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date: 26 February 2020

(p. 669) Index

(p. 669) Index

A400M air transport aircraft546
Abrams, Creighton395
Abu Dhabi MAR (ADM)528
Abu-Lughod, J608
Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)304
Adie, Kate634
Aerospace Industries Association (AIA)551
Afghan National Army343, 575
Afghan National Police575
Afghan National Security Forces575
Afghanistan24
and Afghan Development Zone355
and Afghan society141
and alternative approach in396
and American objectives in invading40
and Comprehensive Approach, strategy574–7
and confusion over aims in265
and counter-terrorism approach396
and counterinsurgency396
and ‘courageous restraint’108
and doctrinal innovations360
and elections in362
and equipment shortages539
and France251
and International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan352, 396, 485–6
Joint Command576
and management of war265, 267
and micro-conflicts136
and military leadership342–3
and military sphere141
and NATO352
chain of command77–8
divisions in73
and nature of conflict141
and Operation Enduring Freedom451–2
and Operation Herrick352–6
and Policy Action Group354–5
and political nature of war141–2
and political sphere140
and provincial reconstruction teams595–6
and relevance of strategic thought:
Clausewitz140–2
post-modern thought145
thinkers of antiquity137, 138
thinkers of Renaissance and Enlightenment139–40
and Soviet Union273
failure to anticipate invasion by234–5
and strategy in574–5
and Taliban136
and United States:
dominant role of225
intervention by73
objectives of invasion40
requests NATO assistance73
and weaknesses in Allied effort578
Afheldt, Horst189
African Union75, 657
aggressive wars, see wars of choice
agility, and logistics405, 413–14
Ahmad, H155
aid, and contemporary understanding of war48–9
air power:
and China83, 85, 87
and emerging powers83, 85
and India83, 85, 88
and unconventional warfare188 see also air warfare
air warfare:
and Balkans:
Operation Allied Force449–50
Operation Deliberate Force449
(p. 670) Operation Deny Flight448–9
theory development448
and changed character of444, 456–7
and Cold War446
and Effects Based Operations448
and ethical concerns455–6
and First World War444
and irregular warfare:
Afghanistan453–4
challenges in450–1
Israeli experience454–5
Operation Enduring Freedom451–2
and network-centric warfare452
and Operation Desert Storm (1991)446–8
casualties447–8
close air support447
dominance of offence over defence446–7
precision guided munitions446
stealth technology446
strategic attack447
and Operation Iraqi Freedom452–3
and photo-reconnaissance232–3
and precision guided munitions446, 449, 450, 452
and problems with450–1
and revolution in military affairs456–7
and Second World War444–6
strategic bombing offensive36, 202, 445
and special forces452, 453
and unmanned aerial vehicles63, 450, 454
Al Hurra (tv station)191
Al Qaeda20, 73, 153, 206, 220, 610, 664
al-Sadr, Moqtada484
al-Zarqawi, Abu Musab485
Alexander, Caroline18
Alexander the Great389, 390
Algeria45, 48
and French operations in50–1, 388–9
and myth of50
and nuclear threat171
and nuclear weapons166
alliances:
and changes in70
and characteristics of69
and coalitions, differences between320–2
and cumbersome nature of75
and diverse purposes of69–8
and duration of70, 320
and globalization76–7
and NATO as 20th century exemplar321
as partnership of equals320
and plasticity of concept70
and reciprocity320
and role and functioning of70
and Second World War322
Grand Alliance322 see also coalitions; NATO
Allied Force, Operation449–50
Allied Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC)573–4
Allison, Graham T2, 226n2
American Civil War:
and civilianization of warfare202
and decisive battle143
and demography603
and guerrilla warfare204
and industry518
American Revolution, and guerrilla warfare390–1
Anaconda, Operation452–3
Angola369
Annan, Kofi94n11, 103, 350, 367
annihilation, strategy of24
anti-ballistic missile defence:
and nuclear deterrence171–3
and space-related research and development491
Antill, P D401, 406, 410, 413
Aquinas, St Thomas, and doctrine of double effect106
Arab nationalism220, 393
Arcadia Conference (1941)307
Argentina201
Aristotle215
Ark Royal, HMS506
armaments:
and irregular warfare187–8
and terrorism205
Armed Conflict, Law of445
armed forces:
and core competence of667
and organization of45
and role of218, 668
(p. 671) arms control, and nuclear non-proliferation51, 52
Aron, Raymond47, 53, 62, 66, 190, 195
and criticism of ‘total strategy’144
and goal of revolutionary warfare189
and nature of modern total war54, 143
and psychological warfare190
and relationship between head of state and people221
Ashdown, Paddy375
Asquith, H H266
Association of Southeast Asian Nations75, 304
asymmetric warfare77, 303–4, 374, 655–6
and asymmetric strategy356–7
and biological and chemical warfare192
and China86, 367–8
and coalition warfare364–6
and Cold War304
and collateral murder107–8
and counterinsurgency388
and cyberwarfare193–5
and definition of186–7, 204, 304
and demography611–2
and emerging powers84–5
and ethical practice within the military110
and high-tech local wars294–5
and hybrid warfare358
and information and communication technology361–2
and instruments of:
material elements205–6
moral (and political) elements206
and just war theory106–8
and nano-war192–3
and operational level188–9
air power188
geography188–9
technoguerilla189
and procurement, implications for533
and psychological warfare190–2
information operations191
and renewed interest in53–4
and state use of367–68
and strategic level189–90
goals189
hybrid warfare189–90
and structural disadvantages of the West363–4
and tactical level187–8
armaments187–8
mobility188
moral asymmetry188
tactical creativity188
use of technology188
and terrorism204–7
and twenty-first century military operations346 see also counterinsurgency
ATALANTA, Operation438
Atlantic alliance, see NATO
Atlantic, Battle of the518
Atwood, Margaret17, 28–9
Auftragstaktik340
Augustine of Hippo, and Just War18
Aum Shinrikyo308
Australia306
and East Timor347–8
and naval forces432
Austria, and officer education465
authoritarianism, and terrorism201
Axinn, Sydney110
BAE Systems526, 547, 554n28
Baekgang, Battle of (663)302, 303
Bagnall, Field Marshal Sir Nigel382
Bailes, A J K149, 154, 155, 157
Balance Score Cards510
Baldwin, D21
Baldwin, Stanley218, 227n6
Balkans, and air warfare in:
Operation Allied Force449–50, 52–8
Operation Deliberate Force449
Operation Deny Flight448–9
theory development448
Ballard, J G63
ballistic missiles:
and anti-ballistic missile defence171–3
and Iran309
and North Korea308–9
and proliferation of166
Baluyevsky, General Yury306
Bangladesh24
(p. 672) barbarism65
Barboza, D87
Barnett, R W568
Barrés, Maurice617
Baslar, K80
Basra359
battle:
and avoidance of137–8
and Clausewitz's definition of strategy32
and cult of decisive battle143–4
and decisiveness of25
Battlefield Awareness492, 501n7
Baudrillard, Jean61
Beaufre, General André144
Beck, Ulrich66
Bell, Martin635
Berlin crisis (1958)52
Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald von226n3
bin Laden, Osama206
biological warfare:
and terrorism205
and unconventional warfare192
Bismarck, Otto von, and successful use of war24, 39
Black, J81
blackmail, as tool of policy163
Blair, Tony266, 267, 268, 547, 618, 623
Blanche, E88
Bletchley Park238
blitzkrieg287
and First World War tactics45
Bloch, Marc33, 243
and courage59
blockade36
and maritime warfare434
Blunden, Edmund60
Bobbitt, Phillip368, 519, 524
Boin, A156
Bologna, Declaration of464, 469
Bonaparte, Napoleon140, 384, 391, 420, 625
and ideology58
and strategy31
Bonn Conference (2001)352
Bosnia363, 607
and Operation Allied Force449–52see also Balkans
Bourges-Maunoury, Maurice244
Bowen, Jeremy634–5, 638, 639
Bradford, J P401, 406, 410, 413
Bradley, Omar9, 224, 335, 356, 376
Brandt, Willy235
Brazil:
and air forces83, 85
and asymmetric warfare90
and creation of Ministry of Defence89
and defence industry523
and defensive strategic culture82–3
and economic success89
as emerging power82
and internal security89, 90
and lack of military threats to89
and legitimacy of political system86
and military modernization:
building deterrent84–5
building regional military power85
economic function of85
and National Strategy of Defence89
and naval forces83, 85, 90
and nuclear programmes90–1, 94n6
and nuclear weapons83
and peacekeeping missions92
and Rapid Reaction Strategic Force90
and role of military83
and sharing burden of global security91–2
Breytenbach, Breyten65
Briggs, General Harold Rawdon395
British Army:
and cuts to507–8
and loss of capability379–80
and Military Covenant565–6
and recruitment problems509
Broadbent, E563
Brodie, Bernard37, 162, 178n49, 193, 461
Brooke, Alan268
Brossolet, Guy189
Brown, Gordon620
Brussels, Treaty of (1948)71
Brust, Sgt-Maj E W P338
Brzoska, M155
Bublitz, G T411
Bülow, Adam Heinrich Dietrich von40
and strategy31–2
Burke, Edmund1
(p. 673) Burnham, James59
Bush, George H47–8
Bush, George W73, 150, 618
and Global War on Terrorism20, 153, 179n72
Buzan, B148
Byford, G20
C3I (Communications, Command, Control and Intelligence)290
C4ISR (Computerized Command, Control, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance)87, 290, 339, 361
C4ISTAR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Target
Acquisition, Reconnaissance)240
Calderón, Felipe de Jesús77
caliphate, global657–8
Callwell, C E392
Cameron, David506, 546–7
Cameron, James635, 639
Campbell, Alastair621, 629n3
Camus, Albert633
Cannae, Battle of (216 BC)420
Capa, Frank62
capabilities:
and capabilities-based model of defence305–6
and procurement planning534
Cappuccio, Frank525
Caribbean438
Carlson, Lt-Gen Bruce307
Carter, Ashton545, 546, 552
Carthage261
Carver, M406
Casablanca Conference (1943)44
Casey, General George395
Castex, Raoul37
censorship222
Chamberlain, Neville219, 266
chance, and conduct of war138, 139
Chastenet, Jacques Francois de227n7
Chechnya64–5, 273, 276–7, 279–80, 387
Chellaney, B91
chemical warfare:
and terrorism205
and unconventional warfare192
Chilcot, Sir John268
child soldiers349, 610
chimpanzees21
China:
and active defence concept86–7, 298–9
and air forces83, 85, 87
and anti-ballistic missile defence172
and anti-satellite weapons87, 313, 497
and asymmetric warfare86, 367–8
and cyberspace warfare87
and cyberwarfare194, 313
and deception313–14
and defence expenditure309–10, 656
and defence industry523
need for change in economic model524–5
and defensive strategic culture82–3
and demographic engineering608
and domestic instability86
and economic progress of664
and electronic warfare87
as emerging power82
and energy demands310–11
