsibilities of559
role in economic development571–2
size of558
status of cities559
sub-divisions of559–60
and national democratic institutions554
National Council of the Slovak Republic554–5
president555
and participatory democracy567, 570
and political parties563
and proportional representation554–5
and referendums566–7
and regions:
borrowing566
chief auditor561
committee system561
constitutional status558
cooperation with other institutions567
electoral system563–4
number of557, 561
number of councillors561
president561
regional office561
responsibilities of560
revenue sources564–6
role in economic development571–2
size of561
and service delivery:
consumer choice568
performance management568
public-private partnerships568
variety of forms of567–8
and state traditions569
and trust in local government567
and turnout564
and voter democracy570
Slovenia, and subnational democracy:
and centralization658
and central-local relations652–5
dual mandates653–5
local interest associations653
and citizen participation650–1, 661
and country characteristics642
and decentralization658, 659
and direct democracy646, 650
and economic background657–8
and electoral system:
local level651
mayoral elections652
municipal councils651–2
national level645–6
and finances655–6
expenditure656, 658
revenue sources655–6
and historical background643–4
and mayors652
dual mandates653–5
and municipalities:
central control over648
fragmentation of648–9
historical background647–8
integration of661
legal status of649
number of648
resistance to centralism649
size of649
urban municipalities649
and national democratic institutions645–7
(p. 772) and participatory democracy650
and political parties646–7
and proportional representation646, 651
and referendums646, 650, 661
and reform of local government:
as dynamic process660
shortcomings of661
and regions:
finances660
proposals for659
responsibilities of659–60
and representative democracy645, 646, 650
and state tradition644–5
and voter democracy650
Social Democratic Party (Denmark)225, 229
Social Democratic Party (EDEK, Cyprus)468
Social Democratic Party (Estonia)588
Social Democratic Party (Finland)244
Social Democratic Party (Lithuania)634
Social Democratic Party (PSD, Portugal)387, 400, 403
Social Democratic Party (PSD, Romania)691, 692
Social Democratic Party (Sweden)265, 276
Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ)174, 175, 182, 183, 184
Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)154, 156
Social Democratic Romas' Party from Romania (PRSDR)691
Social Democrat Party (PDSR/PSD, Romania)691
Socialist Party (PS, Portugal)387, 400, 401
Solidarity481
Southern European states13, 716
and democratic model723–4
indirect democracy723
participatory democracy723–4
pendulum democracy723
and institutional change731, 732
and reform challenges738–9
and state traditions722–3
and voter democracy723 see also Cyprus; France; Greece; Italy; Malta; Portugal; Spain
Soviet Union, and collapse of6
Spain, and subnational democracy:
and Autonomous Communities (ACs)359, 362
electoral system365–6
finances366
governance374–5
government formation370
number of364
political parties368–70
prime ministers363–5
size of362
subunits of363
types of364
voting patterns370
and challenges facing:
corruption377, 379
economic competitiveness377
Europeanization377, 378
globalization377, 378
immigration378
lack of resources377, 378–9
responses to378–80
terrorism377–8, 379–80
women's representation378, 379
and citizen participation372–4
associational activity372
citizens' initiatives373
consultations373
consultative councils373
encouragement of379
participatory budgeting373–4
and consensus democracy376
and country characteristics357
and direct democracy373
and electoral system365–6
and historical background356–8
and institutional framework362–8
and islands362, 363
and majoritarianism376
and mayors367
and municipalities:
councillors366–7
council powers367
decentralization367
election results371
executive366, 367
finances375
inter-municipal cooperation376
majority governments371
political parties370–1
privatization376
responsibilities of375
size of362–3
stability of governments371
and national democratic institutions359–62
aggregative democracy361
consensus democracy360
corporatism359–60
direct democracy361
federalism359
Germanic state tradition359
(p. 773) majoritarian democracy360
Napoleonic state tradition359
pendulum democracy361
recent transformations359
representative democracy361
state-society relations359–60
and political parties368, 370–1
and provinces362, 363
finances367–8
main bodies of367
mergers363
and public attitudes372
dual identity373
statist views372
and referendums373, 374
and subnational governance374–6
and subnational politics368–72
election results369, 371
government formation370, 371
nationalization of372
political parties368, 370–1
stability of governments371
voting patterns370
and turnout372
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)368
Standards Board (UK)43
Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe8
state traditions:
and Anglo tradition12
and British Isles717–19
and continental Europe12
French tradition13
Germanic tradition12–13
Scandinavian tradition13
and Europe/United States comparison727–8
as heuristic device716
and new democracies in Eastern Europe725–6
and Nordic states721
and Rhinelandic states719–20
and South European states722–3
and territorial governance13
Statistics Sweden277
Structural Funds7
subnational democracy:
and British Isles717–19
and citizen disaffection741
and consensus democracy, characteristics of17
and decentralization5
and direct democracy18
and economic development10
and European regional policy6–9
and Europe/United States comparison726–8
and formal/informal democracy18–19
and heterogeneity of740
and hybrid democracy729, 740
and indirect democracy18
and innovation at local level741
and institutional change731–2
and neo-liberalism740
and new democracies in Eastern Europe726
and New Public Management740
and Nordic states721–2
and participatory democracy18
and pendulum democracy, characteristics of16–17
and referendums18
as reflection of national democracy728–9
and reform challenges:
British Isles738
New Democracies in Eastern Europe739
Nordic states738
Rhinelandic states737
Southern European states738–9
and reform themes732
directly elected mayors736–7
interactive governance733–4
local referendums734–5
multilevel governance732–3
and regional policy740–1
and relations with central government:
factors behind decentralization9–10
impact of neo-liberalism4–5
principal-agent relationship1–2, 4
and Rhinelandic states719–20
and South European states722–4
and state traditions approach:
Anglo tradition12
French tradition13
Germanic tradition12–13
Scandinavian tradition13 see also individual countries
sub-prime mortgage market crisis4
subsidiarity7
and Switzerland201–2, 214, 215
Sweden, and subnational democracy:
and challenges facing273–5
ageing population275
changes in system of democracy273–4
economic restructuring274
ethnic diversity274–5
globalization274
improved education274
responses to275–9
underclass274
urbanization275
(p. 774) and citizen participation272
consultations277
enhancing276
and citizens' initiatives270
and country characteristics261
and county councils266
amalgamations267
establishment of267
executive267–8
finances268
functions of267
organization of267
size of267
and direct democracy266, 277
and electoral system:
local level269
national level263
and finances268
and Free Commune experiment5, 277–8
and historical background262
and improving local democracy275–6
citizen consultations277
dilemma over276
enhancing citizen participation276
identifying citizens' opinions277
increasing choice277
local referendums277
non-party committees276–7
organizational changes277–8
regionalization reform278–9
strengthening institutions of representative democracy276
and institutional framework266–8
and municipalities:
amalgamations266, 275
executive267–8
finances268
functions of267
organization of267
size of266
and national democratic institutions263–6
consensus democracy263, 264–5
corporatism264–5
decentralized unitary state264
electoral system263
local self-government264
openness263
parliament262–3
political parties265–6
unitary state263–4
and participatory democracy276
and political parties:
local level268–9
national level265–6
and public attitudes271
and public-private partnerships273
and referendums269–70, 277
and regions266
regionalization reform278–9
and representative democracy262–3
strengthening of276
and subnational governance272–3
cooperation273
network governance272
and subnational politics268–71
consensus democracy270
decrease in number of politicians270–1
electoral system269
indirect democracy270
pendulum democracy270
political parties268–9
referendums269–70
women's representation271
and trust in local government271–2
and turnout263, 272
and welfare state:
challenges facing262
establishment of262
Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions276
Swedish People's Party (Finland)248
Swiss People's Party (SVP)199–200
Switzerland, and subnational democracy:
and autonomy202, 214, 215
and cantons197, 201
autonomy of202
cooperation between213–14
direct democracy203, 204–5
election turnout209–10
executive202
parliament203
political parties206–7
powers of201
services provided by206
size of201
and citizen participation206
holding public offices209
and citizens' initiatives199, 205–6
and corporatism200
and country characteristics196–7
and direct democracy215
national level198–9, 200–1
subnational level203, 204–6
(p. 775) and electoral system200, 203
and federalism:
cooperative federalism214
symmetric federalism197
and female suffrage198
and finances202
and historical background197–8
and importance of215
and institutional framework202–4
electoral systems203
executive202
parliaments and assemblies203–4
and intergovernmental relations214–15
and municipalities197, 201
agglomerations213
amalgamations212
autonomy of202
direct democracy203, 205–6
