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date: 20 June 2019

(p. 733) Index

(p. 733) Index

Bold page numbers refer to a quotation made by the person concerned1968 protests
causes244–8
and conservatism19
Eastern Europe248–53
and economic crises409
legacy243–244
national variations19–21, 248–56
perspectives256–60
and terrorism256
Vietnam War248
Abendroth, Walter191
Abs, Hermann76
Acton, Lord6
Adamovich, Ales724
Addison, Paul64
Adenauer, Konrad198, 280, 308
Adorno, Theodor10, 15, 19, 243, 429, 540, 681, 682
Adzhubei, Alexei330
Africa
cultural influence on Europe607
decolonization see decolonization
Agamben, Giorgio688–9, 690
agriculturesee rural areas
Albania
break with Soviet Union18, 289, 328, 335
and China179, 328, 469, 470, 471
collectivization570
communist takeover273
continuance of Stalinism326
friendship treaties321
and Khrushchev's revisionism326
politics after communism530, 541–2, 543
Stalinism279, 469–71
World War II deaths81
and Yugoslavia469
Alberoni, Francesco429
Albertazzi, Daniele538
Aldrich, Robert481
Algeria
Allied landings487
and EEC134
independence struggle15–16, 134, 248, 347, 483–4, 485, 487, 494, 496–7
Alia, Ramiz470
Allen, Patrick458
Almodóvar, Pedro518, 654
Aly, Götz151
Americanization
anti-Americanism185–6, 196–8
cinema190–191
Congress for Cultural Freedom194–5
consumerism and leisure424–5
corporate191–3
culture184, 185, 190–3
de-Nazification189–90
Eastern Europe193, 292–3
‘from above’184, 186–90
‘from below’184, 185, 190–3
Fulbright exchanges188–9
international economic order186–7
overview182–6
television434–5
and Westernization185, 193–6
before World War II190
during World War II188, 190
youth culture191
Amis, Martin458
Anderson, Benedict125
Anderson, Lindsay655, 664
Anderson, Perry123
Andreotti, Giulio26
Angelopoulos, Theodor654
anti-fascism68, 171, 173, 174, 273, 280, 509, 671, 672, 674, 674–677, 678, 679, 681, 682, 683, 684, 685, 686, 687, 688, 689, 690, 720, 723
anti-totalitarianism677–9
Antonescu, Ion718
Antonioni, Michelangelo428, 654
Appadurai, Arjun650
(p. 734) Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) vineyards578
Aquinas, Thomas315
architecture and urban regeneration582–99, 626–8
Arendt, Hannah20, 23, 69, 197, 502, 673, 679, 689, 716
Armenian genocide147
Aron, Raymond299, 679, 685
Arriaga, Kaúlza de523
Arslan, Emir Shakib486
Astafev, Viktor705–6
asylumsee migration
Atlantic Charter486–7
Attenborough, David665
Attlee, Clement348, 448, 490
August, Bille656
Auriol, Vincent635
Austin, Jane662
Austria
agricultural production361
anti-communism276–7
consumerism and leisure426, 427
corporatist political arrangements364
de-Nazification189–90
and European Union87, 573
foreign-born workers214
leisure spending441
migration after World War II205
migration and racism211
organic farming576
populist political parties317
social democracy49, 50, 309
urban regeneration590
World War II deaths81
Austro–Hungarian Empire
Bosnia administration549
destruction482
European geopolitical imagination104–7
as spiritual heir of the Holy Roman Empire103–4
Axel, Gabriel656
Bacon, Francis621
Baker, Josephine190
Balfour Declaration610
Balibar, Etienne115–16
Ballard, J G480, 480–481, 481, 501
Balliu, Fahri471
Bandera, Stepan76
Bandung Conference (1955)492
Bardot, Brigitte428
Bartelson, Jens728
Baselitz, Georg625
Băsescu, Traian539
Baudrillard, Jean429
Bauer, Yehuda533
Bauman, Zygmunt100
Bayly, Christopher483, 487
beat poets247
Beatles430, 655
Beck, Ulrich588
Becker, Wolfgang659
Belaj, Vitomir554
Belarus
Great Patriotic War cult703, 724
nationalist resistance to Communism272
politics after communism530–1, 543
Belgium
1968 protests257
agricultural production361
Christian Democrat governments301
Christian Democrat policy315
colonial acquisitions post-World War I482
colonial empire482
corporatist political arrangements364
decolonization286, 485, 489–90, 497, 497–8
and European integration384
and European Union86
and Eurozone crises403
foreign-born workers214
globalization417
ICT growth419
industrial output decline409
national identity204
nationalization312
populist political parties317
services growth421
social democracy49, 309, 315
Treaty of Brussels (1948)341
unemployment409
(p. 735) welfare state antecedants307
World War II deaths81
youth politics and culture246–7
Ben-Ghiat, Ruth721
Benda, Julien684
Benn, Tony445
Bensaϯd, Daniel258
Berdahl, Daphne180
Berghahn, Volker67
Bergman, Ingmar656, 662
Beria, Lavrenti17
Berlin, Isaiah679
Berlin Wall18, 24, 26, 86, 290, 296, 329, 431, 454, 519, 582, 585, 658, 718
Berlusconi, Silvio721
Berman, Jakub473
Bernal, John Desmond632
Bertolucci, Bernardo654
Betts, Paul179
Beuys, Joseph624–5
Bevin, Ernest50, 51, 55, 341, 342, 348, 448, 489
Beyer, Frank658
Bhabha, Homi K608
Bidault, René341
Bideleux, Robert168
Bierut, Bolesław473
Bilak, Vasil24
Bilsky, Laura234, 235
Bin Laden, Osama610
Bismarck, Otto von300
Blair, Tony109, 316
Blake, Peter623
Blanchard, Olivier433
Blum, Léon651
Boe, Christoffer650
Bolt, Robert454
Boltho, Andrea408
Bondarchuk, Sergei700
Bonwetsch, Bernd704
Borisov, Boyko539
Bosnia
Austro–Hungarian rule549
borders549
collaboration with Nazi occupation547–8
ethnic cleansing (1991–95)158–61
film and TV659
independence31, 86
‘memory wars’717
World War II deaths81
Yugoslavia conflict30–1, 555–7
Boulting brothers (John and Roy)447–8
Bourdet, Claude15
Bourdieu, Pierre429
Bouveresse, Jacques104
Boyd, Carolyn722
Braidotti, Rosi138
Brandenberger, David464
Brando, Marlon190, 246, 654
Brandt, Willy14, 335, 474
Branson, Richard438
Braque, Georges620
Braun, Wernher von455
Brazzi, Rossano428
Brecht, Bertholt18, 446, 657
Bren, Paulina176, 178, 179
Brennen, Donald447
Bretton Woods Agreements52, 186, 187, 294, 371, 374–6, 388, 400, 408, 415
Brezhnev, Leonid177, 320, 330–2, 333, 697, 700, 701, 703, 704, 705
Brezhnev Doctrine22, 173, 332–5, 526
Briggs, Raymond458
Britten, Benjamin454
Broadberry, Steven N.363
Broch, Hermann102
Brooks, Harvey639
Brown, Archie527, 532
Broz, Svetlana551
Brubaker, Rogers95
Brucan, Silviu716–17
Brundtland, Gro Harlem643
Bruter, Michael136
Bryant, Peter455
Brzezinski, Zbigniew470, 475
Buchanan, Colin584
Buchholz, Horst191
Buck-Morss, Susan26
Budak, Mile554
Bulgaria
1953 uprising281
agricultural production361
anti-facism675
collectivization570
communist consumerism168
(p. 736) communist takeover273–4
economic growth358
ethnic cleansing during Nazi era152–3
and European Union87, 575
friendship treaties321
friendship treaty with Soviet Union321, 322, 323
and Khrushchev's revisionism326
migration after Treaty of Craiova (1940)152
and Ostpolitik331
politics after communism541–2, 543
populist political parties539
‘reciprocal emigration’ of minorities after World War I148
Stalinism471–3
territorial changes after World War II82
the ‘veiled Muslim woman’230–1
Bunce, Valerie535, 536
Bundy, McGeorge456
Burgess, Adam440
Burgin, Victor623
Bustikova, Lenka541, 542
Bykov, Vasil703
Byrnes, James F.651
Cacciari, Massimo98, 99
Calder, Angus64
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)452–3, 454, 455, 456, 456–7, 457, 458
Camus, Albert460, 679, 685
Canetti, Elias101, 102–3
Carlsen, Henning657
Carow, Heiner658
Carrero Blanco, Luis512
Carson, Rachel638, 639
Carter, James (Jimmy)345, 353
Castillo, Greg171
Ceauşescu, Nicolae18, 24, 169, 179, 252–3, 290, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 471, 477, 478
Cecil, Robert64
Central Europe
aftermath of World War II75
agriculture569tab
Americanization185
architecture596
definitional issues89–93
democracy537
displaced persons4
economic planning66
and European identity110, 112
and European Union212, 214
existence79–97
Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA)92
Habsburg legacy106
Iron Curtain265
migration149, 206, 210
Stalinism463
television663
territorial changes after World War II81–4
time zone91–2
Western understanding of99
World War II deaths81
Césaire, Aimé603, 685
Chervenkov, Vulko472
China
and Albania18, 179, 328, 469, 470, 471
annexation of Tibet604
Bandung Conference (1955)492
cultural influence on Europe607
‘cultural revolution331
death toll under communism164
and EEC122
and globalization193
green business644
‘hybrid’ communism527
Korean War327
realist art615
return of Hong Kong (1997)604
return of Macao (1999)500, 604
riots in Wuhan293
rise of501
and Romania290
science and technology633
Sino–Soviet treaty326–8, 335
tension with Soviet Union320, 328–9, 330, 331
threat from351
the ‘white woman’ in advertising225
Chirot, Daniel22
Christian Democrats
(p. 737) and anti-totalitarianism680
governments301–2
progressive direction308–9
reorientation315
and welfare statesee welfare state
Churchill, Winston13, 155, 198, 285, 446, 450, 486–7, 610, 694
cinema
American influence190–1, 246, 651–3
background649–50
Cold War culture448
digital technology666
documentary664–6
Eastern Europe657–9
Great Patriotic War cult697, 700, 702–3
‘memory wars’718
modern cinema culture654–5
national cultures650–1
nuclear weapons in film447–8, 449, 450, 453–4, 455–6, 457, 458, 458–9
Scandinavian new wave656–657
Southern Europe's new wave653–4
top 10 films652tab
US cinema in Nazi era190
cities, regeneration of582–99
Citroen, André423
Clark, Julian588
Clausewitz, Carl von446
Clayton, Jack655
