- Preface and Acknowledgements
- List of Figures
- List of Maps
- List of Tables
- List of Text Boxes
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Subnational Democracy in Europe: Changing Backgrounds and Theoretical Models
- The United Kingdom: Is there Really an Anglo Model?
- Ireland: Halting Steps Towards Local Democracy
- Belgium: A Tale of Regional Divergence?
- The Netherlands: Subnational Democracy and the Reinvention of Tradition
- Luxembourg: The Challenge of Inclusive Democracy in a ‘Local State’
- Germany: Varieties of Democracy in a Federal System
- Austria: From Consensus to Competition and Participation?
- Switzerland: Subsidiarity, Power‐Sharing, and Direct Democracy
- Denmark: Between Local Democracy and Implementing Agency of the Welfare State
- Finland: The Limits of the Unitary Decentralized Model
- Sweden: Party‐dominated Subnational Democracy Under Challenge?
- Norway: The Decline of Subnational Democracy?
- France: Between Centralization and Fragmentation
- Italy: The Subnational Dimension to Strengthening Democracy Since the 1990s
- Spain: The Consolidation of Strong Regional Governments and the Limits of Local Decentralization
- Portugal: Local Democracy in a Small Centralized Republic
- Greece: A Case of Fragmented Centralism and ‘Behind the Scenes’ Localism
- Malta: Local Government: A Slowly Maturing Process
- Cyprus: Political Modernity and the Structures of Democracy in a Divided Island
- European Subnational Democracy: Comparative Reflections and Conclusions
- Structure of Subnational Governments in Europe, 2007
- Subnational finances in Europe
- Trust, importance of local/regional government, and levels of corruption in Europe
- Subject Index
- Name Index
Abstract and Keywords
Portugal is one of the most centralized countries of the European Union. It only became a genuine democracy after the Revolution of Carnations in 1974. Only then did local authorities and autonomous regions such as Madeira and Azores became genuine local governments, despite the still existing high level of centralization. Since the transformation of Portugal from authoritarian regime into democracy, several changes have taken place. Following the revolution there came the introduction of universal adult suffrage. This was followed by the forming of the Constituent Assembly and the ratification of the new constitution. The new constitution enshrined the establishment of democratically elected administrative regions, which would replace the districts. This allowed local authorities to engage in public-private partnership and allowed for the formation of inter-municipal cooperation. In spite of the success of the new constitution and democracy, Portugal is still battered by weak social capital, clientelism and patronage, and regionalization. All of these affect Portugal' process of achieving subnational democracy.
José M. Magone is Professor of Regional and Global Governance at the Berlin School of Economics and Law, Germany.
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