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date: 19 October 2019

(p. 503) Index

(p. 503) Index

A
ability 58, 61, 66
accessibility 114–6
accessibility privacy 242
acquaintances 48–9
acting out 305
actors 126–7
actual interactivity 82–3
adaptive structuration theory 107
affordance 73
aggression 192
agreement 279
ambiguity 306–10
anchoring effects 435
anonymity 45–6, 140, 186, 222, 254–5, 272–3, 490–1
impact of 276, 278–9
managed 223
anti-globalization movement 174
arena 115
ASP 76
assurance-based trust 59
attributional processes 315
audio 64
automatic processes 204
avatars 289, 308
B
Bandura, Albert 192–3
bandwidth 405–6
banners 382
Bargh, John 37
behaviourist theory 192–3
benevolence 58, 61, 66
between-subjects design 393–5
dropouts 394–5
bias, panel 472
bibliometric (infometric) analysis 126
black hole phenomenon 307
blogging 93, 210, 418
bombing 305
bonding 130
bots 377
bridging ties 130
Britain
digital divide 20–4
Internet and social interaction 11–3
browser bugs 465–6
bulletin board systems 407–8
bulletin boards 138
bundling 32
C
calculative trust 59
calculus-based trust 59
Camfield Estates-MIT Creating Community Connections Project 11
Capellanus, Andrea, The Art of Courtly Love 35
Carnegie-Mellon HomeNet study 8–10
causation 390
channel reduction 56
chat groups 277
chat rooms 36, 47, 313, 404
Clegg Smith, Katherine M. 496
client configuration issues 463–6
browser bugs 465–6
client-side interpreters 463
Java 464
Javascript and HTML/DHTML 464
plugins 464
cognitive dissonance, avoidance of 309
cognitive elaboration model 434
cognitive need for closure 309
cognitive orientation 308
cognitive SIDE 255–60
refinements to 260–2
Cognitive-Behavioural Model of
Problematic Internet Use 340
cohabitation 33
coherent identity 191–2
collective action 163–82
and injustice 167
key processes in 166–7
theories of 164–8
collective behaviour 253–4
collectivist behaviour 252–4
common-bond groups 261
common-identity groups 261
communal ties 128–9
communication protocols 460–1
communities 128
link based 132–3
of practice 132
specialized definitions 131–3
communities online 121–36
discovery of 123–4
language 123–4
network view 124–6
community access 11
community debates 122–3
community liberated 125
community saved 125
compliance 272, 281
computer-mediated communication 36, 37, 121, 137, 156, 166, 170, 251, 271
characteristics of 272–3
computer-mediated relating 31
concealment 227
conditional acceptance 207
confidentiality 490–1
confounding 394
conscious/controlled processes 203–4
consequentialism 487
constant ratio paradox 392
containment 207–8
context effects 427–43
definition of 428–9
and question order 432–3
and response category order 433–5
anchoring effects 435
cognitive elaboration model 434
Internet surveys 435
memory limitations 434
satisficing 434–5
response option scale 435–7
(p. 504) and survey mode 429–32
aural vs. visual communication 430–1
control of survey process 430
Internet surveys 431–2
presence/absence of interviewers 429–30
contextual properties 59
control 187, 246–7
control trust 59
correlation 390
courting 31–3
in cyberspace 35–6
crawlers 377
crowds 164–5
cuelessness model 274
cyberhate 153, 154, 156–7
combatting 158
cyberspace 33–5, 302
and courtly love 35–6
real relationships in 36
“cyberspace rape” 486
cyberstalking 146
cybertime 306
D
data analysis 383–6
dropout analysis 385–6
inclusion criteria 383
technical variance 383–5
data gathering 403–26
mixed methods strategy 421–3
online interviews 404–16
advantages 408–11
asynchronous approaches 406–8
disadvantages 411–2
establishment of rapport 412
ethical issues 414
impoverished/ambiguous data 413–14
sampling approaches 414–5
synchronous approaches 404–6
online observation and document analysis 416–21
advantages 419–20
disadvantages 420–1
data interceptions 466–7
data quality and content 462
dating 31–42
courting 31–3
online 8, 41
dazzling 290
de-individuation 140, 253, 254
de-marginalization 144–5
deception 287–99, 312–4
definition 287–9
detecting 294–6
identity-based 289–91
message-based 291–6
producing 291–4
decoying 290
defacement 172
demesne 115
denial of participation 461–2
dependability 57
depersonalization 253, 258, 261