Clemenceau, Georges603
Cohn-Bendit, Daniel250
Cold War
chronological divisions283–4
commencement12–13
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE)294–6, 352
culturesee nuclear weapons
erosion of Iron Curtain292–6
Europe after296–8
and European integration297–8
focus on9–10, 37–8
and global unrest293–4
Helsinki Accords294–6, 352
impact of3, 44
interwar period77
later years352–4
main themes284
overview283–4
Soviet bloc289–92
as stabilizing force68–9
threat from5
Western Europe and US285–8see also Berlin Wall; Iron Curtain; nuclear weapons
Cole, G D H66
collective memorysee ‘memory wars’
Collini, Stefan684
colonialismsee decolonization; postcolonialism
Comaroff, John and Jean 240
Comecon
creation323, 373
failure291, 387
Cometti, Jean-Pierre104
Cominform
creation277, 323
disbanding323
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
creation572–3
reform573–5
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
creation24, 27
division from EU94
communism
admiration for17
and Algerian independence486
anti-Americanism197–8
anti-facism173–4
‘bureaucratic-authoritarian’ communism278, 531–2
collapse22–5, 86
consolidation after World War II265–81
consumerist policies167–72
and culture171–2
death toll164
decline in Western Europe50, 266
definitional issues as to communist society165–6
economic stagnation173
growth of opposition to167
historiography of post-World War II period267–8
last years177–9
life under163–81
(p. 738) loss of status18
‘national-accommodative’ communism531, 541
in national political cultures267–8
and nationalism174–5
‘normalization’175–7
patrimonial communism531, 541–2
political repression under17–18
post-communism526–45
and private life171–2
reactionary policies172–7
responses to takeovers by166–7
and Soviet foreign policy273–7
Soviet leading role affirmed327
support for165
surviving communist states527
Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE)294–6, 352
Confino, Alon715
Conran, Terence428
conservatism
and 1968 protests19
and consumerism20
postwar settlement44, 48, 49, 53, 54
retrenchment21
strength17
consumerism and leisure
Americanization424–5
background423–32
citizen-consumer439–41
convenience foods426
culture of leisure427–8, 432–3
department stores432
domestic appliances425–6
Eastern Europe429–32
Marxist critiques429
media436–7
private vehicle ownership426
sport435–6
supermarkets426–7
television433–5
tourism437–9
working week433
before World War II423–4, 433
Cook, Robin109
Ćosić, Dobrica553
Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA)see Comecon
Crainz, Guido72
Cripps, Sir Stafford489
Croatia
borders549
Central European identity90
collaboration with Nazi occupation547–8
ethnic cleansing (1991–95)160–1
ethnic cleansing during Nazi era153–4
independence30, 86, 553–4
‘memory wars’717
nationalist tensions pre-independence551
politics after communism541, 542
World War II deaths81
Yugoslavia conflict553–5
Crosland, Anthony53, 310
Cross, Gary432
Crowley, David168, 171, 173
culture and heritage
architecture and urban regeneration582–99, 626–8
art after 1970s624–5
artistic freedom615–19
cinemasee cinema
countrysidesee rural areas
design619–20
literaturesee literature
non-European influences607
painting and sculpture620–4
postcolonialismsee postcolonialism
postmodernism625–6
‘postwar art’ as term613–15
televisionsee television
urban regeneration582–99
Cyprus
ethnic cleansing after partition158
Greek coup513
tourism438
Turkish invasion513
Cyrankiewicz, Jósef250
Czech Republic
creation86
and European Union87
and Iraq War113
leisure spending441
migration210
(p. 739) NATO membership710
politics after communism541, 545
urban regeneration589
Western investment in431
Czechoslovakia
1953 uprising281
agricultural production361
Central European identity90
collectivization570
communist electoral support265, 275
communist resistance to Nazi occupation272
communist takeover12, 274–5, 277
consumerism and leisure431
economic growth358
economic reform366
ethnic cleansing after World War II157
film and TV653, 658–9
friendship treaties322, 331–2
friendship treaty with Soviet Union320, 321, 333
and Khrushchev's revisionism326
migration after Munich Treaty (1938)149
migration after World War II83, 84
Nazi atrocities673
‘normalization’175–6
and Ostpolitik331
postwar economy173
‘Prague Spring’ (1968)18, 248–50, 290, 332–3
science and technology637
social mobility55
television435
territorial changes after World War II81, 82
tourism438
transfer of territory to Soviet Union322
World War II deaths81
youth politics and culture430
Dali, Salvador621
de Beauvoir, Simone191, 686
De Chiara, Marina80
De Felice, Renzo720
De Gasperi, Alcide309
de Gaulle, Charles14, 20, 72, 254, 308, 309, 346, 347, 348, 373, 388, 496, 498
de Grazia, Victoria439
de Haan, Ido721
de Laclos, Choderlos663
de Man, Hendrik307, 309
De Sica, Victoria653
de Stael, Nicholas621
Deák, István84
Dean, James190, 191
Déat, Marcel307
Debord, Guy429, 624
Debray, Régis714
Decaux, Emmanuel118
Declaration on European Identity (1973)121–2
decolonization
Africa492–4
background480–1
Bandung Conference (1955)492
colonial reform attempts488–90
empire as political organization481–3
end of World War II as catalyst483–8
impact of4
‘memory wars’726
Portugal499–500
post-independence500–1
post-Suez495–7
process15–16, 69, 490–2
resistance of colonial powers347
Spain500
Suez Crisis (1956)494–5
and terrorism6
transition to independence497–9
World War II and485see also postcolonialism
Dedijer, Vladimir548
Defferre, Gaston493, 494
Delanty, Gerard124–5
Dell’Olio, Fiorella127
Delors, Jacques397, 418
democracy
after 191838–43
Central Europe537
postwar settlement38–43
stability via14
de-Nazification13, 46, 62, 189–90, 723
(p. 740) Denmark
agricultural production361
communist electoral support50, 265
Deutschmark zone402
and EEC573
environmentalism640
and European Union86
film and TV649, 656, 657, 661, 665
foreign-born workers214
migration and racism211
science and technology644
services growth421
social democracy48, 50
urban regeneration593
working week433see also Scandinavian countries
deregulation
and economic growth414–17
media industry414–17
Derrida, Jacques114, 114–15, 116, 116–18, 135, 137
design619–20
Deutschmark zone402–3
dictatorships in Western Europe
background502–5
developmentalism509–11
memory and reassessment518–23
overview518–23
regime of fear505–9
survival after World War II505–11
Dimitrov, Georgi321, 675
Dine, Jim623
Dirks, Walter680
displaced persons4
Djilas, Milovan3, 272
Đinđić, Zoran558
Donnersmarck, Florian Henckel von659
Dr Strangelove448, 450, 455–6
Dragomán, György18, 163
Dresen, Andreas659
Dreyer, Carl Theodor656
Drouin, René620
Drunina, Yuliya692
Dubček, Alexander18, 249, 333
Dubrule, Paul438
Dubuffet, Jean621
Duchamp, Marcel622
Duchêne, François383
Duff, Peggy454
Dulles, John Foster343
Dutschke, Rudi19, 256, 258
Eastern Europe
1950s protests248
1968 protests248–53
agriculturesee rural areas
Americanization193, 292–3
architecture618
centrally planned economy365–6
cinema657–9
collective organisations16
collectivization570–1
conceptual issues93–4
constitutions44
consumerism and leisure429–32
economic growth358, 365–8
economic stagnation16–17, 377
ethnic homogenization95–6
friendship treatiessee friendship treaties
historical convergence with Western Europe25
material prosperity5, 17, 67–8
migration210
nationalismsee nationalism
police states6
political repression17–18
post-communism political reform records (table)530
post-communist years25–33
postwar settlement55–6
reassessment of postwar period73–6
science and technology637
as ‘second hand Europe’95
as Soviet imposition93–4
Soviet pacification75
Stalin's policies11–12
television657–9
territorial changes after World War II81–4
treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistancesee friendship treaties
working week433
World War II deaths81see also communism; Warsaw Pact
economic crises
background406–11
and Cold War294
Eurozone crises398–405
financial crisis421–2
ideological consequences412–18
oil crisis21, 407, 421
reasons for 1970s recession407–11
and restructuring418–22
economic growth
agriculture360–1
augmented GDP359, 361tab
background facts356–62
consumptionsee consumerism and leisure
deregulation414–17
Eastern Europe365–68
end of ‘Golden Age’376–7
and European integration371–3
GDP growth356–62, 406
globalization417
and international monetary system374–6
legacy of ‘Golden Age’377–8
les trente glorieuses356
neoliberalism21–22, 412–18
privatization414
real GDP357tab
reasons for ‘Golden Age’362–5
reconstruction and368–71
relative GDP358tab
relative to USA358
service revolution420–1
Southern European dictatorships509–11
structural change360–2, 420–1
technological revolution411, 419
welfare growth359–60
Eden, Anthony494, 495
Eder, Klaus127
Egyptsee Suez Crisis (1956)
Ehrenburg, Ilya269, 676
Eichengreen, Barry364, 369, 373, 376, 411
Einstein, Albert447, 451
Eisenhower, Dwight D16, 342, 343, 344, 446, 494, 495, 496
Eley, Geoff11, 717
Elizabeth II, Queen434, 448, 663
Ellul, Jacques637
empiressee decolonization
environmentalism638–41
Epstein, Jacob607
Ernst, Max621
Esping-Andersen, Gösta302, 310
Estonia
and European Union87
‘memory wars’723–4
migration210