and ethnic conflict608
and growing economic role of77
and integrated network electronic warfare87
and Japan:
conflicts with311
defence exchange programmes314
potential conflict scenarios312–14
and Joint Anti-Air Raid87
and legitimacy of political system86
and maritime expansion431–2
conflicts with Japan311
energy demands310–11
filling power vacuums310
ocean surveillance311–12
offshore defence310
territorial claims310
and military modernization:
building deterrent84–5
building regional military power85
economic function of85
(p. 674) and natural resources369
and naval forces83, 85, 87
expansion of310–12, 431–2
submarines312–13
and near-abroad dominance86–7
and nuclear weapons83, 86, 94n6, 166
and Offshore Active Defence87
and ‘peaceful development’84
and ‘peaceful rise’ concept84
and peacekeeping missions92
and pre-emption306
and role of military83
and sharing burden of global security91–92
and space, military use of498–9
and strategic guidance for future war296–300
active defence298–9
active strategic counterattack298–9
attack enemy's weak points294
decisive operations300
dominative operations299–300
don’t be intimidated by enemy296
people's war297–8
planning299
preparation for war299
preventive operations299
reaction to a war299
take initiative297
you fight in your way and we fight in ours296–7
and threat perception86
and United States311–12
strategic approach to656
warnings by369
and use of armed force127
Chirac, Jacques178n50, 179n65
Christianity, and Just War tradition18
Churchill, Winston264, 266–7, 268, 307, 322, 434, 625, 636
civil-military collaboration:
and coalitions326–8, 329
and hybrid warfare376
and NATO capabilities591
Comprehensive Approach593–4
current efforts591–3
and provincial reconstruction teams595–6
and stabilization missions597–8
and strategic leadership216
and United States:
civil agencies588–90
military efforts to empower civilians587–88 see also Comprehensive Approach
civil-military relations559, 570
and challenges to566–7
and civilian control560–1
exclusivity of relationship561–2
hierarchy of interest561
organization of agencies and actors561
and danger of split between government and armed forces620
and dangers of too close a relationship568
and Huntington's separatist analysis562–3, 568
and Janowitz's fusionist analysis563
and liberal-democratic societies560
and post-conflict deployment of troops569
and purpose of570
and study of560–3
origins of560
and threat assessment568
and United Kingdom559–60, 563–6
apolitical tradition in armed forces563–4
challenges to566–7
changes in military operations567
civil-military gap560, 566–8
cultural assumptions563
decline in military experience566–7
Military Covenant565–6
during operational deployments568–9
political marginalization of military567
political/moral obligations of armed services564–5
political role of armed services564
civil society:
and expanded notion of150
and political-military relationship254–5
Civilian Response Corps (USA, CRC)589–90, 596
(p. 675) civilians:
and distinction from combatants185
and land warfare423
and protection of587–8, 612–13
Clark, General Wesley19, 363–50, 365
Clausewitz, Carl von13, 30, 140–3, 667
and clarity on type of war engaged in325, 373
and definition of strategy32, 34
and dialectic of war66
and distinction between nature and character of war33
and impossibility of unambiguous doctrine of war135
and modern study of53
and nature of war22, 140, 389
and objectives of war143
and political nature of war141, 142, 226n4, 561
and positive theory of war468
and reserves429n1
and strength219
and trinitarian war221, 561
and unchanging nature of war375
and On War22, 32
and war and policy32–3, 142, 218
clear, build and hold574
Clem, R S608
Clemenceau, Georges384
climate change:
as threat catalyst369–70
as trigger for war155
close air support (CAS), and Operation Desert Storm (1991)447
coalitions75
and advantages of329, 364–5, 378
broadening of operations319
legitimacy319
operational endurance319
and alliances, differences between320–2
and American-led304
and balancing unity, legitimacy and effectiveness324–5
and civil/military collaboration326–8, 329
and coalition warfare364–6
and defensive nature of325
and demands on326–7
and effectiveness of326
as expedient relationships330
and fluidity of membership321
and interoperability365
and Iraq (2003–2010)323–4
and management of war262
and nature of international security environment323
and naval operations438
and offensive nature of contemporary325
and open-ended missions:
challenges of327
military contribution to327–8
as partnership of unequals321
and political interference365–6
and political-military relationship249–50
and realist theory304
and requirements for success329–30
and Second World War322
and spectrum of commitment326
and strategic culture366–7
and strategic leadership225
and sub-groups within328
and temporary nature of321
and unifying factors321, 326
and United States, commitment of319–22
and unity of effort:
difficulties in achieving328, 329, 365, 366
generation of328
and unity of purpose325–6
and war objectives305
and wars with non-state actors305
and weaknesses of365 see also alliances
Cohen, William495–6
Coker, C153
Cold War:
and air warfare446
and allied high-readiness posture548
and American competitive strategy304
and balance of terror202–3
and coexistence of conflict and negotiation46
and containment policy71
and defence expenditure46
and defence industry519–20
(p. 676) and global reach of47
and legacies of46–7
and logistics405–6
flexible response406
forward defence406
reactive containment406
and nature of46
and Paris Treaties27
and permanent alert and high readiness46
and psychological warfare46
and space, military use of489–90
and war studies462
collateral damage, and management of621–2
Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)282
Collier, P606
Collins, A148
Colson, B82
Columbia397
combatants, and distinction from civilians185
COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance)149
command356–7
in Afghanistan, Operation Herrick352–6
and changing nature of346–7
in East Timor, Operation Langar347–8
lessons from348
and generalship382–4
and joint operations375–7
and qualities required for357
in Sierra Leone, Operation Palliser349–52
lessons from351–2
and training and education381–2
command and control:
and changing structures of307
and Comprehensive Approach575–6, 577–8
and joint operations375–7, 378
joint planning377
multinationality377–8
and requirements of356–7
communications, see media; strategic communications
complex operations:
and definition of598n1
and NATO capabilities591
Comprehensive Approach593–4
current efforts591–3
and provincial reconstruction teams595–6
and responses to597–8
and United States:
civil agencies588–90
military efforts to empower civilians587–8
Comprehensive Approach582–3, 593–4, 596–7
and Allied Rapid Reaction Corps573–4
and campaign design576
and centrality of574
and civil-military partnerships579
and civil-military trust579
and civil support branch580
and civilian involvement578–9
and command and control575–6, 577–8
and definition of574
and getting basics right580–2
and holistic approach to mission management577
and importance of573
and lessons learned577–80
as military-led effort577
and NATO573, 574
and need for systematic approach574
and planning and decision level578
and requirements of586
and resources580
and shared culture575
and sharing of costs582
and strategic communication579–80
and strategy574–7
building local capacity577
institutional ownership577
regional powers576
resources577
review576
and unity of effort575
and unity of purpose579
as whole-of-government issue578
Comte, Auguste66
Congo155
containment policy, and Cold War71
Convention Against Torture (1984)128
(p. 677) Convention on inhumane conventional weapons (1981)128
conventional war:
and caricature of392–3
and counterinsurgency389, 391, 394, 397
and nature of163, 185
and nuclear war163
and unconventional warfare, blending with186
conventions of war185
Cook, Robin347
Cooper, Robert64
cooperation, and logistics405, 412–13
Corbett, Sir Julian35–6, 37, 39, 432
correlates of war project27
correspondence bias111
corruption, and procurement532, 547
Cosgrove, Maj-Gen Peter J348
Cottey, A149
counter-terrorism:
and Afghanistan396
and intelligence173–4
and management of war269
and resilience174–5, 269
counterinsurgency:
and Afghanistan396
and air warfare451
Afghanistan453–4
and Algeria50–1
and asymmetric warfare388
and conventional war389, 391, 394, 397
and counter-terrorism approach396
and damaging effects of focus on397–8
and demography611–12
and development of term388
and eclipse of strategy397
and flexible approaches to396–7
and historical context of389
19th-20th century wars of empire391–3
Alexander the Great390
American Revolution390–1
Frederick the Great390
neglect of394
Peninsular War391
and importance of understanding387
and infatuation with insurgencies and guerrilla warfare389–90
and Iraq (2003–2010), misinterpretation of surge395–6
and lessons of past wars45
and Malaya, misinterpretation of campaign394–5
and meaning of387
and nation-building387–8
and objectives of war143
and population-centric approach (‘hearts and minds’)394, 612
Afghanistan396
damaging effects of focus on397–8
Iraq395–6
Malaya394–5
as straitjacket396–7
Vietnam War395
and post-war period (1950s–60s)388–9
flawed understanding of394–5
influence on current thinking394
Malaya394–5
narrow focus on394
Vietnam War395
and transcendence of394
and troop requirements611
and Vietnam395
and Western unpreparedness for360
courage59
‘courageous restraint’108
Coutau-Bégarie, H187
Covault, C87
Cowpens, Battle of (1780)391
Crimean War631, 632
criminal tribunals, and United Nations Security Council122
Croft, S148
Cuban missile crisis (1962)37, 52
and photo-reconnaissance232–3
cyberwarfare:
and China87, 313
and nuclear deterrence194
and unconventional warfare193–5
Cyprus594, 608
Dandeker, C407
Dannatt, Sir Richard620
Darfur368, 369, 657
(p. 678) Davis, J K406
de Gaulle, Charles45, 169
and Algeria50
De Kruif, Maj-Gen M C338
de Vigny, Alfred668
de Wilde, J148
deception313–14
decision-making:
and high command383
and management of war261–2
declaration of war19
and obligations attendant on19
decolonization, and ethnic conflict608
Deeb, M608
defence and security148
and capabilities-based model305–6
and changes in security environment:
changed nature of conflict548–9
duration of operations549
slimming down of government550
and defence-planning paradigms366–7
and future challenges367–70
and goals of155–6
group security156
human security156
societal security156
and increased risk of inter-state conflict368
and multipolar system368
and nature of international security environment323