depolarization 258
detattachment 307
deterrence-based trust 59
DHTML 464
digital deception see deception
digital divide 7–8, 171
Britain 20–4
choices reconfiguring access 26
socio-demographic aspects 13–20
Dipex 347
discussion forums 138
disembedding 54
disempowerment 172
disinhibition 192
DoCoMo'si-mode 359
document analysis 418–9
domain names 460
double play 290
dropouts 385–6, 394–5
E
e-commerce 240, 246
trust in 59–62
e-rotic transference 307
efficacy 167, 174–6
ego 189
elaboration likelihood model 197
email 9–10, 210, 291
mobile 360
as social support 10
emoticons 258, 413
emotional release 241
emotional support 139
environmental control 246
Erickson, Eric 191–2
ethical issues 414, 420–1, 485–500
incentives 481
Internet research ethics 485–7
basic issues 487–94
meta-ethics 494–7
methodology 495–6
online personality testing 446
ethical pluralism 497
expected interactivity 82–3
expected utility 392
violation of 392–3
expected value theory 391–2
experience 47
expressive privacy 242
extroversion 198–9
extroversion-introversion coexistence 191
eye contact, lack of 304
ez-web 359
F
factorial design 396
field times 477–8
firewall 406
fishbowl groups 115
five-factor model 199–200
flaming 146, 156, 254, 257
Flash 76
flash mobs 105, 109
flow 310
focus groups 404
foot-in-the-door phenomenon 278
forums 380–1
Frederick, Douglas 496
Freud, Sigmund 189–90
friends 48–9
Friendster 46
Fromm, Erich 194–5
G
Gemeinschaft 122, 124, 130, 132
gender 260
concealment 263, 312
Gesellschaft 122, 130
Gibson, William, Necromancer 33
Girls Walker 367
Good Samaritanism 496
Google News 92–3
Grice's maxims of communication 429, 432
group activities, organization of 364
group attraction 261
group communication support systems 111
group decision support systems 172–3
group external support systems 111
group information support systems 111
group performance support systems 111
groups as knowledge networks 107
guarded trust 59
gut reactions 301
H
hacktivism 172
Hall, G. John 496
halo effect 186, 315
hate groups 153–61
nature and purpose 154–6
(p. 505) Haythornthwaite, Caroline, The Internet in Everyday Life 233
health advice 345–57
health consumers' use of Internet 350–5
online health information 347–8
trust and mistrust 348–50
heterogeneous networks 145–6
high hurdle technique 376
honesty 57
HTML 76, 373, 464
human-computer interaction 53
human-website interaction 89–102
hyperaccessibility 279
hyperconnectivity 365–6
hyperlink (link) analysis 126
hyperpersonal interaction 141
hyperpersonal model 308
hypertextuality 305
I
id 189
identifiability 57, 157, 222, 273
identification 167–8, 176–7
identity 114–6
identity-based digital deception 288, 289–91
imagery 309–10
imagination 309
impersonation 312–4
Implicit Association Test 454
impression construction 224–5
impression development 225–8
impression formation 312–4
impression maintenance 228–31
impression management 221–2, 223
case history 222
and online communication 222–3
impression motivation 223–4
incentives 478–81
ethical issues 481
individualism, networked 169
individuation 145
inequality 172–3
information 244
assembly 244
commodification of 245–6
importance of 83
invisibility 244
neutrality 244
permanence 244
remoteness 244
volume 244
informational content 62
informational privacy 242
informational support 138–9
informed consent 490–1
injustice 172–4
and collective action 167
instant messaging 36, 43, 48, 210, 292, 360, 404
institutional embeddedness 57, 60–1, 65
institutional trust 59
instrumental support 138
interactional privacy 241
interactive messaging units 96
interactivity 71–88
actual 82–3
concept development 74–5
correlates of 77
definitions 72–3
expected 82–3
as function of medium 75–6
as human behaviour 81
human-website interaction 89–102
impact/effects 79–80
measurements of 78–9
as message feature 94–9
as modality feature 90–2
as multidimensional variable 80–1
perceived 82–3
as source feature 92–4
with/through medium 81–2
interactivity paradox 92
interface properties 62, 63–4
intergroup differentiation 277–8
intergroup inequalities 173
internalized norms 58, 61, 66
International Personality Item Pool 237
Internet
anonymity of 45–6