nationalist resistance to Communism272, 275
politics after communism536–7, 541, 542
World War II deaths81
ethnic cleansing
Balkan wars (1912–25)146–9
meaning141–3
Nazi occupation (1938–44)149–55
origins and preconditions143–5
periods145–6
after World War II84
after World War II (1944–48)155–8
Yugoslavia (1991–95)141, 158–61
Etzioni, Amitai315
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership130–1
Europe
1968 protestssee 1968 protests
agriculturesee rural areas
asylum seekerssee migration
avoidance of war after 194569
chronology10–25
conceptual parameters6–10
conflict and reconciliation of conceptions of European identity126–32
definitional imprecision79–80
economic crisis 1970s294
ethnic diversity202–5
European federation13–14, 45
existence of European identity120–38
extra-continental territories604
feminism and European identity138
(p. 742) geopolitical debate currently114–19
geopolitical imaginations after Iraq War111–14
geopolitical imaginations after World War II107–11
globalization417
globalization and European identity126–38
hardening of borders84–5
historical foundations of European identity120–6
infant mortality359, 360tab
integrationsee European integration
life expectancy359, 360tab
meaning7–8
and Middle Eastsee Middle East
new East-West divide93–5
‘New Europe’ and ‘Old Europe’ (Rumsfeld)112–13
and Otherness120–122, 132–38, 232–33
post-colonial perspective132–38
post-communist years25–33
postcolonialismsee postcolonialism
postwar political stability68
postwar settlement37–58
racismsee racism
science and technologysee science and technology
sexualitysee gender and sexuality
territorial changes after fall of communism86
territorial changes after World War II80–4
UN aid370
united Europe123
World War II as historical divide64–6
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
creation13, 86, 372
European Community (EC)
science and technology646
Single European Act417–18
European Court of Human Rights
and Katyn massacre118–19
European Defence Community (EDC)
failure343
European Economic Community (EEC)
and Algeria134
Common Agricultural Policysee Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
creation13–14, 86, 372
Declaration on European Identity121–22
film and TV649–50
and new democracies in Southern Europe516, 517
science and technology636
tariff reduction373
European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
creation372
failure13–14
European integration
and Cold War297–8
and nation-state rescue of the nation–state (thesis of)
Treaty of Brussels (1948)341
European Recovery Program (ERP)see Marshall Plan
European Union (EU)
black inclusiveness initiatives227
black population statistics228–30
citizenship and racism234–6
creation418
division from CIS94
and Eastern Europe after communism392–5
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)398, 403, 404
effect of eastward expansion86–9, 94–5, 96–7
and European identity121–2, 136–7
family law233–4
film and TV650, 652–3, 663
Holocaust memory725–6
international influence297
and Islam230–6
legal migration plan214–15
migrationsee migration
overseas areas134
population decline214
racismsee racism
‘rescue’ of nation-statesee rescue of the nation-state (thesis of)
sanctions threat to Poland113–14
Turkish accession87, 131, 393, 611
and united Europe123
urban regeneration590, 594
(p. 743) Eurovision Song Contest429
Eurozone crises398–405
Evans, Peter529
Evtushenko, Evgenii706
Fadeev, Aleksandr697
Fanon, Frantz15–16, 226, 607–8, 608
Farouk, King of Eygpt494
fascism
anti-Americanism197–198
collaboration with20, 72, 717, 718
and colonialism603
corporatist political arrangements364
defeat of42, 69, 165, 167, 174, 175, 240, 272, 724
dominance17
essential element of533
ethnic homogenization95
experience of382, 384
and modernism617
postwar2, 30, 719
resistance to20, 270, 382, 505
rise of42, 386, 395, 617
and social democracy307
and terrorism2, 6
Fassbinder, Rainer Werner662
Faulkner, William447
Fautrier, Jean621
Featherstone, Mike432
Fellini, Federico654
feminism
and European identity138
and postwar change5
and postwar settlement47–8see also gender and sexuality; women
Ferreri, Marco654
Fetjö, François18
Fico, Robert539
filmsee cinema
Fini, Gianfranco721
Finland
consumerism and leisure429
and European Union87, 573
Eurovision Song Contest victory429
film and TV657
‘Finlandization’12
friendship treaty with Soviet Union334–5
ICT growth419, 420
science and technology646–7
social democracy49
urban regeneration597
war against Soviet Union268
World War II deaths81see also Scandinavian countries
Fischer, Fritz683
Fisher, Joschka108
Fleming, Gerald70
Florida, Richard587
Foccart, Jacques499
Foot, Michael452
football and popular culture435–6
Footitt, Hillary221
Forman, Milos658–9
Forster, E M452
Fortuyn, Pim317
Foster, Norman582, 627, 627–8
Fourastié, Jean356
France
1958 crisis4, 15
1968 protests20, 250, 253–4, 409
agricultural production361
agricultural sector reduction361
and Algeriasee Algeria
and American intervention341
Americanization188
anti-Americanism198
anti-communism280–1
anti-facism676–7
Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AOC) vineyards578
architecture617, 626
art624
British homeowners578
Camembert quality standard440
Christian Democrat governments302
Christian Democrat policy309
colonial acquisitions post-World War I482
colonial empire482
communism after World War II274, 277
communist electoral support265
(p. 744) communist resistance to Nazi occupation271–2
constitution44
consumerism and leisure423, 425, 425–6, 426, 427, 429
corporatist political arrangements313, 364
deportation of Germans from Alsace after World War I147–8
economic growth363
economic restructuring21
and European integration382, 384
and European Union86
and Eurozone crises403
extra-European territories604
fear of nuclear war447
film and TV649, 651, 653, 655, 662–3, 664, 664–5
foreign-born workers214
GDP in 1945369
and German rearmament343
growth of ethnic communities207, 208, 211
Holocaust memory689–90
ICT growth419
industrial output decline409
intellectuals and Nazism674, 684–6
and international monetary system374
investment in Eastern Europe431
and Islam232
‘memory wars’722
migration202–203
migration after 2000212
migration after World War II205, 206
migration and multiculturalism215, 216
national identity204
nationalization312
and NATO13
Nazi atrocities673
nuclear weapons339, 348, 348–9
opposition to nuclear weapons447
overseas areas134
painting620
pop art623
postcolonialism609
postwar political stability68
privatization414
reassessment of wartime past72–4
services growth421
social democracy49, 50, 310, 315
and Spanish Civil War refugees73–4
Suez Crisissee Suez Crisis (1956)
television434
territorial changes after World War II82
tourism438, 439
Treaty of Brussels 1948341
and Turkish accession to EU611
urban regeneration589–590, 592, 596, 597
the ‘veiled Muslim woman’236
wage-price spiral407
welfare state300, 311
welfare state antecedants305–6, 307, 308
and Westernization194
withdrawal from NATO military structure346
working week433
World War II deaths81
youth politics and culture246–7
Franco, Francisco505–6, 507, 508, 509–10, 512, 521, 523, 524, 654; see alsoSpain - dictatorship
Frank, Pat453
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke549
Franz Josef, Austro–Hungarian Emperor103
Freedman, Harriet294
Freud, Lucian621
Freud, Sigmund423
Friedländer, Saul728
Friedman, Milton413
friendship treaties
background319–20
consolidation under Stalin320–4
East Germany328–30
limited sovereignty and Brezhnev Doctrine332–5
reconsolidation under Brezhnev330–2
revision under Khrushchev324–6
Sino–Soviet treaty326–8
Fry, Ruth64
Fukuyama, Francis32, 528
(p. 745) Fulbrook, Mary174
Furet, François675–6
Gaddis, John L284
Gaitskell, Hugh310
Gandhi, Mahatma491
Gardner, Ava453
Gefter, Mikhail706
Gehry, Frank587
gender and sexuality
black athletes and racism226
black male sexuality and consumerism236–9
feminism and European identity138
overview220–4
racism and globalization239–41
the ‘veiled Muslim woman’230–6
whiteness and the ‘white woman’224–30
Gentile, Giovanni678
Germany
after 1945 defeat60–63
anti-Americanism197–8
anti-communism276–7
anti-migration policies211
asylum seekers209
bank clearing system373
black inclusiveness initiatives227
black male sexuality and consumerism237, 238–9
Christian Democrat governments301
consumerism and leisure423, 433
de-Nazification62
and decolonization607
destruction of German Empire482
Deutschmark zone402–403
division into West and East12–13, 63, 277
ethnic cleansing during Nazi era149–55
and European Union87
and Eurozone crises400, 401–2
film and TV649, 659
foreign-born workers214
ICT growth419
and Islam232
‘memory wars’70–1, 718, 729, 729–30
migration after 2000212
migration after World War II83, 84, 155–6
migration and multiculturalism215, 216
migration and national security213–14
national identity204
Nazismsee Nazism
and nuclear weapons349
painting620
population decline214
populist political parties317
postcolonialism609
racism and sport226
rearmament348
‘reciprocal emigration’ of minorities after World War I149
reunification26–7, 86, 431
science and technology632
Stunde Null (hour zero)60
territorial changes after World War II82