and non-military dangers154, 158–9
and non-state threats152–6
and outsourcing of military/police functions157–8
and possession/control of land152
and role of business156
and role of citizens156
and role of non-governmental actors156–8
and tempering of role of nation-states149
and territorial and non-territorial defence149–52, 159
and threat/risk analysis154
challenges of154–5
co-dependence of security and welfare155
coordination155
relative priorities154
resource problems155
support of civilian authorities155
and trends affecting:
asymmetric threats150
civil society and individual identity150
humanitarian intervention150–1
multinational groupings149–50
and triggers for/objects of defence operations151
Defence Cost Inflation516n3
defence expenditure:
and adaptation budget515
and China309–10
and Cold War46
and Defence Cost Inflation516n3
and European Union78
and flexible and sustainable budgets515
and increasing costs295–6
and NATO recommended level503
and options510
and regulation of505–6
and relationship with cost of war503–4
and United Kingdom503
Cold War increase in504
cuts to British Army508
cuts to Royal Navy507–8, 511
decline in504, 512
decline in military performance advantage504–5
defence reviews504
deserved priority of513
‘do more with less’504
flexible and sustainable budgets515
funding gap505
future planning assumptions508
inferior/less equipment511
matching ends and means511–14
mismatch between tasks/resources507, 508–9
options510
procurement inefficiencies511
risks entailed by cuts510
Strategic Defence and Security Review (UK, 2010)506–7
and United States76
(p. 679) and Western levels of170–1, 503, 512, 515, 545 see also procurement
defence industry:
and American Civil War518
and asymmetric warfare518
and Brazil523
and British Empire517–18
and bull market for545
and business models526–8
cooperatition528
multi-domestique526–7
sovereign investors527
and changes in security environment:
changed nature of conflict548–9
duration of operations549
slimming down of government550
and changing nature of547–51
and China523
need for change in economic model524–5
and Cold War519–20
and comprehensive engagement in military activity544
and corruption532, 547
and Dutch maritime empire517
and ethical guidelines547
and Europe520–1
industrial integration521
and First World War518
and France520
and Germany521
and government influence over532
and government support of545
and India523
and innovation519, 520–1
and Israel529
and Japan518
and market-state524
and model of society524, 525
and new entrants into528
and perilous times for545–6
and post-war development of525–7
and public attitudes towards546
and recruitment problems525
and reduction in number of suppliers535
and reforms required551–2
and relationship between517
and Russia522–3
and Second World War518
and short-term business environment550–1
and Soviet Union519, 522
and Thirty Years War517
and trends in529
and United Kingdom519–21
public-private partnerships529
and United States518, 519, 520
market size526
and Western levels of655
and women525 see also private contractors; procurement
defensive wars:
and acceptance of44
and international law48–9
Delane, John632
Delbrück, Hans53
and two forms of military strategy24
Deliberate Force, Operation449
democracy:
and justification of war47–8
and strategy35–6
Democratic Republic of Congo369
demography and war603, 614–15
and aging populations605, 609
and asymmetric warfare611–12
and causal links between604
and codes of conduct for warfare612–13
and Cold War604
and complexity of relationship603
and educated population609–10
and ethnic conflict604–5, 607–9
and French Revolution604
and gender ratios604
and impact of war on population603–4
and Industrial Revolution604
and Malthusianism606
and religion605
and resource scarcity605–6
and Russia, limits on army size315
and technological innovation604
and urbanization606–7
and youth population609–10
Deng Xiaoping309, 310
Deny Flight, Operation448–9
(p. 680) Der Derian, J101
Desert Storm, Operation (1991), and air warfare446–8
casualties447–8
close air support447
dominance of offence over defence446–7
precision guided munitions446
stealth technology446
strategic attack447
Desportes, Vincent191
deterrence:
and defence expenditure170–1
and definition of162
and development of idea of37
as fundamental aspect of war162
and non-state actors306
and nuclear weapons51
and sanctions166
and wars of intervention654–5 see also nuclear deterrence
Dickens, Charles544
Dimbleby, Richard636
Dinstein, Y20
diplomacy:
and Cold War46
and war44
dirty bombs, and terrorists173
discrimination (distinction):
and just war theory105–8
asymmetrical complexities106–7
targeted killings107
and Just War tradition, human exchange rates107–8
Dobbs, M410
Doctrine of the Double Effect (DDE)106
Dorman, A406
Dr Strangelove (film)63
Dreyse, Johann482
drone strikes240–1
and targeted killings107
Druyun, Darlene532
Dunnigan, J F402
Durham, L90
EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company)526, 546
Eaglen, M87
Earle, Edward Mead34
East Timor, and Operation Langar347–8
Echevarria III, A J467
Edmunds, T567
education in war460–7, 472
and academic approach to460
minimizing of462–3
need for462
operational and tactical level of war468–70
role of research470–1
and Cold War462
and conceptual model for teaching war465–8
analytical/practical approach466–7
determinants of priorities466
level of war466
military history467
multidisciplinarity465–6
operational analysis467–8
and future developments471–2
and increase in academic interest in war461
and management sciences462
and military history463, 467
and multidisciplinary approach to463, 465–6
and object of study463
strategy and tactics463
and officer education464–5
Austria465
Germany464–5
Netherlands465
Norway465
Sweden465
United Kingdom464
and operations research463, 467–8
and professional education461–2
object of study463
and role of research470–1
and study of military operations468–70
and study of strategy461
Edward III186
Effect Based Operations144, 448
efficiency:
and logistics405, 410–11
and technological civilization59
Eikenberry, Lt-Gen Karl352
Eisenhower, Dwight D238, 505, 552n1
(p. 681) electronic warfare:
and China87
and India88
Ellis, John59, 60
embedded journalists624, 637–9
Emerging Powers:
and accumulating power without hostile reactions83–4
and air forces83, 85
and American response to91
and asymmetric warfare84–5
and challenges facing80–1
and defensive strategic culture82–3
and definition of82
and dilemma facing81
and diversity of strategic culture81
and goals of81
and impact of368
and legitimacy of political systems86
and military modernization:
building deterrent84–5
building regional military power85
economic function of85
and mistrust of intentions93
and naval forces83, 85
and nuclear weapons83
and role of military83
and sharing burden of global security91–90
as status-seeking powers81
emotional distancing, and post-modern war63
Enders, Tom528
Enduring Freedom, Operation, and air warfare451–2
Enlightenment:
and modernity57–8
and planning as father of219
and strategic thought31
Enola Gay63
Entente Cordiale69
environmental crisis658
Enzenberger, Hans-Magnus64
Estonia, and cyberwarfare193
Esty, D607
ethics:
and air warfare455–6
and defence industry547
and ethical practice within the military109–10
and NATO's new ethical approach72–4
ethnic conflicts604–5, 607–9
euphemisms for war19
Eurasia, and impact on strategic thought41
European Defence Agency537
and defence expenditure545
European Defence Community250
European Space Agency496
European Union:
and defence expenditure78
and defence industry, support for545
and EU citizenship150
and expansion of149–50
and inability to think and act militarily76, 78
and Security Strategy (2003)148
and space, military use of499–500
and Space Situational Awareness Programme496
and United States, tensions between75–6
Evans-Sahnoun Commission124
exhaustion, strategy of24
expeditionary warfare406, 407
and management of war268–9
Facebook62
Falklands War (1982)24, 265–6, 267
and embedded journalists637
and non-declaration of19
Farrell, T403
First World War288
and air warfare444
and Allied blockade of Germany434
and caricature of Allied armies393
and civilianization of warfare202
and defence industry518
and futility of war23
and German strategy25–6, 264
and indecisiveness of battle34
and innovations in45
and management of war258, 260–1, 266
and naval blockade of Germany36
and propaganda635–6
and Schlieffen Plan226n3
and war crimes49
flexibility218, 306
(p. 682) flexible response170, 406
Foch, Marshall Ferdinand70, 144, 307, 420, 481
food supplies, and resilience174
force multiplier, and definition of361
foreign policy:
and strategic influences on38
and strategy39
foresight, and logistics405, 407–10
Forster, A567
Fortescue, Sir John384
Fortner, J A411
forward defence406
Forward Edge of Battle Area (FEBA), and eradication of549
Foster, D J403
Fourth Generation Warfare (4GW)99
Fox, Liam74
Fox, Robert640
France:
and Afghanistan251
and Algeria50–1, 388–9
and Atlantic alliance70
and defence and security planning514
and defence expenditure170
and defence industry520
and Entente Cordiale69
and nuclear deterrence168, 169
anti-ballistic missile defence172
and pre-emption306
and satellites491
and Second World War322
and strategic requirements219
and strategic thought144
decisive battle143
and terrorism, experience of204
and Triple Alliance70
and United Kingdom:
cooperation521, 545
Franco-British Defence Treaty (2010)545 see also political-military relationship (France)
Franco-Prussian War (1870)305, 397
Franks, Lt-Gen Frederick M335
Frederick the Great32, 39, 383–4, 390
Fredland, E411
Freedman, L20, 24
French, Sir John260
French Revolution58, 200–1, 604
Friedman, George63
Friedman, Meredith63
Frontinus137, 138
Fuchs, Klaus229
fuel supplies, and resilience174
Fukuyama, Francis657, 658
Fuller, G E609
Fuller, Maj-Gen J F C35, 45, 81
and principles of war223
fundamental attribution error111
Fussell, P23
Galula, David189
Gansler, Jacques552
Gantz, Col Kenneth500n3
Gareev, Makhmut278
Gat, A162
Gates, Robert7–8, 76, 360, 369, 539, 540, 541, 545, 568
Gehlen, Reinhard241
Gellhorn, Martha633–4, 642–3
Geneva Conventions (1949)19, 128, 612
and Article 3128
Geneva Protocol on chemical and biological weapons (1925)128
Geneva Protocols128
genocide, as trigger for intervention150
Genocide Convention (1948)128
geography, and unconventional warfare188–9
geopolitics, and Eurasia41
Georgia273, 277, 379, 649
Germany:
and defence industry521
and Iraq, disapproval of intervention73
and nuclear weapons168
and officer education464–5
and strategic failure in World Wars264
and terrorism, experience of204
Gerson, Michael169