contemporary perspectives 166
dangers of 190
leisure use 359–68
limitations 170–2
mobile 359, 361
possibilities 168–70
and privacy 243–5
psychological context 185–9
and self-disclosure 237–9
social interaction see social interaction
spaces on 37–8
time spent online 47, 364
and true self 209–16
versus love letters 36–7
Internet abuse 329–30
cognitive-behavioural model 339
criticism of concept of 331–2
definition of 330
incidence of 330–1
and loneliness 334–6, 338
and online social interaction 333–4
and pre-existing problems 332
relationship to other problems 332
and shyness 337–8
and social anxiety 337–8
specific vs. generalized 333
Internet addicts 329
Internet connectivity issues 462–3
Internet partners 47–8
beliefs about trust 48
Internet Relay Chat 8, 404
Internet research ethics 485–7
basic issues 487–94
Internet therapy 190
Internet trust 59
Internet use 329–43
Internet-based experiments 371–88
advantages of 374
archiving 386
between versus within-subjects designs 393–5
by field 372
client-side versus server-side 378
configuration error 373
data analysis 383–6
design of 389–401
dropouts 375–7
generation of 378–9
high entrance barrier 376
meta-tagging techniques 377–8
monitoring 382–3
planning 375
pre-testing 379–80
recruitment 380–2
representative design 395–7
seriousness technique 377
systextual design 397–9
theory 389–93
warm-up technique 376
Internet-based interpersonal
communication 303–6
interpersonal cues 58, 61
interpersonal deception theory 294
interpersonal influence 272, 278–81
agreement 279
impact of anonymity 278–9
impact of status differences 279
person-communication match 280
physical isolation 279–80
interpreters, client-side 463
intragroup uniformity 277–8
intrinsic properties 58, 59, 61
inventing 290
IP numbers 460
isolation, physical 262, 273, 279–80
item response theory 451
J
James, William 204
Japan 359–68
keitai 359, 361, 364–6
Java 76, 464
Javascript 464
Johns, Mark D. 496
(p. 506) Judge project 348
Jung, Carl 190–1
K
keitai see mobile phones
Ku Klux Klan 154, 155
L
language 123–4
latent ties 130
Leary, Mark 221, 223
leisure activities 359–68
leisure planning 363
leniency bias 435
limited and protected
communication 241
Ling, Richard 360
link based communities 132–3
listservers 138, 210
local area networks 105, 109, 271
locales framework 108–11
extension of 111–4
locus of control 197
loneliness 207, 334, 336–7
appeal of Internet 336
and Internet abuse 334–6, 338
Internet causing 334–5
lonely personality 335–6
longitudinal studies 10–1
love letters 34–5
versus Internet 36–7
Lunt, Peter 496
lurkers 138, 173, 188, 305, 417, 485
lying 46–7
M
MAC addresses 460
McKenna, Katelyn 37
mailing lists 380–1
managed anonymity 223
marriages, arranged 32
masking 290
media multiplexity 128
media richness 56
mediated communication 165–6
mediated interactions 53–70
message-based digital deception 288
meta-ethics 494–7
meta-tagging techniques 377–8
methodology 495–6
mimicking 290
mixed methods studies 421–3
Mnookin, Jennifer 221
mobile phones 359, 361
leisure uses 364–6
privacy 366
MOO 36, 37, 225
motivation 192, 308
motivation enhancement effect 296
motivational confounding 376
motivational impairment effect 295
MSN Messenger 404
MUD object oriented see MOO
multi-conversing 304–5
multi-user domains 8, 37, 189, 223, 417–8
multiple identities 204–5
multiple selves 204–5
multiple site entry technique 382
MySpace 114
MySQL database 467
N
need for closure 77, 196
need for cognition 197
NEO questionnaire 199–200
Netdoctor 347
networked individualism 169
neuroticism 198–9
new media 71
newbies 124
newsgroups 380–1
NHS direct 347
non-response 476
norm-based influence 272, 276–8
impact of anonymity 276
intragroup uniformity and intergroup differentiation 277–8
preconditions for 276–7
underlying process 276
O
observation 416–8
off-topic chats 277
offline mediated social
interaction 15–9
O'Hara, Diana 35
Olivero, Nadia 496
on-topic chats 277
online action, theories of 164–8
online dating 8
future of 41
online deception 46–7
online emotions 310–2
online friendships 19
online groups 105–19
definition of 106–7
identity and accessibility 114–6
locales framework 108–11
supporting technologies 111–2