trophy art709–10
and Turkish accession to EU611
urban regeneration582–3, 584–5, 589, 590, 592, 593, 596
US forces in286
the ‘veiled Muslim woman’236
welfare state300–1, 303
welfare state antecedants306, 307
and Westernization194
the ‘white woman’ in advertising224–5
‘whiteness’ in advertising226, 227
Germany - Democratic Republic (GDR) (East Germany)
1953 uprising248, 281, 290
anti-facism174, 675, 676
architecture616, 618
Berlin crisis (1958)329
Berlin Wall18, 290, 329, 430, 431, 454
collectivization570
communist consumerism168
communist takeover276
consumerism and leisure431
creation12–13, 63, 277
economic stagnation175
extent of State control176–7
friendship treaties328–329, 331–2, 335
friendship treaty with Soviet Union328–30
Great Patriotic War cult696
Khrushchev's policies329
and Khrushchev's revisionism326
last years177
and modern art614
nostalgia for (Ostalgie)180
and Ostpolitik331
politics after communism541
postwar economy67, 173
Soviet occupation322
Soviet reparations322
Stalin's policies328–9
television431
tourism438
youth politics and culture430
Germany - Federal Republic (FRG) (West Germany)
1968 protests20, 243–4, 255, 255–6, 409
agricultural production361
agricultural recovery571
agricultural sector reduction361
Americanization189–90, 193
anti-Americanism198
anti-communism280
anti-facism676
architecture617
Christian Democrat policy309, 315
concerns over European military balance353
conservatism54
constitution27, 44, 47
consumerism and leisure425, 426, 427
corporatist political arrangements313
creation13
and CSCE295
design619
economic growth359, 363
economic legacy of Third Reich76–7
economic reintegration into West187, 345
economic restructuring21
and European integration382, 384–5
and European Union86
family policy46–7
film and TV653, 660, 661–2, 662
growth of ethnic communities207, 208
industrial output decline409
inflation408
intellectuals and Nazism674, 680–4
Kommune I247, 255
migrant labour57, 206
migration after World War II56, 205
nationalization312
NATO integration13, 325
opposition to nuclear weapons457–8
Ostpolitik331–2, 335, 474
pop art623
postmodernism625
postwar political stability68
postwar revival66–67
rearmament13, 325, 343, 344
Red Army Faction2
science and technology636
social democracy49, 54, 309–10, 315
and Soviet Union330–1
television434, 435
tourism437
unemployment53, 407
wage-price spiral407–8
welfare state311
welfare state antecedants308
women's rights46
youth politics and culture246–7, 430
Ghanaian independence492
Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe167, 465, 466, 467
Giddens, Anthony134
Gierek, Edward475, 476, 477
Gilcher-Holtey, Ingrid20
Gill, Eric607
Gilroy, Paul230, 606
Girs, Anatol1
globalization
economic417
and European identity126–38
and migration208–11
and racism239–41
Godard, Jean-Luc655
Goddey, Jo229
(p. 747) Goldberg, David Theo229
Goldberger, Ludwig Max182
Goldhagen, Daniel63, 71
Gomułka, Wladyslaw250, 251, 290, 322, 325, 330, 331, 332, 333, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477
Gonçalves, Colonel Vasco16
González, Felipe520
Gorbachev, Mikhail18, 22, 23, 24, 86, 94, 291, 292, 335, 451, 459–60, 696, 705–7, 710
Gotovina, Ante554
Graham, Loren632
Grass, Günter26, 61
Great Britainsee United Kingdom
Great Patriotic War cult
background692–3
‘cult’ of War700–5
Gorbachev and reassessment705–7
Hill of Prostrations700, 710–11
post-communism707–8
postwar official memory696–8
public remembrance after Stalin173–4, 698–700
Putin and Russian patriotism711–13, 715, 724–5
as ‘sacred war’694–5
as Soviet foundation myth65
Stalin as military ‘genius’695–6
trophy art709–10
unfinished work of reassessment729
Yeltsin and Victory Day709
‘Zoya’ myth708
Greece
1968 protests257
agricultural production361
civil war4, 265, 273, 277, 490
communist resistance to Nazi occupation271
and EEC516, 517, 573
and European Union86
Eurozone crises401–2
film and TV654
and independence of Macedonia (Republic)553
land reform571–2
migration210
postcolonialism609
‘reciprocal emigration’ of minorities after World War I148–9
share of EU GDP399
social democracy49
territorial changes after World War II82
World War II deaths81
Greece - dictatorship
background502–5
continuance4–5
Cyprus coup513
developmentalism510–11
memory and reassessment518–19, 521, 522
overview523–4
regime of fear507–9
transition to democracy513–14, 514–15, 517–18
US aid508, 509
Green, David136
Greenaway, Peter626, 650, 655
Greenberg, Clement622, 623
Greene, Sir Hugh459
Grese, Irma524
Grierson, John664
Griffin, Roger533
Grillparzer, Franz103
Gropius, Walter617
Gross, Jan76, 687
Grossman, Vasily673–4, 676, 679, 697, 706
Gurian, Waldemar678, 679
Haas, Ernst B386
Habermas, Jürgen112, 114–15, 135, 638, 682, 683
Hadid, Zaha627
Hall, Peter303
Hall, Stuart246, 609
Hamilton, Richard623
Hansen, Peo134
Haraszti, Miklós178
Hardt, Michael240
Havel, Václav23, 91, 163, 175, 176, 178, 295
Havránek, Jan142
Hayek, Friedrich413, 679
Hayekian economics303, 315, 317
Hazelius, Artur591
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich10
(p. 748) Heidegger, Martin681, 685, 689
Hell, Julia165
Helsinki Accords 1975294–6, 352
Henderson, Nigel623
Henselmann, Hermann618
Herf, Jeffrey676
heritagesee culture and heritage
Herzog, Werner665
Heydrich, Reinhard150, 272
high-technology industries641–7
Hirst, Damian625
history, meaning of8
Hitler, Adolf10, 17, 61, 69, 74, 77, 149–50, 152, 153, 154, 155, 197, 269, 296, 398, 463, 504, 505, 507, 616, 625, 671, 674, 675, 682, 694, 714, 717, 724–25
Ho Chi Minh491
Hoban, Russell458
Hockney, David623
Hoggart, William191
Holmes, Leslie529
Holocaust
in architecture614
death camps673–4
death toll81
denial30
and ethnic homogenization83, 95, 153
in film653, 664
globalization728
in literature2, 70, 687
official views of697, 703, 712, 721–2, 723
perpetration73, 76, 81, 150–1, 671, 673–4
in television661
Holtom, Gerald452–3
Holy Roman Empire
Austro–Hungarian Empire as spiritual heir103–4
Hong Kong
return to China604
Horkheimer, Max429, 681
Horn, Rebecca623
Horthy, Admiral Miklós675
Howard, Ebenezer618
Hoxha, Enver18, 166, 179, 469, 470, 471, 477, 478
human rights
and Katyn massacre118–19
and ‘memory wars’727–8
Hungary
1956 Revolution18, 248, 281, 290, 325
agricultural production361
anti-facism675–6
Central European identity90
collectivization570
communist consumerism169
communist electoral support265, 275
communist takeover274, 276
economic reform366
ethnic cleansing after World War II157
ethnic cleansing during Nazi era152–3
and European Union87
Fidesz government395
friendship treaty with Soviet Union322, 323
Holocaust memory688
and Iraq War113
‘memory wars’718, 723
migration210
migration after Munich Treaty (1938)149, 152
migration after Vienna Accord (1940)152
migration after World War II83
movement from Stalinism326
NATO membership710
and Ostpolitik331
politics after communism530–1, 541, 542, 543–4
populist political parties539
science and technology637
shopping malls432
Stalinism279
television435
territorial changes after World War II81, 82
tourism438
Western investment in431
World War II deaths81
youth politics and culture430
Husák, Gustáv249
Huxley, Aldous60
Huxley, Julian452
(p. 749) Iceland
social democracy49
Ilkjaer, Jeppe102, 103
immigrationsee migration
India
architecture617
cultural influence on Europe607
ethnic cleansing after independence157
independence491, 603
Indonesia
independence struggle487–488, 491–2
information and communications technology (ICT)see science and technology
intellectuals and Nazism
anti-fascism674–7
anti-totalitarianism677–9
background671–2
France684–6
postwar672–4
West Germany680–4see also Holocaust
international monetary system and economic growth374–6; see also Bretton Woods Agreements
internet delivery of film and TV666
Iraq War
alternative views of Europe and United States112
and European geopolitical imaginations111–14
Ireland
corporatist political arrangements364
economic growth358, 359
and EEC573
and European Union86
Eurozone crises401–2
ICT growth420
independence604
leisure spending441
migration88
migration after 2000212
return of migrants to Eastern Europe215
share of EU GDP399
tourism438
urban regeneration593
Iron Curtain85, 86, 89, 106, 284, 292, 295, 356, 365, 430, 614, 615, 635
Islam
cultural influence on Europe124, 130–1, 136
and decolonization486, 487
and European identity217, 223
within European Union230–6
fear of32, 201
and postcolonialism608–11
the ‘veiled Muslim woman’230–6
and Yugoslavian conflicts160, 548, 555
Ismay, Lord297
Israel
establishment4
ethnic cleansing after independence157
independence491
Suez Crisissee Suez Crisis (1956)
Western support287
Italy
1968 protests20, 254–5, 409
agricultural production361
agricultural sector reduction361
and American intervention342
anti-communism280
anti-facism677
art624
asylum seekers209
Christian Democrat governments302
Christian Democrat policy309, 315
communism after World War II274, 277
communist electoral support265, 275
communist resistance to Nazi occupation265, 271
constitution44
consumerism and leisure426, 433
corporatist political arrangements364
decolonization347
design619–20
economic growth359, 363
economic restructuring21
and European integration384
and European Union86