election turnout210–11
executive202
inter-municipal cooperation212–13
municipal assemblies203–4, 205
parliaments203–4
political parties207–8
powers of201
services provided by206
size of201
transborder cooperation213
and national democratic institutions198–201
consensus democracy199, 200
direct democracy198–9, 200–1
Federal Council198
as hybrid system198
parliament200
power-sharing199–200
Supreme Court199
and New Public Management203, 211
and political parties206–8
and referendums199, 204–5, 205–6, 734–5
and subnational governance211
network governance211
and subnational politics206–9
political parties206–8
power-sharing208–9
voluntary proportionality at elections208–9
women's representation208
and subsidiarity201–2, 214, 215
and turnout209–11
and voter democracy205, 215
Taxpayers' Alliance (UK)41
Tenant Participation Compacts (UK)38
territorial governance:
and central-subnational relations:
European regional policy6–9
impact of neo-liberalism4–5
principal-agent relationship1–2, 4
and European integration6
and factors behind decentralization9–10
and globalization4
and neo-liberalism4–5
and post-war period (1945-75)1–3
and state traditions13
terrorism, and Spain377–8, 379–80
TMT (Turkish Resistance Organization)460
Transborder Agglomeration139–40
transborder cooperation:
and Austria191–2
and Estonia590–1
and Luxembourg139–40
and municipalities139–40
and Switzerland213
True Finns Party248
trust in political institutions:
and Belgium89
and Bulgaria667
and Czech Republic520
and Denmark231
and Estonia580
and Lithuania626
and Norway294
and Poland498
and Romania702
and Slovakia567
and Sweden271–2
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC)458, 461, 465–6, 469, 470
turnout:
and Austria183
and Bulgaria667
and Czech Republic516, 517
and Estonia588
and Finland250, 251–2
and Hungary541, 542
and Ireland59, 60
and Latvia607, 608, 616
and Lithuania621–2
and Malta449–50
and Netherlands107–8, 112
and Norway292
and Poland497–8
and Romania702–3
and Slovakia564
and Spain372
and Sweden263, 272
and Switzerland209–11
(p. 776) and United Kingdom37
typologies, and disadvantages of729
Union of Cities and Municipalities of Luxembourg (Syvicol)140–1, 142
United Cyprus Republic (UCR)458, 463
United Democrats (Cyprus)468
United Kingdom, and subnational democracy28
and access to central government34
lack of36–7
weak representation35
and bureaucracy30, 31, 37
and central power over29, 30, 35, 40
and citizen participation:
attempts to encourage37
citizen governance38–9
decline in37
market-based reforms37–8
neighbourhood decentralization39
and constitutional framework29–30
and councillor behaviour43
and country characteristics27
and decision-making:
cabinet system32–3
committee system32
party groups33
and decline in political status45
and decline in public reputation41
and devolution34
and diminishing of community identity36
and discretion of34
lack of35, 45
and distance between councillor and citizen36
and elected council31
and elected mayors32, 44
referendums33
and electoral system31–2
and elite disdain for35, 45
and ethnic diversity43
impact on representative democracy43–4
and European Charter of Local Self-Government30
and financing of41–3
central control over41, 43
and functions of34
permissive powers34–5
services provided30–1
and history of28
and hung councils33–4
and lack of clear foundation28
and local governance40
and Local Government Act (2000)32, 43
and local politics
closed processes33
hung councils33–4
open processes33
single party control33
and majoritarianism at local level30–4
and market-based reforms37–8
and Municipal Corporations Act (1835)28
and partnerships39–40
and party control of32, 33
and poll tax37–8
and Standards Board43
and state tradition:
limits on power29
state power29–30
and subordinate character of30
and turnout37
and under-representation36
and unitary councils40, 44
and unit size30, 35–6
bigger is best assumption44
impact on democratic criteria36
as unplanned system28
and weakness of executive scrutiny32–3
United Left (Spain)368
United Nations, and Cyprus458
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)472
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)9, 472
United States:
and comparison with Europe726–8
and fiscal federalism5
Vaillant law (2002, France)316
varieties of capitalism2
Venice Commission8–9
Visegrád states, see Czech Republic; Hungary; Poland; Slovakia
Vlaams Belang (Belgium)91–2
Vlaams Blok (Belgium)91
voter democracy15–16, 716
and Belgium93
and British Isles719
and Czech Republic518
and Germany151, 164, 165
and Italy350
and Netherlands100, 109
and Nordic states722
and Rhinelandic states719
and Romania690
and Slovakia570
and Slovenia650
(p. 777) and South European states723
at subnational level18
and Switzerland205, 215
and United States727 see also direct democracy; referendums
Warsaw484
welfare state:
and mid-century consensus2
and neo-liberalism3–4
World Bank, and establishment of2
youth councils:
and Estonia593
and Finland255–6
and Luxembourg135