technology perspective 106–7
online interviews 404–16
advantages 408–11
balanced power relationships 410–1
depth and reflexivity 409–10
enhanced candour and self-disclosure 409
facilitation of participation 411
asynchronous approaches 406–8
context effects 427–43
disadvantages 411–2
establishment of rapport 412
ethical issues 414
impoverished/ambiguous data 413–4
sampling approaches 414–5
synchronous approaches 404–6
online observation and document
analysis 416–21
advantages 419–20
power relationships 420
ready access to data 419
unobtrusiveness 419–20
disadvantages 420–1
ethical issues 420–1
online panels 381, 471–83
benefits/threats for psychological research 472–3
definition of 471–2
field times 477–8
function, structure and infrastructure 473–4
future of 481
incentives 478–81
performance and quality 474–81
recruitment and sampling 475–6
reminders 477
response and dropout rates 476–7
online sexual activities 333
online spaces 37–8
presentation of self in 38–41
online/offline realities 130–1
opportunity 44, 192
opposites 191
organizational identity theory 252
Oxford Internet Survey 12
P
panel bias 472
panel conditioning 472
panels see online panels
paradigm shifts 164
paralinguistic information 258, 413
participant pools 381
partner perception 47–8
beliefs about trust 48
perceived interactivity 82–3
perceived similar others 142–5
person-communication match 280
personal autonomy 241
personal awareness 317
personal factors 47
personality 176, 185–202
personality characteristics 196–200
extroversion and neuroticism 198–9
locus of control 197
need for closure 77, 196
need for cognition 197
NEO questionnaire 199–200
sensation-seeking and risk-taking 198
personality testing 445–57
equivalence 4489
empirical evidence 450–2
qualitative 449
quantitative 449–50
types of 449–50
ethical aspects 446
other forms of assessment 453–4
recommendations 455–6
research implications 452–3
unanswered questions 454–5
use of Internet for 446–8
personality theories 189–95
Albert Bandura 192–3
Carl Jung 190–1
Carl Rogers 193–4
Eric Erickson 191–2
Erich Fromm 194–5
Sigmund Freud 189–90
Pew Internet and American Life
Project 9, 11, 303
phantom emotions 314–7
implications 317–9
phantom sensations 302
photos 64
physical appearance 210
diminution of 186–7
physical privacy 241
physical server theft 467
plausible deniability 366
plugins 464
plural communities 125
power 259–60
pre-interactional filters 62
predictive systems 389
presence 56, 306–10
pressure groups 174
privacy 235–50, 366, 490–1
definition of 240–3
and Internet 243–5
specific issues 491–3
privacy fundamentalists 242
privacy pragmatists 243
prosocial behaviour 192–3
pseudocommunities 122
psychological privacy 241–2
psychoticism 198–9
pull 460
push 460
R
reduced social cues approach 274
reference point effects 436
reflected self 204, 211–3
relabelling 290
relational multiplexity 127
relational self 206
relations 126–7
relationships 310
management 62, 63–4
relative deprivation theory 167
reliability 57
reliance 59
reminders 477
representative design 395–7
reputation systems 49
researcher carelessness 467
response contraction bias 436
response option scale effects 435–7
Rheingold, Howard 231
risk 44, 493–4
risk-taking 198
robots 377
Rogers, Carl 193–4
true self 204, 205
role expectancies 206–7
romantic partners 48–9
S
sampling bias 450
sanctum 115
satisficing 434–5
scale label effects 435
scale range effects 436
search engines 382
selective self-disclosure 230
self-awareness 255
self-categorization theory 252, 272, 281
self-concept 193
and self-expression 214–6
self-disclosure 37, 186, 207–8, 235–50, 409
definition of 235–6
and Internet 237–9
measurement of 236–7
online models 239–40
selective 230
and trust 245
self-efficacy 175
self-esteem 144–5
self-evaluation 241
self-expression 203–19
effects on relationships 215–6
and self-concept 214–6
self-presentation 308
sensation-seeking 198
and online communication 209–10
server intrusions 466
server side and data security
issues 466–8
data interceptions 466–7
physical server theft 467
researcher carelessness 467
server intrusions 466
server-side programming 467–8
server-side programming 467–8
short text messaging 360