Eurozone crises401–2
family policy46
fascism's legacy2
film and TV653–4
Holocaust memory688–9
industrial output decline409
land reform571–2
(p. 750) ‘memory wars’720–1
migration210
migration and racism211
nationalization312
and nuclear weapons349
pop art623
population decline214
postcolonialism609
postwar political stability68
postwar settlement43
privatization414
reassessment of wartime past72
social democracy49, 310
television434, 435
territorial changes after World War II82
unemployment53
urban regeneration590
wage-price spiral407
welfare state303
welfare state antecedants307
World War II deaths81
youth politics and culture246
Izetbegović, Alija555, 556
Jabłoński, Henryk251
Jackson, Michael431
Jameson, Frederic441
Janos, Andrew529, 537
Janša, Janez553
Japan
Americanization193
capture of Singapore480–1
cultural influence on Europe607
defeat of60, 482, 487, 602
defeat of colonial powers4, 485, 604
economic growth357, 367
and EEC122
empire600
high-technology exports420, 642
‘lean’ production methods192
and nuclear weapons tests449, 450
and OECD636
rise of21, 485
science and technology633, 646
and Sino–Soviet treaty326
war against69, 186
the ‘white woman’ in advertising225
Jarl, Stefan664
Jashari, Adem558
Jaspers, Karl22, 680
Jeanneret, Charles-Édouard (Le Corbusier)617, 618, 619, 626
Jennings, Humphrey664
Joad, Cyril64
Johnson, Lyndon B345
Jones, Alun588
Jonsson, Stefan104–5
Jowitt, Ken22, 476, 528
Juan-Carlos, King of Spain516
Judt, Tony10–11, 31–2, 177, 299, 300, 430, 636, 655, 671–2, 688, 725
Jünger, Ernst681
Kabakchieva, Petya165–6
Kaczyński, Jarosław544
Kaczyñski, Jaroslaw and Lech539
Kaelble, Hartmut134–5
Kagan, Robert339
Kahn, Herman453, 455
Kalatozov, Mikhail700
Kamiński, Michał Tomasz714
Kandinsky, Wassily620
Karadžić, Radovan555
Karamanlis, Constantine514–15
Kardelj, Edvard549, 552
Kastoryano, Riva125
Katyn massacre118–19, 321, 707
Katzenstein, Peter303
Kaurismäki, Aki657
Kelly, Mary625
Kelly, Petra458
Kennedy, John F5, 345, 663
Kenyan independence492
Keynes, John Maynard66, 307, 386, 387, 490, 529
Keynesianism21, 41, 51–54, 55, 58, 303, 314, 317, 381, 396, 408, 409, 412, 422
Khodorkovsky, Mikhail711
‘Khrushchev kitchen’173
Kiefer, Anselm625
Kieślowski, Krzysztof658
King, Richard727
Kipling, Rudyard79
Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig607
Kirov, Sergei267
Kissinger, Henry91, 352
Kitschelt, Herbert531–2, 539, 541, 542
Klaus, Vaclav392
Klee, Paul620
Klein, Gerhard658
Kliszko, Zenon474
Koestler, Arthur71, 73–4, 679
Kogon, Eugen674, 676, 680
Kohl, Helmut26, 27
Kommune I247, 255, 255–6
Kondratyev, Vyacheslav703
Konrád, György90
Koolhaas, Rem627
Kopstein, Jeffrey530–1
Korean War327
Koselleck, Reinhardt99–100, 104
Kosmodemyanskaya, Zoya708
Kosovo
ethnic violence30, 31
independence86, 557–8
Kostov, Traicho273–4, 279
Kozyra, Katarzyna625
Kraminov, Daniil74–5
Krastev, Ivan537
Krivine, Alain258
Krzeminski, Adam714
Kubadinski, Pencho172
Kubrick, Stanley450, 455
Kuisel, Richard188
Kulik, Zofia625
Kumar, Krishan135
Kundera, Milan89–90, 91, 98, 168
Kuroń, Jacek250, 251
Kusturica, Emir659
Kutuzov, Field Marshal Andrei694
Kuznetsov, Anatoly703
Kvaternik, Eugen Dido547
labour
centrality within postwar settlement38, 45–6
and migration56, 205–6, 214
reproletarianization57–8
Laker, Freddie438
Lanzman, Claude664–5
Laqueur, Walter65, 527–528
Latvia
and European Union87
‘memory wars’723
migration210
nationalist resistance to Communism272, 275
organic farming576
politics after communism536–7, 541, 544
World War II deaths81
Laurence, William450
Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret)617, 618, 619, 626
Lebanon independence491
Lebow, Richard Ned718
Lefebvre, Henri429
Leigh, Mike655
Lenin, Vladimir267, 431, 463, 465, 695, 701, 702, 706, 707, 710
Leninism19, 166, 172, 253, 462, 463, 466, 467, 469, 472, 476, 478, 527, 528, 534, 537, 546, 585, 593, 704
Lennon, John430
Leo XIII, Pope306
Lessing, Doris454
Leveau, Rémy129
Levi, Primo1–2
Levinas, Emmanuel685
Lévy, Bernard-Henry686
Libeskind, Daniel582
Lifton, Robert Jay456
Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963)329–30
literature
(p. 752) Great Patriotic War cult697, 699, 702–3, 706
Holocaust2, 70, 687
nuclear threat446, 453–4, 455, 458
Lithuania
ethnic homogenization83–4
and European Union87
‘memory wars’723
migration210
nationalist resistance to Communism272, 275
politics after communism536–7, 541, 542
territorial changes after World War II82
World War II deaths81
Lloyd George, David603
Loach, Ken655
Lockwood, William550
Lollobrigida, Gina428
Long, Richard622
Lordi429
Loren, Sophia428
Lowenthal, David586
Lubbers, Ruud315
Luce, Henry R184
Lukács, Georg429
Lundestad, Geir284, 341
Lüpertz, Marcus625
Lusane, Clarence229
Lutzeler, Paul Michael105
Luxembourg
communist electoral support265
and European integration384
and European Union86
foreign-born workers214
leisure spending441
social democracy49
Treaty of Brussels (1948)341
Lynn, Vera455
Macao
return to China500, 604
Macedonia (Republic)
independence86, 553
politics after communism541–2
Macmillan, Harold495–6, 498
MacSharry, Ray573
Madonna (Madonna Ciccone)431
Magris, Claudio102, 103, 103–4
Magritte, René622, 650
Malaparte, Curzio3
Mälksoo, Maria110
Malle, Louis665
Manea, Norman174
Mansholt, Sicco572–3
Manzoni, Piero623
Mao Zedong327, 328, 331
Marcuse, Herbert429
Maritain, Jacques678
Marker, Chris664
Markovits, Andrei S197
Markwick, Roger173
Marshall, George C.371
Marshall Plan
and Americanization187–8, 198
assessment of effects370–1
and Comecon16
and Cominform12, 323
ending288
and Greek civil war4
introduction286, 490
and OEEC45, 371
origins287, 371
political influence of308
rejection by communist Europe277, 287
and science and technology635
social dimension50–1
Martin, Terry464
Marx, Karl255, 431
Marxism
and 1968 protests252, 253
and African independence514
and ‘Americanism’197
and art624
authoritarianism533
and avant-gard247
‘children of Marx’244
collapse585, 593
and consumerism429
and Czech de-Stalinization249
and decline of working class314
delegitimation529
economic theory528
education172
(p. 753) and ethnic cleansing144
and modern art624
and ‘national Stalinsim’463
and nationalism476
and New Left19
revisionist474
and social democracy48, 49, 309–10
social unity463
and Stalinism465, 478, 694
theory of the State464
universalism473
and welfare state314
‘Western’682see also Leninism
Mastny, Vojtech27
Mastroianni, Marcello428
Matisse, Henri607
Matvejevic, Predrag106
Mauriac, François686
Mbembe, Achille233
McDonnell, Duncan538
McEwan, Ian458
McGann, Anthony539
McGlynn, Clare222
McNamara, Robert447
media industry deregulation436–7
Meinecke, Friedrich680
‘memory wars’
background714–16
Great Patriotic Warsee Great Patriotic War
and human rights727–8
importance of collective memory31–2
international context726–8
overview728–30
post Cold War716–26
Southern European dictatorships518–23
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice684, 685
Messali Hadj483, 485–6
Metaxas, General Ioannis508
Metropolitan Sergius of Moscow and Kolomna694
Meyer, Nicholas459
Michael Taussig518
Michnik, Adam28–9, 32, 250, 251
Mickiewicz, Adam250
Middle East
and postcolonialism608–11
US strategy112, 287see also Islam
migration
asylum seekers207–8, 209, 212
after Cold War202, 208–11
concerns201–2
current situation212–15
ethnic diversity in Europe202–5
after EU Eastern expansion88
and European identity128–30
‘Fortress Europe’.209–10, 212–15
global migrant population228
and globalization208–11
growth of ethnic communities206–8
labour recruitment56, 205–6, 214, 411
multiculturalism social cohesion215–18
and national identity204–5
and national security213–14
planning214–15
and racism211
after World War II56–7, 83–4
Mihailović, Dragoljub ‘Draža’555
Miller, Walter M453
Milošević, Slobodan29, 30, 158, 159, 160, 551, 552, 558
Miłosz, Czesław90, 168, 679
Milward, Alan380–5, 388
Minc, Hilary473
Minerva, Milla170
Mints, Isaac694–5
Mirzoeff, Nicholas241
Mises, Ludwig von412
Mitsotakis, Konstantinos519
Mitterand, François27, 302, 316, 499, 589
Mladić, Ratko556
Moch, Jules280, 307
Moczar, Mieczysław Moczar250, 475, 477
modern artsee culture and heritage
modernism168, 583, 592, 607, 615, 616, 617, 621
Modigliani, Amedeo607
Modzelewski, Karol250
Moeller, Robert G47
Moldova
politics after communism541–2
(p. 754) Molina, Antonio Muñoz509
Moljević, Stevan552
Mollet, Guy50, 493, 494, 495
Molotov, Vyacheslav694, 695
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939)268, 270, 695, 707, 725
Monnet, Jean184, 382, 383
Montenegro
borders549
independence86, 557
World War II deaths81
Moore, Charles616
Moore, Henry452, 621
Morgan, Kenneth O726–7
Morin, Edgar100
Moroccan independence491
Mounier, Emmanuel309, 686
Mudde, Cas538, 539, 539–40, 540
Muller, Jerry Z681
Mulvad, Eva665
Mumford, Lewis445, 446, 455
Mungiu, Cristian18
Murdoch, Iris454
Musil, Robert103, 104, 105, 105–6
Mussolini, Benito72, 74, 271, 312, 677, 678
Nagy, Imre325
Naipaul, V S608
Nam June Paik623
Napoleon296, 398, 694
Nasser, Gamal Abdel494
nation-state and European integrationsee rescue of the nation-state (thesis of)
nationalism
communism and174–5
ethno-nationalism in Yugoslavia546–59
and Marxism476
‘national Stalinism’462–75
post-communism535–7