Giddens, Anthony66
Gillard, Frank636
Girard, Rene145
Glaser, B S84
Global Disorder, and management of67
(p. 683) Global Zero112
globalization658–9
and alliances76–7
and enhancement of power of non-state actors152–3
and fragmentation of national bodies46–7
Godkin, Edwin Lawrence631
Goebbels, Josef617, 636
Goldstone, J A606, 610
Goodall, Jane21
Google228
and China87
Gorbachev, Mikhail281
government, and slimming down of550
Gowing, Nick621, 640
Goya, Francisco62
grand strategy35, 40
Grandmaison, Thomas Auguste le Roy de187
Gray, Bernard531, 537, 540, 547, 550
Gray, Colin40, 145, 375, 431
Great War, see First World War
Greece608
Greene, General Nathaniel390–1
Grotius116
group security156
groupthink, and intelligence failure239
Guam311–12
Guangqian, P86
Guderian, Heinz45
guerrilla warfare, and infatuation with389–90
Guibert, Jacques Antoine Hippolyte de31, 215, 226n1, 420
Guillaume, Gunther235
Guitton, Jean185
Gulf War (1990–91):
as first post-modern conflict61
and management of war267
and media coverage61, 637–8
and United Nations Security Council123
and use of naval forces436 see also Desert Storm, Operation
gunboat diplomacy369
Haass, R N613
Habegger, B155
Hackett, General Sir John337
Hadley, Stephen179n65
Hague Conferences (1899, 1907)128
Hague Conventions (1907), and declaration of war19
Hamas455
Hampson, F O156
Handel, Michael402
Hannibal261, 420
Hanrahan, Brian637
Hapsburgs69
Harmel report (1967)46
Harrier combat aircraft520–1
Harries-Jenkins, G543
Hastings, Max640
Haushofer, Karl41
Hawthorne, Nathaniel62–3
Hegel, G W F58
hegemony theory, and coalitions304
Heim, C64
Heller, Agnes, and technological civilization59
Heller, Joseph532
Henrotin, Joseph191
Henry V389
Herrick, Operation352–6
Herz, J H, and security dilemma26
Heuser, B22
Hezbollah65, 486
and armaments187–80, 484
as example of strong asymmetry189, 379, 484, 656
and Israeli use of air power against454–5
and swarming tactics188
Hezbollah-Israel War (2006)396
history, see war history
Hitler, Adolf41, 235, 436
and invasion of Soviet Union236
and psychological warfare190
Hobbes, Thomas2, 226n5, 663, 664
Hoffman, Frank190
Hohenfriedberg, Battle of390
Holbrooke, Richard630n6
Holmes, Richard384
Holmqvist, C157
Holslag, J93
Holsti, K J89
(p. 684) Holy Alliance69
Homer, and the Illiad18
Hood, HMS511
Howard, John306
Howard, M81, 167, 373, 467, 540
Hu Jintao84, 310
human intelligence (HUMINT)229–30, 307
human security156
humanitarian intervention150–1, 613
and United Nations124–5
humanitarian law:
and jus in bello (limits of acceptable wartime behaviour)128
and loopholes129
and strengthening of128–9
Hundred Years War46, 186
Huntington, Samuel542–3, 548, 605
Hussein, Saddam239, 359, 363, 364, 485, 638, 659
Huxley, Aldous60
hybrid warfare7–9, 189–2, 374
and asymmetric warfare358
and birth of concept360
and coalition warfare364–6
strategic culture366–7
and command and control375–7, 378
and divisional-level capability379, 380
and doctrinal innovations359–60
and formation manoeuvre379–80
and future challenges367–70
and generalship382–6
and Iraq War (2003–2010)359
and nature of358
and requirements and capabilities379–81
and structural disadvantages of the West363–4
and training and education381–2
and usefulness of concept358
Hynes, S59
ideology:
and causes of war27–8
and international system657–8
and modern war58–9
and war objectives305
Ikenberry, J27
imperialism, and machine guns59–60
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)65, 362, 374
Inchon, Battle of (1950)436
India:
and air forces83, 85, 88
and China88
and ‘Cold Start’ doctrine87–8
and cyberwarfare194
and defence industry523
and defensive strategic culture82–3
and electronic warfare88
as emerging power82
and legitimacy of political system86
and military modernization:
building deterrent84–5
building regional military power85
economic function of85
and naval forces83, 85, 88, 432
and nuclear weapons52, 83, 88, 94n6, 166
and Pakistan87–8, 649
and partition of608
and peacekeeping missions92
and role of military83
and sharing burden of global security91–2
and threat perception87
and ‘two-front war’ doctrine88
indirect approach393
individual identity150
Indus Waters Treaty (1960)606
Industrial Revolution604
industrial revolutions287
industry, see defence industry
influence, and hybrid warfare376
information and communication technology (ICT):
and armed groups361–2
and revolution in military affairs361 see also technology
information, and intelligence228
information operations191
informational warfare302, 305–6, 304–5 see also strategic communications
inner cities64
innovation:
and appropriation phase481
and defence industry519, 520–1
(p. 685) and non-technical479–80
and Prussian integration of technical482–3
and secondary effects480
Institute for National Strategic Studies (USA)539
insurgencies, and infatuation with389–90
intelligence:
and assessment of234–5
group think239
and critical role of241
and future of239–41
impact of insurgency warfare240
technological advances240
and human intelligence229–30, 307
and information228
and limitations of235–6
and nuclear terrorism173
and open source material229
and over-reliance on, invasion of Iraq238–9
and photo-reconnaissance232
aircraft232–3
satellites233–3
and secret intelligence229
and signals intelligence230–41
attributes of231–2
communications intelligence231
electronic intelligence231
and space systems491, 494
and terrorism173–4, 205
and uses of236
operational/tactical intelligence237–8
strategic/political intelligence236–7
intention, and just war theory (JWT)102
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty367
International Court of Justice (ICJ):
and humanitarian law128
and intransgressible obligations129
and self-defence121
and self-defence against non-state actors121–2
and use of nuclear weapons129
International Criminal Court49, 129
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda613
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia613
International Forum on Business Ethical Conduct for the Aerospace and Defence Industry (IFBEC)547
international institutions, and strategic leadership223
International Journalists Safety Institute624
international law116
and Charter of United Nations117–19
coercive capabilities118
limitations on prohibition of force120
maintenance of international peace and security117–18
prohibition of force119–20
purpose of117
relevance of118–19
self-defence120–2, 149
and constraints on war49
and crisis-control304
and defensive wars48–9
and humanitarian intervention124–5
and impact on strategy36–7
and just war theory103–4
and non-state actors:
self-defence against121–2
use of armed force125–6
and overview of approach to war and international violence117–19
International Red Cross Movement127–8
International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (ISAF)352
international system:
and absence of global ideology657–8
and anarchic nature of663–4
and causes of war26–7
and dispersion of power659
and fault lines in658–9
and global market658–9
and ideology657–8
and inter-state war:
declining effect of652
declining strategic significance of651–2
persistence of652
(p. 686) and meaning of war in656–9
and securitization of conflicts657
and spectrum of violence648
and war647–8
internet, and insurgents’ use of362
interoperability:
and coalition warfare365
and weakening of510
intervention, wars of653–4
and deterrence654–5
intimidation, as tool of policy163
Iran:
and ballistic missiles309
and foreign policy163
and nuclear threat171
and nuclear weapons166
and strategic approach656
Iraq War (2003–2010)24
and confusion over aims in265
and doctrinal innovations359–60
and equipment shortages539
and evolution of coalition engaged in323–4
and hybrid warfare359
and intelligence failure238–9
and management of war267–8
and media coverage638–9
and misinterpretation of ‘surge’395–6
and NATO intervention73
and nuclear weapons166
and Operation Iraqi Freedom452–3
and provincial reconstruction teams575–6
irregular warfare187, 374
and air warfare451
Afghanistan453–4
Israeli experience454–5
Operation Enduring Freedom451–2
and biological and chemical warfare192
and cyberwarfare193–5
and information and communication technology361–2
and limitation of technology484–5
and nano-war192–3
and operational level188–9
air power188
geography188–9
technoguerilla189
and psychological warfare190–2
information operations191
and strategic level189–90
goals189
hybrid warfare189–90
and structural disadvantages of the West363–7
and tactical level187–8
armaments187–8
mobility188
moral asymmetry188
tactical creativity188
use of technology188
and Western unpreparedness for360 see also counterinsurgency
Islamist terrorism200, 206, 207
and global caliphate657–8
Israel24
and air warfare454–5
and counterinsurgency396–7
and defence industry529
and demographic engineering608
and Hezbollah-Israel War (2006)379
and intelligence, Six Day War237
and Lebanon397
and military policy127
and nuclear weapons52
and pre-emption104–5, 306
and preventative war105
Israeli Defence Force (IDF):
and air warfare454–5
and Hezbollah486–7
and non-technical advantages479
Italy, and terrorism204
Itō Hirobumi302
Iung, General144
Ivanov, Sergei281
Jamaa Islamiya (JI)304
James II533
Janowitz, Morris543
Japan:
and China309–10
conflicts with311
defence exchange programmes314
(p. 687) maritime expansion310–12
potential conflict scenarios312–14
and historical review302–3
and military cooperation with democratic nations307–8, 315
and North Korea308–9
and Russia314–15
and Russo-Japanese War (1904–05)24, 302
and security environment308
and terrorist attacks308
and United States315
Jefferson, Thomas320
Jeremiah, Admiral David E193
Johnson, Hiram635
Johnson, Admiral Jay L304–5
Johnson, R406
Joint Interagency Coordination Groups568
Joint Interagency Task Force South438
joint operations374
and command and control375–7, 378
joint planning377
multinationality377–8
and divisional-level capability379, 380
and formation manoeuvre379–80
and generalship382–4
and high-tech local wars307
and maritime forces437
and requirements and capabilities379–81
and training and education381–2
Jomini, Antoine-Henri22, 32, 142, 401, 420, 468
Jones, A81
Junger, Ernst59
jus ad bellum (right to wage war)
and Charter of United Nations:
limitations on prohibition of force120
prohibition of force119–20
self-defence and its extensions120–2
and humanitarian intervention124–5
and Just War Theory:
just cause101–2
last resort104–5
pre-emption104–5
preventative war105
proportionality of effects102–3
reasonable prospect of success104
right authority103–4
right intention102
and non-state actors, use of armed force125–6
and reduction of118–19
and United Nations Security Council122–3
