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date: 17 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article considers Japan's future security environment at the beginning of the twenty-first century. In order to do so, it reviews the history of war back to roughly five hundred years ago. Prior to the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, wars were fought among feudal lords or religious groups. After the Treaty of Westphalia, however, wars were mainly fought between nation-states, examples of which include the Mexican-American War (1846) in the Western Hemisphere, the Franco-Prussian War (1870) in Europe, and the Sino-Japanese War (1894) in Asia. Owing to the development of diplomatic, trade, and military lines of communication, which enhanced inter-state relations, most wars during the twentieth century were fought between alliances, such as the First and Second World Wars. This phenomenon is due in part to the industrial revolution that created modern weapons. Their requirement for vast amounts of ammunition and energy encouraged many countries to pool their efforts.

Keywords: security environment, twenty-first century, Treaty of Westphalia, war history, Japanese war, Mexican-American War

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