resistance to communism272, 275
NATO
continuance and growth296–7
creation13
and Cyprus513
Eastward expansion710
French withdrawal from military structure346
nuclear forces modernization353–4
out-of-area intervention287
and science and technology635
tactical nuclear weapons339
and Warsaw Pact325–6
West German integration13, 325
and Westernization185, 193–196
Nazism
anti-Americanism197–198
collaboration with3, 519, 537, 706, 717
and colonialism492, 604
death toll under164
defeat of17, 505, 620, 695, 698, 701, 707, 712, 715
and ethnic cleansing4, 84, 95, 141, 149–55, 161
and Francoism505, 506, 520, 521
German guilt277
legacy256
and leisure433
liberation from253, 270, 603
mob violence191
and modern art615–16, 617
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939)695, 707, 725
and nationalism30
occupation of Europe43, 46, 118, 165, 249, 485, 508, 721, 723
postwar political exclusion308
postwar survival14
racial data collection229
radicalization in Eastern Europe269
resistance to275, 321, 322, 323, 473, 523, 593
rise of482, 632
and Salazar regime507
science and technology632
and social democracy307, 309
social policy301
Stalin's support724–5
survival after World War II504
totalitarianism69
and US cinema190
visual tactics of persecution233
Negri, Antonio240
Nehru, Jawaharlal491
Nekrasov, Viktor703
Nekrich, Aleksander701–2
neoliberalism21–2, 412–18
Netherlands
agricultural recovery571
architecture617, 627
Christian Democrat governments301–2
Christian Democrat policy315
colonial empire482
communist electoral support265
consumerism and leisure423, 426
corporatist political arrangements313, 364
decolonization286, 347, 485, 487–8, 489–90, 491–2, 497–8, 603
environmentalism640
and European integration384
and European Union86
and Eurozone crises403
film and TV660, 663
growth of ethnic communities210
industrial output decline409
investment in Eastern Europe431
and Islam232
‘memory wars’721–2
and Middle East287
migration after World War II205, 206, 208
migration and multiculturalism215, 216
migration and national security213–14
migration and racism211
national identity204
nationalization312
populist political parties317
social democracy49, 309, 315
social relations314
television435
Treaty of Brussels (1948)341
unemployment53
urban regeneration589, 591, 592, 593, 596
the ‘veiled Muslim woman’236
welfare state303, 311, 317
welfare state antecedants307, 308
and Westernization194
World War II deaths81
youth politics and culture246
Neumann, Franz681
Neumann, John von455
Nevsky, Aleksander694
‘New Left ’19, 245, 246
Newkey-Burden, Chas458
Nicholson, Hubert65
Nigerian independence492
Nixon, Richard171, 352, 495
Noiriel, Gérard202–3
Nolte, Ernst683
North Korea
Chinese support327
Norway
and American intervention342
communist electoral support50
services growth421
social democracy48, 50
tourism438
working week433
youth politics and culture246see also Scandinavian countries
Novotný, Antonin249, 332
nuclear weapons
arms control459–60
arms race447, 457
background445–7
‘Doomsday Decade’ (1954–64)447–56
Dr Strangelove448, 450, 455–6
effect of448–9, 450
in literature446, 453–4, 455, 458
mutual assured destruction (MAD)447
opposition to446–8, 450–2, 456–8
overview460
‘Protest and survive’ (1964–85)456–60
Russell–Einstein Manifesto451, 459
tests449, 452, 454, 459
Nuremberg trials62
Ochab, Edward474
Offe, Claus529, 530
Ogungbure, Adebowale226
Ohnesorg, Benno256
oil crisissee economic crises
Okudzhava, Bulat699, 700
Ong, Aihwa223
OPEC and 1970s oil crisis21, 407
Ophüls, Marcel718
Orbán, Viktor539
organic farming576
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)16, 21, 85, 187, 209, 212, 215, 371, 388, 419, 636, 638, 639
Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)45, 85, 371, 373, 388
Orlan623
Ortiz, Fernando606
Orwell, George71, 679
Osborne, John454
Ost, David544
Ottoman Empire
Armenian genocide147
destruction482, 486, 602, 603, 609, 610
ethnic cleansing146
Owen, David556
painting620–4
Pakistan
ethnic cleansing after independence157
independence491, 603
Palme, Olaf21
Pano, Nicholas470–1
Panton, Verner428
Paolozzi, Eduardo623
Papandreou, Andreas518
Papon, Maurice73
Pascal, Blaise377
Pasolini, Paolo654
Pauling, Linus453
Pavelić, Ante547
Pavone, Claudio72
Paxton, Robert O686
peace movements64, 245–6, 353–4
Peck, Gregory453
Pedler, Frederick489
Pelisson, Gérard438
Penney, Sir William450
People's Republic of China (PRC)see China
Perec, Georges2
Perkins, Anthony453
Pešelj, Branko547
Philippe, André307
Philippines independence482, 602
Piano, Renzo627
Picasso, Pablo607, 620
Pius XII, Pope308–9, 452
Poland
1956 unrest248, 250, 281, 290, 325
1968 protests250–1
agricultural production361
anti-facism676
anti-Semitism250, 251
architecture616
Central European identity90, 92–3
collectivization570
communist consumerism168, 170–1
communist takeover273, 275
economic reform366
ethnic cleansing after World War II84, 155–6, 157
ethnic cleansing during Nazi era150–2
ethnic homogenization83
EU sanctions threat113–14
and European Union87, 575
film and TV658, 661
friendship treaties322, 331–2
friendship treaty with Soviet Union320, 321, 322, 330
Holocaust memory676, 686
and Iraq War113
Katyn massacre118–9, 321, 707
and Khrushchev's fall330
‘memory wars’714
migration210
movement from Stalinism326
nationalist admiration for Franco524
nationalist resistance to Communism4, 275
NATO membership710
opposition to Soviet primacy327
(p. 757) and Ostpolitik331
politics after communism530–1, 541, 542, 544
populist political parties539
reassessment of wartime past76
‘reciprocal emigration’ of minorities after World War I149
science and technology637
Soviet forces agreement325
Stalinism473–5
television435
territorial changes after World War II81, 155–6, 322
transfer of territory to Soviet Union322
urban regeneration583, 592, 593
Warsaw Uprising (1944)321
Western investment in431
World War II deaths81
youth politics and culture430
Polanski, Roman653, 658
Polanyi, Karl386
Polke, Sigmar625
Pompidou, Georges20, 254
Pons, Silvio9
Pop-Eleches, Grigore529
Popper, Karl679
populism
elements of radical right539–40
populist political parties317, 539
Portelli, Alessandro43
Portugal
1968 protests257
agricultural production361
colonial empire482
decolonization16, 286, 499–500, 604
democratic transition16
and EEC516, 517, 573
and European Union86
Eurozone crises401–2
film and TV654
leisure spending441
migration210
revolution 1974513, 514
social democracy49
television435
tourism438
urban regeneration593
Portugal - dictatorship
background502–5
continuance4
developmentalism510
film and TV661
memory and reassessment519, 521, 523
military expenditure511
overview523–4
regime of fear507, 509
transition to democracy512–13, 514, 515–16, 517–18
US aid511
post-communism526–45
postcolonialism
background600–2
cultural production605–8
in history602–5
and Islam608–11
Potter, Dennis42, 662
Presley, Elvis190, 246, 663
Priestland, David464
Priestley, J B452
Princip, Gavrilo549
Prizel, Ilya725
Prozorov, Sergei111–12
Puskás, Ferenc172
Putin, Vladimir535, 539, 708, 711–12, 724
Quant, Mary428
racism
black inclusiveness initiatives227
and EU citizenship234–6
and globalization239–41
and migration211
and sport226
‘whiteness’224–30
Rajak, Svetozar289
Rajk, László279
Rams, Dieter428, 619
Ranković, Aleksandar552
Ražnatović, Željko160
Reagan, Ronald23, 288, 292, 414, 457, 459
Redgrave, Vanessa454
Ree, Erik van463
(p. 758) Rehza Palewi, Shah of Iran256
Reid, Susan E171
Reilly, David530–1
Reinalda, Bob371
Reisz, Karel655, 664
Reitz, Edgar661–2
Remarque, Eric Maria700
Renan, Ernest203
rescue of the nation-state (thesis of)
alternative views386–90
background379–80
Eastern Europe after communism392–5
and Eurozone crises398–401
examples of rescues391–2
limitations of thesis382–5
after Lisbon Treaty (2009)397–8
Northern Eurozone countries402–3
overview403–5
Southern Eurozone countries401–2
transformation of states395–7
virtues of thesis380–1
Resnais, Alain664
Rév, István723
Rezzori, Gregor von1
Ribar, Lola548
Ribar, Olga548
Ribbentrop, Joachim von268, 270, 695, 707, 725
Richardson, Tony655
Richter, Gerhard623
Rihtman-Auguštin, Dunja551
Risse, Thomas136
Ritter, Gerhard682–3
Robert Triffin374
Robyn, Richard125
Rogers, Richard627
Rokossovsky, Marshal Konstantin702, 706
Rolling Stones430, 655
Roma
and European identity128
World War II deaths81, 82
Romania
1968 protests252–3
assertion of sovereignty328, 335
Ceausescu regime18–19, 169, 465–9
Ceausescu's foreign policy290
and China290
collectivization570
communist electoral support276
communist nationalism174–5
communist takeover273, 276
continuance of Stalinism326
economic growth358
ethnic cleansing after World War II157
and European Union87, 575
friendship treaty with Soviet Union322, 323, 333, 334
and invasion of Czechoslovakia333, 334
and Khrushchev's revisionism326
leisure spending441
‘memory wars’716–17, 718–19, 725–6
migration after Treaty of Craiova (1940)152
migration after Vienna Accord (1940)152
migration after World War II83
and Ostpolitik331, 332
politics after communism541–2, 543
populist political parties539
post-communist transition28
reassessment of wartime past76
Soviet forces agreement325
Stalinism465–9
television435
territorial changes after World War II81, 82