and United States’ doctrine on use of armed force126–7
jus cogens, and humanitarian law128–9
jus gentium, and laws and customs of war185
jus in bello (limits of acceptable wartime behaviour):
and emergence of rules on127–8
and humanitarian law128
strengthening of128–9
and Just War Theory105
asymmetrical complexities106–7
discrimination (distinction)105–8
doctrine of double effect106
human exchange rates107–8
(micro) proportionality108–9
targeted killings107
and loopholes129
and revived interest in119
Just War Theory (JWT)100–1, 112–13
and civilian involvement and review110–11
and criticism of101
and demands of18
and jus ad bellum (right to wage war)
just cause101–2
last resort104–105
pre-emption104–105
preventative war105
proportionality of effects102–3
reasonable prospect of success104
right authority103–4
right intention102
and jus in bello (limits of acceptable wartime behaviour)105
asymmetrical complexities106–7
discrimination (distinction)105–8
doctrine of double effect106
human exchange rates107–8
(micro) proportionality108–9
targeted killings107
and termination of war109
reconstruction109
(p. 688) Kabbah, Ahmed Tejan349
Kadeer, Rebiya314
Kahn, Herman162
Kaldor, Mary152
Kamajors351
Kant, Immanuel, and modernity57
Kapila, S87
Kaplan, Robert65, 88, 605
Kapoor, Deepak88
Karzai, President Hamid354, 568, 623
Kautilya603
Keegan, J18, 145, 242, 333, 543–4
Kellog-Briand Pact (1928)48, 117
Kendry, A411
Kennan, G82
Kennedy, John F37
Kibi Makibi302
Kido Takayoshi302
kinetic action102
Kinsey, C409
Kipling, Rudyard636
Kissinger, Henry170, 177n38
Kitchener, Lord640
Kitson, General Sir Frank382
Klare, Michael T369
Knightley, Philip635
knowledge, and strategic leadership226
Kolakowski, L58
Korean War24, 123, 265
and limited war38
and strategic significance651
and use of naval forces436
and war correspondents636
Koroma, Major Johnny Paul349
Kosovo conflict (1999)19, 364, 365, 613
and Operation Allied Force449–50
and strategic communications620–1
and United Nations Security Council123
Krulak, C408
Kubrick, Stanley63
Kumar, R607, 608
Kursk, Battle of (1943)237–8
Lamont, J88
land warfare:
and characteristics of417–18
as combined arms effort417–18
and commitment of sufficient combatants419
and complexity of417–19
and confrontation418
and control of environment417
and control of human environment418–19
and development in422–4
as feature of human experience417
and future shape of426–9
and ground manoeuvre419
and joint integration424–6
and physical environment of418
and restraining adversary419
and strategic significance417
and tactical objectives419
and theory and practice of420–2
Langar, Operation347–51
Lassalle, P J188
Lawrence, T E381, 384, 393, 397
laws and customs of war185
leadership, and strategic communications623see also command; military leadership; strategic leadership
League of Nations608
and collective security48
and Covenant of117
and establishment of27
Lebanon397
and civil war608
Lee, General Robert E336
legitimacy, and changing nature of664
Legro, J W80, 93n1
Lenin, V I34
levée en masse201
Levy, J S27
liberal-internationalism, and humanitarian intervention150–1
liberal theory, and coalitions304
Liberia369
Libicki, Martin193
Libya, and nuclear weapons166
Liddell Hart, Basil25, 382, 393
and definition of strategy34–5
and indirect approach144
Lieven, D25
limited choice, wars of217
(p. 689) limited war24
and discrediting of idea of38
Lindley-French, S J472
litigation, culture of620
Little, Allan638
Liu Huaqing, Admiral310
Lloyd George, D266
local war, high-tech:
and asymmetric warfare296–7
and changes in operational modes and methods304–5
and China's strategic guidance308–12
active defence310–11
active strategic counterattack310–11
attack enemy's weak points309
decisive operations312
dominative operations311–12
don’t be intimidated by enemy308
people's war309–10
planning311
preparation for war311
preventive operations311
reaction to a war311
take initiative309
you fight in your way and we fight in ours308–9
and controllable features of304
and costs of307–8
and development of300
and informationalized war305–6
and joint operations307
and reasons for rise of301
cost effectiveness303
economic changes301–2
multipolarization of international strategic pattern301
restraining war301
science and technology302–3
logistics414
and character of405
Cold War405–2
post-Cold War transformation406–7
and definition of401
and end-to-end approach408
as hinge between industry and war517
and importance of401
and logistics intelligence408
and maritime forces442
and nature of402–91
constancy of405
logistic/operations interface403, 404
logistical planning process403–5
and principles of:
agility405, 413–14
cooperation405, 412–19
efficiency405, 410–11
foresight405, 407–10
simplicity405, 412–13
and private-sector involvement409, 410–14
and scope of401–02
and strategy401
and urgent operational requirements408–9, 538–9
Lome Peace Accord (1999)349
London, Declaration of (1909)36
Longman, P605
Lonsdale, D J402
Lonsdale, Major Dick332
Louis XIV71
Loyd, Anthony640
Ludendorff, Erich144
Lugar-Biden bill (USA, 2004)569
Luttwak, Edward30, 35, 40
Lynn, J A401
MacArthur, Douglas93n4
McCartney, H547
McChrystal, General Stanley356, 396, 555, 558, 612
Machiavelli, Niccolò22, 30, 139
and psychological warfare190
and unchanging nature of the world175
machine guns, and technological civilization59–60
Mack, Andrew J R187
Mackinder, Halford41
Mahan, Alfred Thayer35, 432
Maizeroy, Paul Gideon Joly de31
Major, John267
Malaya, and British counterinsurgency campaign45, 265, 388, 394–5
Malthus, Thomas606
(p. 690) management of war257
and changing circumstances of258
and coalitions262
and counter-terrorism269
and decision-making261–2
and expeditionary warfare268–9
and First World War258, 260–1, 266
and historical perspective on266–8
and machinery of262–4
and nature of war258–9
and policy-making machinery261–2
and post-Cold War period265–6
Afghanistan265, 267
Balkans265
Falklands War (1982)265–6, 267
Gulf War (1990–91)267
Iraq (2003)267–8
and presentation259
and requirements of268
and resource management260–1
and scope of259–60
and Second World War257–8, 261, 264, 266–7, 307
and strategy and objectives264–5
management sciences, and education in war462
Mandelbaum, M608, 653
Mao Zedong308, 375
and hybrid warfare360
Marion, General Francis204
maritime warfare430
and coalition operations438
and force capabilities439
and future of:
challenges439–6
coalition operations442
war-fighting440–8
and joint operations437
and maritime flexibility438–5
and misconceptions over effects of430
and objective of432, 443
and scaleability of maritime forces437–8
and sea control432–3
blockade434
limited sea control433
risk433–4
types of operation434–5
and sea denial435
and significance of430–42
and strategic and economic benefits of maritime strategy431
and theatre of operations435–7
conditions436
diverse environments435–6
mobility of maritime forces436–7
Market Garden, Operation332
market-state368, 524
Markoff, J87
Marshall Plan71
Marx, Karl66
Matthews, M M378
Mattis, J375
Mattox, J M541
Maurice, Emperor of Byzantium31
Mearsheimer, J604
Medeiros, E S84
media:
and building local capacity626
and command348, 351, 355
and coverage of Gulf War (1990–91)61
and dangers to journalists624
and duty of balance629n3
and embedded journalists624, 637
and evolving relationship with military640–1
and global nature of625
and government attempts to control623, 637
embedding624, 637
independent media's reaction to628–9
local media environment626
and government-run media625
and impact of communications revolution625–6
and Kosovo conflict (1999)620–1
and post-modern war62
and role of622
future of641–2
and social media627
and strategic leadership222
media operations, see strategic communications
Medusa, Battle of (2006)353
(p. 691) Mesquida, C G610
Mexican-American War (1846)305
Mexico, and war against drugs77
micro-wars135
and Afghanistan136
and avoidance of battle138
Midgley, M59
Midway, Battle of (1942)238
Milgram, Stephen63–4
Military Covenant (UK)545–6
military history, see war history
military-industrial complex552n1
and administration of505–6
military leadership:
and academic study of333–4
and Afghanistan342–3
and Auftragstaktik340
and challenges facing341–3
and changing requirements of334–5, 339–41
and character335
and competence335
and courage under fire335–6
and definition of334
and dilemma of the ‘strategic corporal’342
and distinctive characteristic of333
and generalship382–4
and indispensability of332–3
and inspirational style of332, 338–9
and leading by example335–6
and literature on333
and mission command340–1
and mutual trust337
and physical presence338
and qualities of334
and relationship between leader and followers334
and respect337–4
and responsibility to lead336–7
and situational nature of337
as social activity337
and team building337
and training and education381–2
and versatility340
and vision338 see also command
Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW)305
military spending, see defence expenditure
military studies, see education in war
Miller, Judith629n5
Milosovic, Slobodan363, 364, 449
Missile Defence programme496
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)166
mission command469
and military leadership340–1
Miyet, Bernard357n2
mobility:
and maritime forces436–7
and unconventional warfare188
modernity57–8
and collision of war forms64–6
and the Enlightenment57–8
and French Revolution58
and modern war58–61
ideology58–9
myth58
technological civilization59–60
and post-modern war61–4
Mollet, Guy244
Moltke the Elder, Helmuth von43, 389
Moltke the Younger, Helmuth von216, 260
Montecuccoli, Raimondo22
and alliances69
Montesquieu, Baron de74
Montgomery, Field Marshall Bernard71, 383
Moore, D M401, 406, 410, 413
Moore, G E59
moral realism100
morality, and war99, 101–2, 112–13
and air warfare455–6
and civilian involvement and review110–11
and ethical practice within the military109–10
and moral realism100
and moral status of nuclear weapons112
and national strategic culture100
and new technological threats111–12
and pacifism100
and unlikelihood of moral consensus on future war111 see also ethics; Just War Theory (JWT)
Mordacq, Major Jean Jules Henri144
(p. 692) Morgan, Brig-Gen Daniel390, 391
Mosby, John204
multipolarity158, 277, 368, 370
Munich, and myth of50
Murrow, Ed636
mutual assured destruction23, 203
MySpace62
Nagl, John387–8
nano-war, and unconventional warfare192–3
Nasrallah, Hassan455
nation-building:
and counterinsurgency387–8
and duration of operations618–19 see also stabilization operations
nation-state:
and demise of inter-state conflict368
and failures of524
and increased risk of inter-state conflict368
and resilience of664
and tempering of role of149–51
