- The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History
- List of Illustrations
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- List of Contributors
- Editor's Introduction: Postwar Europe as History
- Corporatism and the Social Democratic Moment: The Postwar Settlement, 1945–1973
- Interwar, War, Postwar: Was there a Zero Hour in 1945?
- East, West, and the Return of ‘Central’: Borders Drawn and Redrawn
- Spectres of Europe: Europe's Past, Present, and Future
- Europe and its Others: Is there a European Identity?
- Ethnic Cleansing
- Responding to ‘Order Without Life’? Living Under Communism
- The Spectre of Americanization: Western Europe in the American Century
- Immigration and Asylum: Challenges to European Identities and Citizenship
- Gendering Europe, Europeanizing Gender: The Politics of Difference in a Global Era
- 1968: Europe in Technicolour
- Making Postwar Communism
- Europe's Cold War
- The Western European Welfare State Beyond Christian and Social Democratic Ideology
- The Truth About Friendship Treaties: Behind The Iron Curtain
- A Continent Bristling With Arms: Continuity and Change In Western European Security Policies After the Second World War
- <i>‘Les Trente Glorieuses’</i>: From the Marshall Plan to the Oil Crisis
- European Integration: The Rescue of the Nation State?
- A Restructured Economy: From the Oil Crisis to the Financial Crisis, 1973–2009
- Veblen Redivivus: Leisure and Excessin Europe
- ‘Gentlemen, you are Mad!’: Mutual Assured Destruction and Cold War Culture
- What was National Stalinism?
- Colonial Fantasies Shattered
- After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal
- What Comes After Communism?
- Brothers, Strangers and Enemies: Ethno-Nationalism and the Demise of Communist Yugoslavia
- The Countryside: Towards a Theme Park?
- Heritage and the Reconceptualization of the Postwar European City
- The Postcolonial Condition
- Postwar Art, Architecture, and Design
- Science and Technology in Postwar Europe
- Images of Europe, European Images: Postwar European Cinema and Television Culture
- Intellectuals and Nazism
- The Great Patriotic War in Soviet and Post-Soviet Collective Memory
- Memory Wars in the ‘New Europe’
Abstract and Keywords
In the year after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the historian and critic Lewis Mumford made a dramatic attack on the insanity of the nuclear age. In his article entitled ‘Gentlemen: You are Mad!’, Mumford said: ‘We in America are living among madmen. Madmen govern our affairs in the name of order and security’. According to Mumford, the modern superweapon society, for all its technological supremacy, was unable to recognise the looming disaster. People were sleepwalking towards the abyss of atomic war. The Cold War arms race created and served to maintain what Winston Churchill termed ‘the balance of terror’. By the end of the 1960s, both the United States and the Soviet Union had more than enough nuclear weapons to withstand a first strike and still be able to retaliate. This article explores how mutual assured destruction (MAD) was reflected and refracted in European culture and society from 1950 to 1985, and shows how film and fiction played a key role in highlighting the potential effects of MAD – a global nuclear holocaust.
Ivan T. Berend is a Distinguished Professor at the Department of History, University of California, Los Angeles. Previously, he was professor of economic history at the Budapest University of Economics (1953-1985); President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1985-90); and President of the International Committee of Historical Sciences (1995-2000). He is a Member of the British Academy and five other European academies of sciences. His most recent book is Europe since 1980 (2010). Among his earlier works, he published a tetralogy on nineteenth- and twentieth-century Central and Eastern Europe, The European Periphery and Industrialization, 1780-1914 (1984), and An Economic History of 20th Century Europe (2006). He is currently working on an economic history of nineteenth-century Europe.
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