World War II deaths81
Romero, Federico9
Roosevelt, Franklin D320, 486, 487, 694
Roshwald, Mordecai453
Rossellini, Roberto653
Rossi, Paolo254, 255
Roth, Joseph104
Rotha, Paul665
Rothberg, Michael728
Rothfels, Hans683
Rothschild, Joseph470, 532
Rouch, Jean664
Rousset, David674, 676–7, 679, 689
Rousso, Henry686
Ruggie, John Gerard386
Rumford, Chris124–5
Rumsfeld, Donald99, 112–13
Rupnik, Jacques537–8
rural areas
(p. 759) agricultural sector in 1950569tab
change in Eastern Europe570–1
change in Western Europe571–2
Common Agricultural Policysee Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
countryside types579–80
landscape types565fig
organic farming576
postwar recovery568–70
sustainability576–81
variety563–7
Rushdie, Salman91, 608, 609
Russell, Bertrand71, 450–1, 452, 637
Russell–Einstein Manifesto451, 459
Russia
and Katyn massacre118–119
‘memory wars’see Great Patriotic War cult
nationalism post-communism535–7
and NATO297
politics after communism534–5, 536, 541–2
populist political parties539
relations with West297
secessionist movements174see also Soviet Union
Russian Empire
deportations during World War I147
destruction482
Rybakov, Anatoly703
Saatchi Brothers (Charles and Maurice)622, 624, 625
Said, Edward608
Saideman, Stephen557
Salazar, António de Oliveira499, 503, 507, 510, 514, 523; see also Portugal - dictatorship
Sampson, Nicos513
Samsonov, Aleksandr699
Saraiva, José Hermano523
Sartori, Giovanni537, 540
Sartre, Jean-Paul191, 677, 684, 685, 686
Sauper, Hupert665
Saura, Carlos654
Scandinavian countries
1968 protests257
anti-communism285
architecture593, 617
cinema656–7, 662, 664
communist electoral support50, 265
corporatist political arrangements313, 364
economic restructuring21
female suffrage46
Marshall Plan51
nationalization312
rural areas566
science and technology638
social democracy48, 54
welfare state288, 300, 301, 306, 311, 312, 313, 359see also Denmark; Finland; Norway; Sweden
Schiffer, Claudia224, 225
Schildt, Axel184
Schmidt, Helmut353
Schmitt, Carl678, 681
Schulze, Alfred Otto Wolfgang (Wols)621
Schulze, Max-Stephan5
Schumacher, E F640
Schuman, Robert13, 14, 382
Schumpeter, Joseph410, 645, 647
Schweitzer, Albert452
science and technology
background630–4
commercialization641–7
environmentalism638–41
genetic engineering641–7
high-technology industries641–7
ICT investment and growth419–20, 641–7
overview647–8
and postwar reconstruction634–6
reform636–41
technological revolution411, 419
Scola, Ettora654
Scott, Paul662
sculpture620–4
Seaman, Owen64
Sebes, Gusztáv172
Second World Warsee World War II
security policies
background339–40
burden sharing345–6
and decolonization346–8
détente351, 353
(p. 760) efforts to modify345–6
European Defence Community (EDC)343
European independence346
formation (1945–55)340–5
later Cold War years352–4
NATOsee NATO
new approaches350–352
and nuclear weapons343–4, 344–5, 348–50
overview354–5
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)353
Treaty of Brussels (1948)341
US leadership342–4
and Vietnam War351–2
Western European Union (WEU)344
Sells, Michael555
Serbia
assassination of Franz-Ferdinand549
borders549
collaboration with Nazi occupation547–8
ethnic cleansing (1991–95)158–61
‘memory wars’717, 718
nationalist tensions pre-independence551–3
politics after communism536, 541–2
secessionist movements557–8
shopping malls432
status within Yugoslavia552
World War II deaths81
Yugoslavia conflict29–32, 553–5
Servan-Schrieber, Jean Jacques375
Šešelj, Vojislav551–2
sexualitysee gender and sexuality
Shah of Iran (Rehza Palewi)256
Shaw, Jo223
Shcherbakov, Aleksandr694
Sheehan, James339
Shifrin, Avraham19
Shute, Nevil453
Silvestre, Dolores74
Simon, Herbert641
Simon, Ulrich65
Simonov, Konstantin699, 703, 706
Singapore
Japanese capture480–1
Singer, Edward N411
Sino–Soviet treaty326–8, 335
Skolimowski, Jerzy658
Slovakia
creation86
and European Union87
Munich Treaty 1938 and compulsory migrations152
politics after communism541, 542
populist political parties539
television435
Western investment in431
Slovenia
borders549
ethnic cleansing during Nazi era150
and European Union87
independence86, 553
nationalist tensions pre-independence553
politics after communism541, 542
World War II deaths81
Smith, Adam387
Smith, Anthony D650
Smith, Laurajane592
Smithson, Alison and Peter626
Snow, C P (Charles Percy)638
Snyder, Tim83
social citizenship and welfare state45–8
social democracy
and anti-facism679
and Marxism48, 49, 309–10
postwar pattern48–9
and postwar settlement37–58
postwar settlement44–8
rejection of21, 32
reorientation315–16
Scandinavian model48
and welfare statesee welfare state
Sombart, Werner423
Sorabji, Cornelia550
Sottsass, Ettore428, 619–20
Southern Europe
agriculturesee rural areas
inflation294, 407, 409
migrant labour57, 205, 212, 214
postwar reconstruction370
retail sector432
(p. 761) television663
Soviet Blocsee Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union
abolition24–5, 27
architecture616
bureaucratic, authoritarian Stalinism278
and China320, 326–8, 329–30, 330, 335
communist consumerism169–170
consumerism and leisure429–30
economic growth357, 359, 366–8
economic stagnation22, 377
ethnic cleansing after World War II156–7
ethnic cleansing during World War II154
and European federation13
fall of communism22–5, 86
foreign policy and European communism273–7
friendship treatiessee friendship treaties
Great Patriotic Warsee Great Patriotic War cult
gulags19
and Holocaust673–4
intellectuals and Nazism674
interwar period77
last years177–8
leading role affirmed327
Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963329–30
and modern art615–16
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939)695, 707, 725
Nazi invasion673
nuclear parity with US350
nuclear weapons tests452, 454, 459
post-Revolutionary period267–8
science and technology632, 634–5
success of Brezhnev's policies177
and Suez Crisis494
territorial acquisitions322
territorial changes after World War II81, 82
and West Germany330–1
World War II268–70
World War II as foundation mythology65
World War II deaths81, 269, 696
Spain
1968 protests257
agricultural production361
agricultural sector reduction361
colonial empire482
decolonization500
economic growth363
and EEC516, 517, 573
and European Union86
Eurozone crises401–2
extra-European territories604
film and TV654
loss of Philippines602
migration210
migration and national security213–14
overseas areas134
post Civil War repression74
postcolonialism609
return of migrants to Eastern Europe215
shopping malls432
social democracy49
television435
tourism438
unemployment407
urban regeneration587, 589, 592, 596
Spain - dictatorship
background502–5
continuance4
developmentalism509–10
film and TV661
memory and reassessment519, 520–1, 522, 722–3, 729–30
overview523–4
regime of fear505–6, 509
transition to democracy512, 515, 516, 517–18, 722
treatment of refugees73–4
US aid506–507, 510
Stalinism
Albania469–71
anti-facism676
background to ‘national Stalinism’462–5
Bulgaria471–3
bureaucratic278, 281
and modern art616
(p. 762) ‘national Stalinism’326, 462–75
overview475–8
Poland473–5
Romania465–9
before World War II267–8
Stam, Mart168
Statiev, Alexander75
Staudte, Wolfgang658
Stead, William T182, 183
Steiner, Jean-François686
Stepinac, Alojzije, Archbishop of Zagreb550
Sternhell, Zeev686
Stola, Dariusz476
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)353
Strauss, Lewis449–50
Suárez, Adolfo515, 516
Sucksdorf, Arne664
Suez Crisis 1956287, 494–5
Sukarno487–8
Suri, Jeremi293
Šušak, Gojko554
Sutherland, Graham621
Suvorov, Viktor724
Sweden
black male sexuality and consumerism236–7
communist electoral support50, 265
consumerism and leisure425
Deutschmark zone403
and European Union87, 573
film and TV656–7, 662, 664
foreign-born workers214
growth of ethnic communities210
ICT growth419, 420
Keynesianism54
migration88
migration after 2000212
migration after World War II205, 207
migration and multiculturalism215, 216
nationalization312
science and technology634, 635
services growth421
social democracy48, 50
social relations314
unemployment53
urban regeneration591, 597
wage-price spiral407
welfare state300, 301, 317
welfare state antecedents307
working week433see also Scandinavian countries
Switzerland
architecture627
corporatist political arrangements364
foreign-born workers214
migration after World War II205
national identity204
science and technology635
services growth421
social democracy49
Syrian independence491
Szálasi, Ferenc718
Szlekys, Olgierd171
Talmon, Jacob679
Tanaka, Tomoyuki449
Taylor, A J P452
technologysee science and technology
television
American influence651–3
art television and national fiction661–3
background649–50
and consumerism433–5
digital technology666
documentary664–6
Eastern Europe657–9
European TV culture and globalization659–60
Great Patriotic War cult712
national cultures650–1
transnational influence of663
Teller, Edward447, 455, 457
Temple, Archbishop William301
Tendryakov, Vladimir703
terrorism
and 1968 protests256
and decolonization6
and fascism2, 6
Thatcher, Margaret21, 27, 288, 301, 314, 414, 457, 500
Theweleit, Klaus682
Thompson, E P458
Tibet
(p. 763) Chinese annexation604
Tibi, Bassam125