and territorial defence149
and triggers for/objects of defence operations151
National Defense University570
National Security Council (UK)506
National Security Council (USA)39
national security strategy533–4, 666–7
and avoiding budget-led planning667 see also defence and security; strategy; threat/risk analysis
national strategic culture (NSC)100
NATO:
and Afghanistan352
chain of command77–8
divisions over73
strategy in554–5
and anti-ballistic missile defence172
and Balkans:
Operation Allied Force449–50
Operation Deliberate Force449
Operation Deny Flight448–9
and Bucharest Summit (2008)555
and burden-sharing71–2
and charter of72–3
and Cold War, high-readiness posture548
and defence industry, support for545
and discrepancies in military capabilities76
and divergent force structures within367
and establishment of71
and expansion of geographical scope of72, 73, 150
and expansion of membership149–50
and France70
and impact of globalization76–7
and Iraq War73
and Kosovo conflict (1999)19, 364, 365, 449–50, 613
strategic communications620–1
and Lisbon Summit (2010)172, 549
and nature of alliance321
and new ethical approach of72–3
contradictions in74
limits of commitment to73–4
and nuclear deterrence168, 170
flexible response170
and out of area operations72, 150, 549
Islamic world74
and Partnership for Peace programme74
and post-Cold War continuation of, justification for72, 75
and post-war European history319
and rebalancing of tasks152
and Riga Summit (2006)598n4
and stabilization missions571, 577
Comprehensive Approach573–4, 576–7
current efforts571–3
and strategic communications, Kosovo conflict (1999)620–1
and success of72
and Ten Year Strategic Vision503
and tensions within74, 75–6
and transatlantic democratic community72
and United States71
calls for burden-sharing71–2
declining interest of76
as driving force of76, 78 see also Comprehensive Approach
natural disasters370
natural resources, and conflict over368–9
(p. 693) naval power:
and Australia432
and Brazil83, 85, 90
and China83, 85, 87, 310–12
expansion of431–2
submarines312–3
and emerging powers83, 85
and India83, 85, 88, 432
and United States431
naval strategy35–6
naval warfare, see maritime warfare
Nazi Germany201
and failure to invade United Kingdom433
and (mis)management of war257–8
and strategic bombing offensive against202, 445
and strategy25–6
Nelson, Horatio433
Netherlands, and officer education465
network-centric warfare240, 304–5
and air warfare452
and space systems493
networks, and post-modern war62
Neve, Alain de193
new wars thesis152
Nietzsche, Friedrich58–9, 66
Nigeria369
Nimitz, Admiral Chester W238
Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft506, 535, 547
9/11 terrorist attack:
and consequences of199
and impact of203
non-declaration of war19
non-governmental organizations (NGOs)577
non-interference, and principle of27–8
non-state actors:
and coalition wars against305
and defence issues152–4
and enhancement of power of152–3
and forces to fight305
and ineffectiveness of deterrence306
and information and communication technology361–2
and proliferation of323
and self-defence121–2
and use of armed force125–6
non-war, and causes of28
Nonaka, I481
North Korea308–9
and ballistic missiles308–9
and nuclear threat171
and nuclear weapons52, 166
North, Oliver624
North Ossetia306
Norway, and officer education465
nuclear deterrence175
and anti-ballistic missile defence171–3
and balance of terror202–3
and ballistic missile proliferation166
and challenges facing167–9
political credibility168–9
public education169
suitability of weapons167–8
technological credibility167–8
and circumvention of170
and commitment to use165
and continued relevance of164–6
and cyberwarfare194
and defence expenditure170–1
and flexible response170
and historical legacy of162–3
and massive retaliation170
and nuclear proliferation165–6
and nuclear terrorism173–5
intelligence173–4
resilience174–5
and proportionality to stakes of conflict170
and role of163
and success of163
and threat credibility165
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968)51, 52, 112, 166
nuclear strategy37–8
and deterrence37, 51
and divorce of theory from reality37–8
and first strike25, 165 see also nuclear deterrence
nuclear war, and conventional war163
nuclear weapons:
and ballistic missile proliferation166
and continued relevance of
extended deterrence165
(p. 694) influence on potential aggressors or blackmailers164
questioning of164
and emerging powers83
and Global Zero112
and moral status of112
and mutual assured destruction23, 203
and non-proliferation51, 52
and proliferation of51, 52, 112, 165–6
and tactical nuclear weapons24
and terrorism205
and total war23–4 see also nuclear deterrence
Nunn May, Alan229
Nunn, Sam177n38
Nuremberg war crimes trials49
Obama, Barack158, 396, 398, 546, 566, 625–6
and just war theory101
and nuclear weapons168
OCCAR (Organisation Conjointe de Coopération en matière d’Armement)536–7
offensive wars, see wars of choice
Ogarkov, Marshal Nikolai276, 278
O’Neill, Jim82
Operational Liaison and Reconnaissance Team (UK, OLRT)347, 349, 350, 357n1
Oppenheim, L, and definition of war19–20
order, as object of planning219
organization of armed forces, and lessons of past wars45
Orsini, E A411
Ortega y Gasset, José60–1
Orwell, G59, 210n6
Osgood, R E24
Oslo Convention on Cluster Munitions (2008)129
Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Mines (1997)129
Outer Space Treaty (1967)498, 499
outsourcing:
and benefits of550
and defence and security157–8
and logistics409, 410–1 see also private contractors
Oxfam International370
pacifism100
pacifist movements, and post-First World War period44
Pakistan523
and India649
and nuclear weapons52, 166
and Pashtun insurgency387
and strategy in554–5
Palliser, Operation349–52
Pandit, R88
Pant, R87, 91
Paparone, C R414
Pardo, A80
Paris Treaties, and conclusion of Cold War27
Paris, Treaty of (1856)36
Parkinson, Cecil267
Pausch, M F411
Payne, Keith164, 165
peace, and nature of17
peacekeeping:
and emerging powers92
and United Nations Security Council122
and use of force38, 366–7
Pearl Harbor237, 261
Peninsular War204, 391
Penkovsky, Colonel Oleg229
People's Liberation Army (PLA, China)86–7
Pepys, Samuel531
Pericles137, 138
periphery, and Cold War47
Perry, William177n38, 501n7, 551
Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia275
Petraeus, David77, 355, 371n3, 395, 555, 558
Pfaltzgraff, R L406
photo-reconnaissance232
and aircraft232–3
and satellites233–4
photography, and perception of war62
Picasso, Pablo202
planning:
and commander's role383
and joint operations377
(p. 695) and object of219, 224
and procurement:
capabilities534
national security strategy533–4
and strategic leadership219, 225–6
Plato1
Poland23
policy:
and war32–3, 34–5, 39
as instrument of142
promotion and constraints on use of50–3
and wars of choice44
policy-making, and management of war261–2
political leadership, and strategic communications623
political-military relationship (France)242–3, 266
and conduct of military operations:
crisis management system259
different notions of time259
managing political-military interaction257–9
multinational commitments259–60
and current organizational framework244–5
and developing crisis strategy257
and historical influences on:
Algerian war243
defeat in1940243
Suez crisis (1956)244
and importance of human factor245–6
and military commander's ownership of the political vision246
and military commander's role as advisor246
and military commander's role in developing defence policy:
realities of the world260–61
revision of national strategy261–2
and military commander's role in preparation of armed forces262
aligning ambitions and capabilities263
civil society264–5
fighting against trivialization of military265
multilateral negotiations264
preventing misuse of armed forces263–4
and politicians’ lack of military experience246
politics, and changes in67
Posen, Barry164–5, 604
post-modernity664
and collision of war forms64–6
and nature of61
and post-modern war61–4
and strategic thought144–5
Powell, General Colin336
power:
as application of general capacity21
as general capacity21
and war21–2
Powers, Gary232, 500n2
pre-emption104–5, 306
and self-defence121
pre-modern world64–5
precision guided munitions (PGMs):
and Operation Allied Force450
and Operation Deliberate Force449
and Operation Desert Storm (1991)446
and Operation Enduring Freedom452
PREDATOR drones240–1
preventative war105
Pringle, Andrew544
private contractors157, 410–11, 544
and benefits of550
and deaths among545–9, 551
privatization of defence157
procurement:
and asymmetric warfare533
and buying535–20
acquisition reform535
cost-plus535
critique of process547
fixed price535
international collaboration536–7, 545
partnering536
public-private partnerships529, 536
and conventional war533
and corruption532, 547
and defining needs533
capabilities534
(p. 696) forward equipment programme534–5
national security strategy533–4
and differences from commercial world531–2, 536
and difficulties with531
and government-supplier relationship532
and need for culture change in541–2
realism541
recognition of vested interests541–2
restraint of ambition541
urgency541
and pork barrel politics532
in practice537–41
bias towards past538
budget uncertainty537
change of practice in wartime538–9
‘conspiracy of optimism’537–1
cutting production538
delaying programmes538
distorted understanding of accountability540
increasing units costs538
institutional bias539–3
lack of strategic oversight540
managed at low level540–4
priority of future over current wars539
quest for perfection540
time and cost overruns538, 546, 547
urgent operational requirements446–7, 539
and resemblance to communist model532
and restricted number of suppliers535
and secrecy532
in theory:
buying535–7
planning533–5
and whole-life/through-life costs535 see also defence expenditure; defence industry
propaganda259, 617, 635–6
proportionality, and just war theory (JWT)102–3, 108–9
provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs)575–6
Prussia, and operational system482–3
psychological warfare:
and Cold War46
and psy-ops190
and unconventional warfare190–2
information operations191
public diplomacy:
and management of war259
and strategic leadership225
public opinion617–15
and casualties619–20
and hostility to government620
and nation-building operations618–19
and support for armed forces620
public-private partnerships, and procurement529, 536 see also private contractors
public utilities, and resilience174
Purushothaman, R82
Putin, Vladimir281
Qiao Liang368
Quadruple alliance69
Quantrill, William Clarke204
Quinlan, Michael162, 165
rape, as war crime613
Rasmussen, Anders Fogh591