shyness 337–8
SIDE 143, 156, 177
anonymity in 254–5
cognitive dimension 255–62
intergroup contexts 258–9
intragroup contexts 256–8
roots of 252–4
strategic effects 262–4
signification 231
similar others 187–9
situational normality 57, 59
smileys 305
social anxiety 207, 210, 334
and Internet abuse 337–8
social capital 54, 129, 168
social comparison 143–4
social connectedness 57
social cues 259
social embeddedness 57, 60, 65
social identity 167–8, 176–7, 251–67
theory 157
social identity model of
deindividuation effects see SIDE
social identity theory 252
social influence 271–86
classic approaches to 273–5
research on 275–8
types of 272
social information processing 141
social interaction 8–11
conceptualizations of 13
indicators of 14
offline interpersonal 13–5
offline mediated 15–9
online 19–20
and trust 43–51
US and Britain 11–3
social networks 121–36
and community 128
expansion of 142
social penetration theory 40
social presence model 56, 273
social sharing 173–4
social support 138–9
(p. 508) social support groups 137–51
anonymous participation 140
definition 138
disadvantages 146–7
text basis 140–2
varied information 145
spamming 305, 313
spiders 377
spoofing 305
Standage, Tom, The Victorian Internet 34
status 259–60
status differences 278–81
Stern, Susannah 494
stranger-on-the-train theory 37, 186, 208
Structured Clinical Interview for
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID-IV) 332
superego 189
suppression 208–9
surveys 237
synchronicity 304
synergies 130–1
Syntopia project 12
systextual design 397–9
T
Takanori, Tamura 497
TCP/IP protocol 373
TechNet 131
technical considerations in online research 459–70
client configuration issues 463–6
browser bugs 465–6
client-side interpreters 463
Java 464
Javascript and HTML/DHTML 464
plugins 464
clients and servers 460
communication protocols 460–1
data quality and content 462
denial of participation 461–2
Internet connectivity issues 462–3
IP numbers, MAC addresses and domain names 460
limits of precision 468–9
lowest common technology 462–3
pull and push 460
server side and data security issues 466–8
data interceptions 466–7
physical server theft 467
researcher carelessness 467
server intrusions 466
server-side programming 467–8
URLs 461
technological determinism 106–7
technology trust 59
telegraphy 34
telephone 216
Temperament and Character
Inventory 237
temporal embeddedness 57, 60, 65
text communication 64–5, 303–4
aloneness of 304
reading 304
synchronicity 304
Thayer, Ella Cheever, Wired Love: A Romance of Dots and Dashes 34
The Hate Directory 153, 158
theory 389–93
expected value 391–2
experiments test 390–1
third-person effect 158
Thomson, Judith Jarvis 496
threads 138
ties 126–7
time spent online 47
traceability 57
trolls 124
true self 204, 205–6
failure to express 206–9
Internet and 209–16
trust 43–51, 53–5, 245
beliefs about 48
definition of 43–5
development of 45
dispositional levels 47
in e-commerce websites 59–62
effect of Internet interactions on 49–50
forms of 58–9
global versus specific 44–5
media representations 64–5
in mediated interactions 53–70
online health information 348–50
in virtual teams 62, 64–5
trust-warranting properties 55–8
contextual 57
intrinsic 57–8
trustee 55
trustor 55
trustworthiness, symbols and symptoms 56
U
UK see Britain
uncertainty reduction theory 238, 305
unconscious self 205
uniform resource locator see URL
URL 461
US
digital divide 13–20
Internet and social interaction 11–3
offline interaction associations with online social interaction 19–20
offline interpersonal social interaction 13–5
offline mediated social interaction 15, 15–19
online friendships 19
USENET groups 115, 408, 417, 485, 492
utilitarianism 487
V
video 64
video games 123
virtual emotion 316
virtual learning environments 404
virtual mirroring 313
virtual reality 306
virtuality 107–11
visibility 261
visual cues 261
voicemail 216
W
Walstrom, Mary 496
Walther, Joe 37
weak ties 145
web portals 380
webometrics 126
Wellman, Barry 125
The Internet in Everyday Life 233
WEXTOR 373, 378–9
White-supremacist websites 154, 155, 157–8
within-subjects design 393–5
World Internet Project 10
Y
Yahoo! 94
Z
Zapatista movement 173–4