Tilly, Charles10–11
Tinbergen, Jan307
Tippett, Michael454
Tismaneanu, Vladimir179, 180, 533–4, 535, 537, 539, 718, 719
Tito, Josip Broz18, 166, 252, 273, 278, 321, 323, 546, 550, 718
Todorov, Tzvetan115, 689–90
Todorova, Maria98–9
Tomašević, Bato547, 548
Tomašević, Duško548
tourism438–9
town planningsee architecture
Toynbee, Arnold71
Trachtenberg, Marc343–4
treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistancesee friendship treaties
Treaty of Brussels (1948)341
Treaty of Lisbon (2009)397–8
Trier, Lars von657
Troell, Jan650, 662
Truffaut, Francois655
Truman, Harry S69, 341, 342, 343, 347, 448, 490, 492
Truman Doctrine50, 184, 286, 323, 507
Tsereteli, Zurab710–11
Tucker, Robert C.463
Tudjman, Franjo30, 554
Turkey
Cyprus invasion513
economic growth88
ethnic cleansing after independence158
and European Union87, 131, 393
‘reciprocal emigration’ of minorities after World War I148–9
War of Independence611see also Ottoman Empire
Twiggy (Lesley Hornby)428
Ukraine
ethnic cleansing after World War II84, 157
nationalist resistance to Communism272
politics after communism541–2
reassessment of wartime past76
tourism438
Ulbricht, Walter172, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 676
United Kingdom
1968 protests20
agricultural production361
agricultural sector reduction361–2
and American intervention342
Americanization188
anti-Americanism198
anti-facism679
architecture617, 618, 618–19, 626, 627
art613, 624
asylum seekers213
Atlantic Charter486–7
bankruptcy490
beef export ban440
Bretton Woods Agreements187
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)452–3, 454, 455, 456, 456–7, 457
Central European Time Bill92
colonial acquisitions post-World War I482
colonial empire482
colonial ethnic cleansing157
conservatism54
consumerism and leisure424, 425, 426–7
corporatist political arrangements364
decolonization15, 286, 347–8, 485, 489, 491, 491–2, 495–6, 498, 499, 603, 606, 726
deregulation414–15
design619
economic restructuring21
and EEC14, 373, 573
and EFTA13, 373
environmentalism640
and European integration389
and European Union86
extra-European territories604
family policy47
fear of future war71
fear of nuclear war447
female genital cutting laws223
film and TV651, 652, 653, 655, 660, 662, 663, 664, 665–6
and Franco506
and Greek civil war277, 490
growth of ethnic communities210
and Holocaust673
(p. 764) homeowners in France578
ICT growth419
industrial output decline409
investment in Eastern Europe431
Keynesianism51
leisure spending441
Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963329–30
loss of economic primacy400
loss of Singapore480–1
‘memory wars’714, 726–7
and Middle East610–11
migration88
migration after 2000212, 213
migration after World War II205, 206, 207, 208
migration and multiculturalism215
migration and national security213–14
migration and racism211
and Munich Treaty (1938)155
national identity204–5
Nazi attacks673
and Nazi ethnic cleansing in Poland152
‘New Left ’245, 246
nuclear collaboration with US347, 348
nuclear weapons339, 348–9, 448–9, 450, 454
nuclear weapons tests452
opposition to nuclear weapons447, 447–8, 450–2, 457–8
painting621, 623
peace movement64, 245–6
pop art623, 624
postmodernism625
postwar political stability68
postwar settlement41
privatization414
race-based data collection229
return of migrants to Eastern Europe215
science and technology632, 636, 638
sculpture621, 622
services growth421
shopping malls432
social democracy49, 50, 55, 310, 316, 679
social relations314
Suez Crisissee Suez Crisis (1956)
television434, 435
tourism437
Treaty of Brussels 1948341
unemployment53
urban regeneration582, 583, 584, 589, 590, 592, 593, 596
US loan490
and Vietnam War287
view of Europe109
welfare state300, 301
and Westernization194
the ‘white woman’ in advertising224
‘whiteness’225–6
World War II deaths81, 449
youth politics and culture246–7
United Nations
aid to Europe370
and Bosnia556, 557
and Croatia553
human rights118–19
and migration212–13
and urban regeneration597
United States
9/11 attacks609
aid to Greece508
aid to Portugal511
aid to Spain506–7, 510
and anti-totalitarianism679
architecture616, 617, 627
art622
Atlantic Charter486–7
beat poets247
Bretton Woods Agreements187
Cold Warsee Cold War
and Cyprus513
deregulation414–15
dollar devaluation408
economic dominance288
environmentalism638
European security policysee security policies
film and TV651, 652–3, 658–9, 660
forces in Germany286
globalization417
and Greek civil war277
and Holocaust673
ICT growth419, 420
(p. 765) ideological consensus with Western Europe288
influence within Soviet Bloc292–3
and international monetary system374–5
and Iraq War112–13
and liberation of Europe112
Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963)329–30
limits of power in Europe287–8
loan to UK490
and Middle East112, 287, 610
migration after 2000212
migration and national security213–14
and NATOsee NATO
nuclear collaboration with UK347, 348
nuclear parity with Soviet Union350
nuclear weapons tests449, 452
opposition to nuclear weapons446–7, 456, 457
as Other120–1
permanent involvement in Europe4
Philippines independence482, 602
and Polish borders issue322
pop art623
and Portuguese revolution513
productivity relative to Europe358
relations with122
science and technology634–5, 644, 646
Suez Crisissee Suez Crisis (1956)
urban regeneration596
Vietnam Warsee Vietnam War
the ‘white woman’ in advertising224
youth politics and culture246–7see also Americanization
urban regeneration582–99
Urry, John437
USSRsee Soviet Union
Ustaša atrocities in Yugoslavia547–8
Valery, Paul100
van der Rohe, Mies617, 619
van Eyck, Aldo618
Vance, Cyrus556
Veblen, Thorstein423, 432, 439
Venclova, Tomas17
Vickers, Miranda470
Vidal-Naquet, Pierre685
Vietnam War
1968 protests248
European support287
French defeat491
Sino–Soviet relations331
and Western security policies351–2
Vinterberg, Thomas657
Visconti, Luigi653
visual culturesee cinema; television
Vostell, Wolf623
Wæver, Ole107, 108–9, 115
Wajda, Andrzej658
Waldheim, Kurt14
Wallace, William387
Warhol, Andy623
Warsaw Pact
challenges to Soviet domination289–90
components of Soviet bloc535
conformity289–91
creation13, 16, 325
and CSCE295
dismantling27
friendship treatiessee friendship treaties
invasion of Czechoslovakia333
invasion of Hungary18
and NATO325–6
Soviet economic subsidy291
stagnation23
success17
undermining of291–2
US influence within292–3see also Comecon
Watkins, Peter459, 665
Watson, Paul666
Watt, Harry664
Waugh, Evelyn662
Weber, Max423, 632–3
Wehler, Hans-Ulrich683
Weiner, Amir65
Weiss, Linda390
Weiss-Wendt, Anton177–8, 179
welfare state
antecedents305–10
background299–300
(p. 766) characteristics310–13
consequences313–18
explanatory models300–5
and Marxism314
and social citizenship45–8
and women46–7
Wells, H G446
Werfel, Franz103
West Germanysee Germany - Federal Republic
Western Europe
1968 protestssee 1968 protests
agriculturesee rural areas
and American intervention341–2
and Americanizationsee Americanization
anti-communism280–1
collective organisations16, 85, 86–7, 372
collectivism44–5
communist decline50, 266
constitutions44
consumerismsee consumerism and leisure
decolonization286
dependency on US287
economic challenge to US288
economic crisessee economic crises
economic growthsee economic growth
football435–6
foreign-born workers214
global decline286
hardening of borders85
historical convergence with Eastern Europe25
ICT growth419–20
ideological consensus with US288
independence from US287–8
inflation407
integration of labour45
material prosperity5
migrationsee migration
nationalist and racial tensions6
nationalization and public ownership44
neoliberalism21–2, 412–18
nuclear weaponssee nuclear weapons
political conservatism14–15
post-communist years25–33
postwar settlement37–58
security policiessee security policies
social citizenship45–6
social diversification96
stability48–55
unemployment409
wage-price spiral407
welfare statesee welfare state
World War II deaths81
Western European Union (WEU)344
Widerberg, Bo656
Wilders, Geert317
Wilkanowicz, Stefan124
Williams, Raymond246
Wilson, Harold348
Wilson, Woodrow485, 602, 603
Winter, Jay672
Wintle, Michael126–7
Wittner, Lawrence S454, 458, 460
Wolf, Konrad658
Wolff, Larry93–4
Wols (Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze)621
women
in advertising224–30
and consumer culture428
gender and sexualitysee gender and sexuality
the ‘veiled Muslim woman’230–6
wartime work270
and welfare state46–7
the ‘white woman’224–30 see also feminism
World War I
assassination of Franz-Ferdinand549
destruction of Europe's empires482
economic problems after369
as historical divide77
Versailles Peace482
and welfare state306–7
World War II
Americanization188, 190
and decolonization485
end as catalyst for decolonization483–8
Great Patriotic Warsee Great Patriotic War cult
(p. 767) as historical divide64–6
Holocaustsee Holocaust
impact of3–4
‘memory wars’see ‘memory wars’
Worsthorne, Peregrine455
Wright, Basil664
Wróblewski, Andrzej475
Wydra, Harald535
Wylie, Philip453
Xoxe, Koçi279
Yegorichev, Nikolai704
Yeltsin, Boris25, 27, 535, 707, 708, 709–10, 711
youth politics and culture191, 246–7, 430
Yugoslavia
1968 protests251–2
agricultural production