Rasmussen, M77
rationality, and technological civilization59–61
reactive containment406
Reagan, Ronald171, 206, 491, 550
realism:
and coalitions304
and moral realism100
and war22
REAPER drones240–1
reciprocity:
and alliances320
and nature of war33
reconstruction:
and contemporary understanding of war48–9
and just war theory109
recruitment for armed forces, and British problems509
(p. 697) Red Army273
and Second World War257
regime change, and just war theory (JWT)109
Reid, John485, 623
religion, and terrorism200
resilience269, 514
and nuclear terrorism174
and strengthening of174–5
Resistance movements, and Second World War48
resource management, and management of war260–1
resource problems, and war155
resources:
and conflict over368–9, 605–6
and strategic leadership224
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) concept94n11, 102, 124, 151, 367, 613–14
revolution, and the educated young610
revolution in military affairs (RMA)53, 361, 655
and air warfare456–7
and space systems493
Rhodes, Cecil60
Rice, Condoleezza629n3
Richards, General Sir David376
Richelieu, Cardinal de80
risk aversion203, 360
risk society66–7
Robb, J66
Roberts, A377
Rodeback, J87
Rodger, N A M431
rogue states150
Roosevelt, Franklin D264, 268, 307, 322, 548
Roskill, S W335
Rothfels, Hans34
Royal Navy:
and cuts to507–1, 511
and future carrier programme511
and undermanning of511
rules of engagement49
Rumsfeld, Donald62, 235, 352, 359, 365, 453, 498, 622
Russell, William Howard631, 632
Russia:
and Afghanistan273
and anti-ballistic missile defence172
and Chechnya war64–5, 273, 387
inadequacies during276–7, 279–80
and counterinsurgency387
and cyberwarfare194, 195
and defence industry522–3
and demographic limits on army size315
and ethnic conflict607–8
and fear of escalation of local wars277–8
and Georgia273, 277, 379, 649
and gunboat diplomacy369
and inertia in military276–7
big conventional war paradigm278
causes of278–80
conservatism278–9
cultural inertia278
institutional autonomy279
role of arms industry279
and inflexibility of military organization277
and Japan314–15
and militarism273
and military history273
and military inadequacy273
and ‘near abroad’ policy163
and nuclear weapons282
and peacekeeping operations277, 281
United Nations283
and pre-emption306
and recent developments in military affairs280–3
air defence system282
attitude towards technology282
challenge to military's institutional autonomy281
decentralization of command and control280
downsizing of officer corps281
limited power projection282–3
military expenditure281
military reform280
mobility280
nuclear weapons282
peacekeeping operations281
reserve reduction280
(p. 698) revision of military doctrine281
shelving of obsolete equipment280
strategic missions281–2
training280
transition to brigade-based structure280
and recruitment crisis in army284
and strategic and military culture274–6, 283
great power aspirations275
insecurity274
interest in foreign ‘war models’275–6
junior role of naval power274
landpower-centric274
limited power projection274
mass armies275
militarized society275
offence-defence doctrine275
strategic creativity276
and technological backwardness279, 283–4
and terrorism, experience of204
and Triple Alliance70 see also Soviet Union
Russo-Japanese War (1904–05)24, 302
Rwanda657
and ethnic conflict604–5
Sadowa, Battle of483
safe havens613
Saint-Just, Louis Antoine de58
SALT I (1972)52
SALT II (1979)52
sanctions659
and deterrence166
Sankoh, Foday Saybana349
Sarkozy, Nicolas537
satellites:
and anti-satellite weapons87, 313, 496, 497
as force multiplier492
and increase in number of497
and military use of space490, 492, 494
and photo-reconnaissance233–4
Saudi Arabia207
Saxe, Maurice de22, 139–40
Schelling, Thomas162
Schiller, Friedrich60
Schlesinger, James166
Schlieffen, Alfred von216
Schlieffen Plan226n3
Schmitt, Carl187, 195
and a common foe47
Schriever, General Bernard501n10
Science Applications International Corporation552n2
Scipio Africanus137
scorched-earth tactics202, 364
Scott, Ridley63
Scowcroft, Brent500n4
Sea Lion, Operation433
Second Punic War261
Second World War288
and air warfare444–6
and alliances in322
and civilianization of warfare202
and defence industry518
and German failure to invade United Kingdom433
and German strategy25–6, 264
and German U-Boat campaign434
and Grand Alliance322
and management of war257–8, 261, 264, 266–7, 307
and organization of armed forces45
and propaganda636
and Resistance movements48
and strategic bombing offensive36, 202, 445
and strategic weakness of participants264–5
and total war23
and use of intelligence236, 237–8
and war correspondents636
security, see defence and security
security dilemmas, and causes of war26–7
security sector reform (SSR)569
self-defence:
and Charter of United Nations120–2, 149
and non-state actors121–2
and pre-emptive use of force121
Senkaku Islands310, 314
(p. 699) Serbia363, 364
and psychological warfare190 see also Balkans
Serdiukov, Anatoly280, 281
Seven Years War32
Shadwell, Captain L J359
Shamanov, Lt-Gen Vladimir280
Shea, Jamie640
Sherman, William Tecumseh202
Shultz, George177n38
Sierra Leone, and Operation Palliser349–52
signals intelligence (SIGINT)230–1
and attributes of231–2
and communications intelligence231
and electronic intelligence231
Simkin, Richard356
simplicity, and logistics405, 412–13
Simpson, John638
Singer, J D27
Singer, Max, and real world order64
Singer, Pete68, 411
Sino-Japanese War (1894)305
Six Day War (1967)237
Slim, Field Marshall Viscount383
small wars, and 19th–20th century wars of empire391–3
Smith, M L406
Smith, Paddy393
Smith, Rupert144, 222, 314, 374, 390, 394, 396, 397, 549
Snow, C P60
Snyder, Glen171–2
social media627
societal security156
soft power, and exaggerated role of43
Somalia155, 251, 657
Sontag, S62
Sood, V88
Sorge, Richard237
South Ossetia277
Soviet Union:
and aerial bombardment of cities202
and Afghanistan, failure to anticipate invasion of234–5
and anti-ballistic missile defence172
and defence industry, limitations of519, 522
and demographic engineering607–8
and intelligence:
on Japan236–7
warning of German invasion236
and management of war257
and Second World War322
and terrorism201 see also Russia
space, and military use of:
and anti-ballistic missile defence490, 491
and challenges ahead497–8
and China498–9
and Cold War period489–90
and collective security-oriented approach499–500
as force multiplier491–3
and future of500
and information collection490–1
and nuclear strategy490–1
and post-Cold War period:
making space a force multiplier491–3
making space a strategic enabler493–5
and satellites490
anti-satellite weapons87, 313, 496
as force multiplier492
as security/strategic enabler493–5
and space control495–6
and strategic space period489–91
and United States489
as force multiplier491–2
policy towards497–8
as security/strategic enabler493–5
space control495–6
Spanish Civil War202
Spearin, C411
special forces:
and expanded use of306
and role of67
and support of air power452, 453
Speer, Albert257–8
Spencer, Herbert66
Spykman, Nicholas71
and conduct of foreign policy73
Srebrenica449, 613
Sri Lanka387, 397, 609
stabilization operations478
and civil-military cooperation597–8
and NATO capabilities591, 596–7
(p. 700) Comprehensive Approach593–4
current efforts591–3
and provincial reconstruction teams595–6
and United States587–8, 596
civil agencies588–90
military efforts to empower civilians587–8
Stalin, Joseph236, 607, 608
state-sponsored terrorism207
state system:
and causes of war26–7
and demise of inter-state conflict368
and increased risk of inter-state conflict368
as outcome of series of wars43
stealth technology, and Operation Desert Storm (1991)446
Strachan, Hew186, 188, 563, 567
strategic communications618
and casualties619–20
and centrality of626–7
and Comprehensive Approach579–80
and control of media623–4, 637
embedding624, 637
local media environment626
and delaying erosion of public support623
and duration of nation-building operations618–19
and government-run media625
and Kosovo conflict (1999)620–2
and management of collateral damage621–2
and political leadership623
and short-term public patience619
and social media627
strategic culture:
and coalition warfare366–7
and defence-planning paradigms366–7
and definition of366
and structural disadvantages of the West363–4
Strategic Defence and Security Review (UK, 2010)506
and defence cuts506–7, 545
and misguided nature of506
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)491
strategic leadership:
and absence of threat as measure of success217
and balancing collective action and loss of sovereignty223
and civil-military partnership216
and concerns of215
and contemporary leadership and trinitarian war221–2
and essence of215
and essential dilemma of217
and European expansionism220
and flexibility218
and focus on objective217
and influencing allies and partners225
and international institutions223
and knowledge226
and media222
and nature of215–16
and new context of219–10
conflict between faith and state220–1
post-Westphalia era219–20
and new ways of fighting wars224–5
and partnership218
and patience216, 217
and pillars of222–12
and planning219, 225–6
object of219, 224
and political/military coherence217
and principles of223–4
and public diplomacy225
and resources224
and role of armed forces218–19
and war aims216
and will222
and winning216–17
strategy:
and abundance as poor basis for35
and Afghanistan574–5
of annihilation24
and avoiding budget-led planning667
and centrality of military history38–9
and change and continuity33–4
and civilian population35–6
as common sense40
and Comprehensive Approach574–7
building local capacity577
(p. 701) institutional ownership577
regional powers576
resources577
review576
and decisiveness of battle25
cult of143–4
and definition of:
Clausewitz32, 34
Liddell Hart34–5
and Delbrück on two forms of24
and democracy35–6
and development of thought about:
antiquity137–8
Renaissance to the Enlightenment139–40
18th century30–1
19th century32–4, 140–3
20th century34–9, 143–4
21st century39, 144–7
post-modern writings144–5
and dilemma of136
and distinction between theory and practice38–9
and divorce of theory from reality37–8
and ends and means39–40
of exhaustion24
and flaw in strategic theory38–9
and foreign policy38, 39
and geopolitics41
and grand strategy35, 40
and impact of changes in warfare135
and impossibility of unambiguous doctrine of war135
and international law36–7
and logistics401
and management of war264–5
and naval strategy35–6
and nuclear strategy37–8
and origins of term22, 30
and Pakistan574–5
and relationship between theory and practice136
and strategic culture40–1
and study of461
and supplanted by counterinsurgency397, 398
and total strategy144
study of war, see education in war
Sudan368, 657
Suez crisis (1956)244
Sullivan, General Gordon R340
Sun Tzu22, 25, 299, 667
and Art of War30
and asymmetric warfare304, 313
and deception313
and influence in Japan302
and knowledge226
and money503
and moral influence225
and strategic thought137–8
and strategy and tactics398
Svechin, A A377
Sweden, and officer education465
Swinton, E D393
Syria:
and nuclear threat171
and nuclear weapons166
Tacitus200
tactical nuclear weapons24
Taiwan127
Takeuchi, H481
Taliban136, 353, 355, 362
and armaments188
Tamil insurgency387, 397, 609
targeted killings, and just war theory (JWT)107
Tarleton, Banastre391
Tauroggen convention (1812)70
Taylor, Charles349
Taylor, Maxwell170
teaching war, see education in war
technoguerilla, and unconventional warfare189
technological civilization, and characteristics of59
technology:
and armed groups’ use of361–2
and flaws in weapon design479
and ineffectiveness in current conflicts:
(p. 702) Afghanistan485–6
Iraq484–5
Israel-Hezbollah486–7
new strategic context483–4
and limitations of477
irregular warfare484–5
non-technical innovations479–80
and Prussian integration of technical innovation482–3
and revolution in military affairs361
and secondary effects of innovation480
and war655, 665–6
Teitelbaum, M S605, 606
television, see media
Templer, General Gerald347, 353, 395
termination of war, and just war theory (JWT)109
terrorism:
as asymmetric warfare204–7, 611
material instruments205–6
moral (and political) instruments206
and casualties305
in civilian domain207–9
and contemporary impact of199
and definition of199, 209
and deliberate nature of200
and domestic use by established authorities200–1
randomness201
and Global War on Terrorism153, 179n72
and importance of understanding199
and intelligence205
and Islamist terrorism200, 206, 207
and motivations for200
and nuclear terrorism173–5
intelligence173–4
resilience174–5
as overblown phenomenon209–10
and overreaction to207
and political effectiveness208
and political purpose200, 206–7
and psychological impact of208–9
and randomness as force multiplier208
and relative economic costs205–6
and religion200
and state-sponsored terrorism207
and stimulation of fear200
and unconventional weapons205
and United Nations Security Council126
as warfare201–3
balance of (nuclear) terror202–3
civilianization of warfare201–2
Test Ban Treaty (1963)52
Tet Offensive (1968)206
Thales526–10
Thatcher, Margaret267, 504, 629n3
theory of war135
Thirty Years War46, 70, 201, 219, 517, 664
Thompson, J412, 413
Thornton, R150, 191
threat/risk analysis:
and challenges of154–5
and civil-military relations568
and co-dependence of security and welfare155
and coordination155
and relative priorities154
and resource problems155
and support of civilian authorities155
Three Block War342, 408
Thucydides137, 375
ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS)528
Tierney, John F553n10
Tito607
Toffler, Alvin65, 361
Toffler, Heidi65, 361
Toft, M D604, 608
Toland, John436
total strategy144
total war:
and air warfare444–5
and development of idea of144
and nature of23, 143
and nuclear weapons23–4
and Second World War23
totalitarianism, and terrorism201
Toyotomi Hideyoshi303
Trafalgar, Battle of (1805)433
transit countries368
transparency, and post-modern war62
Triple Alliance70
Tripp, R411
(p. 703) Tsushima, Battle of (1905)434, 518
Tukhachevsky, Mikhail276
Turenne, Marshall de69
Turkey73, 594, 608
Tuttle, W G T402
Twitter627
Ulm, Battle of (1805)31
ULTRA238
uncertainty, and dealing with479–82
unconventional warfare:
and biological and chemical warfare192
and conventional war, blending with186
and criteria for distinguishing186
and cyberwarfare193–5
and forms of185–6
and information and communication technology361–2
and irregular warfare187
and nano-war192–3
and operational level188–9
air power188
geography188–9
technoguerilla189
and psychological warfare190–2
information operations191
and scope of195
and strategic level189–90
goals189
hybrid warfare189–90
and structural disadvantages of the West363–4
and tactical level187–8
armaments187–8
mobility188
moral asymmetry188
tactical creativity188
use of technology188
and targets of186, 187
and terrorism205
and Western unpreparedness for360 see also asymmetric warfare
unilateralism, and United States127, 158
United Kingdom:
and British Maritime Doctrine436
and civil-military relations559–60, 563–6
apolitical tradition in armed forces563–4
challenges to566–9
changes in military operations567
civil-military gap560, 566–8
cultural assumptions563
decline in military experience566–7
Military Covenant565–6
during operational deployments568–9
political marginalization of military567
political/moral obligations of armed services564–5
political role of armed services564
threat assessment568
and decline in military performance advantage504–5
and defence and security planning:
aid and development514
balanced forces509–3
defence513
Defence Planning Assumptions512
defence reviews504
force requirements512
future planning assumptions508
matching ends and means511–14
mismatch between tasks/resources507, 508–9
need for security policy review513
options510
rapid expandability512
societal resiliency514
strategic core force512
Strategic Defence and Security Review (UK, 2010)506–7
strategy and diplomacy513
and defence diplomacy507
and defence expenditure170, 503, 655
Cold War increase in504
cuts to British Army508
cuts to Royal Navy507–1, 511
decline in504, 512, 545
decline in military performance advantage504–5
deserved priority of513
‘do more with less’504
flexible and sustainable budgets515
funding gap505
(p. 704) inferior/less equipment511
matching ends and means511–15
options510
procurement inefficiencies511
risks entailed by cuts510
and defence industry519–21
public-private partnerships529
and degrading of armed forces509
and deterrence, weakening of506
and Entente Cordiale69
and France:
cooperation521, 545
Franco-British Defence Treaty (2010)545
and The Future Character of Conflict323
and Iraq War, intelligence failure238–9
and Joint Rapid Reaction Force351
and logistics408, 409
and management of war:
Afghanistan267
failures in264
Falklands War (1982)265–6, 267
First World War260–1, 266
Gulf War (1990–91)267
Iraq War267–8
machinery of263–4
Napoleonic Wars260
Second World War261, 266–7
and maritime strategy431
and nuclear deterrence165, 169, 177n42
anti-ballistic missile defence172, 178n56
Defence Review168
The future of the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent (2006)165, 178n56
and officer education464
and procurement:
benefits of private contractors550
block adjustment538
critique of process547
delaying programmes538
inefficiencies511, 538
Major Projects Report538, 546
time and cost overruns538, 546, 547
and psy-ops190
and recruitment problems of armed forces509
and Second World War:
Anglo-French alliance322
German failure to invade433
and Strategic Defence and Security Review (2010)506
defence cuts506–90, 545
misguided nature of506
and strategic requirements219
and strategy, Treasury's impact on508
and terrorism, experience of204, 209
and Triple Alliance70
United Nations:
and Afghanistan352
and Charter of116, 117–19
coercive capabilities118
limitations on prohibition of force120
maintenance of international peace and security117–18
prohibition of force119–20
purpose of117
relevance of118–19, 126
self-defence120–2, 149
threats to relevance of127
and Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space500
and East Timor347
and establishment of27
and humanitarian intervention124–5
and non-state actors:
self-defence against121–2
use of armed force125–6
and protection of civilians612–13
and Responsibility to Protect concept94n11, 102, 124, 151, 367, 613–14
and Sierra Leone349–51
and use of force49
United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights (UNCHR)613
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea440
United Nations Environmental Programme369
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)612–13
United Nations Interim Force in the Lebanon (UNIFIL)250
(p. 705) United Nations Security Council (UNSC)117
and coercive capabilities118
and criminal tribunals122
and discretionary power of122
and enforcement actions150–1
and Iraq's invasion of Kuwait123
and Kosovo conflict (1999)123
and legitimate use of force103, 119
and occasional paralysis of121
and peacekeeping missions122
and Resolution 1368 (2001)121
and Resolution 678 (1990)123
and responsibilities of118
and self-defence against non-state actors121
and terrorism126
and use of armed force122–3
United States:
and 9/11 terrorist attack:
impact of203
response to203–4
and Afghanistan24
dominant role in225
intervention in73
objectives of invasion40
requests NATO assistance73
and capabilities-based model of defence305–6
and China311–12
warnings to369
and coalition leadership304
and coalitions75
commitment to319–20
and Cold War, competitive strategy304
and containment policy71
and declarations of war19
and defence expenditure76, 170, 545, 655
and defence industry518, 519, 520
market size526
and defence of interests367
and Department of Defense587–8, 589, 596
and Department of State587, 589, 596
and doctrine on use of armed force126–7
and emerging powers, response to91
and end of Cold War203
metric for calculating risk reset203
and European Union, tensions between75–6
and extended self-defence150
and Global Posture Review (2003)306
and Global War on Terrorism153, 179n72
and hybrid warfare367
and inner cities64
and intelligence, Pearl Harbor237
and Iraq War:
equipment shortages539
intelligence failure238–9
and logistics410
and management of war257
and Middle East, access and denial policy163
and National Security Strategy (2002)150, 306
and National Security Strategy (2010)75
and NATO:
calls for burden-sharing71–2
declining interest in76
as driving force of76, 78
establishment of71
and naval forces431
and nuclear deterrence:
anti-ballistic missile defence172
extended deterrence165, 166
technological credibility167
and nuclear non-proliferation52
and nuclear strategy, Nuclear Posture Review168
and nuclear weapons, Reliable Replacement Warhead controversy167–8
and Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization589
and pre-emptive use of force306
and private contractors411, 544, 546
and procurement:
equipment shortages539
institutional bias539
priority of future over current wars539
quest for perfection540
time and cost overruns546
and Quadrennial Defense Review (2001)305–6
and response to non-state threat153
(p. 706) and restructuring of armed forces361
and risk aversion203
and Second World War322
and space, military use of489–90
as force multiplier