- The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History
- List of Illustrations
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- List of Contributors
- Editor's Introduction: Postwar Europe as History
- Corporatism and the Social Democratic Moment: The Postwar Settlement, 1945–1973
- Interwar, War, Postwar: Was there a Zero Hour in 1945?
- East, West, and the Return of ‘Central’: Borders Drawn and Redrawn
- Spectres of Europe: Europe's Past, Present, and Future
- Europe and its Others: Is there a European Identity?
- Ethnic Cleansing
- Responding to ‘Order Without Life’? Living Under Communism
- The Spectre of Americanization: Western Europe in the American Century
- Immigration and Asylum: Challenges to European Identities and Citizenship
- Gendering Europe, Europeanizing Gender: The Politics of Difference in a Global Era
- 1968: Europe in Technicolour
- Making Postwar Communism
- Europe's Cold War
- The Western European Welfare State Beyond Christian and Social Democratic Ideology
- The Truth About Friendship Treaties: Behind The Iron Curtain
- A Continent Bristling With Arms: Continuity and Change In Western European Security Policies After the Second World War
- <i>‘Les Trente Glorieuses’</i>: From the Marshall Plan to the Oil Crisis
- European Integration: The Rescue of the Nation State?
- A Restructured Economy: From the Oil Crisis to the Financial Crisis, 1973–2009
- Veblen Redivivus: Leisure and Excessin Europe
- ‘Gentlemen, you are Mad!’: Mutual Assured Destruction and Cold War Culture
- What was National Stalinism?
- Colonial Fantasies Shattered
- After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal
- What Comes After Communism?
- Brothers, Strangers and Enemies: Ethno-Nationalism and the Demise of Communist Yugoslavia
- The Countryside: Towards a Theme Park?
- Heritage and the Reconceptualization of the Postwar European City
- The Postcolonial Condition
- Postwar Art, Architecture, and Design
- Science and Technology in Postwar Europe
- Images of Europe, European Images: Postwar European Cinema and Television Culture
- Intellectuals and Nazism
- The Great Patriotic War in Soviet and Post-Soviet Collective Memory
- Memory Wars in the ‘New Europe’
Abstract and Keywords
During the quarter of a century that followed World War II, Western Europe enjoyed the most spectacular prosperity in history. While the population of Western Europe increased by less than 20 per cent, the gross domestic product rose by 286 per cent. Economists explained that depression and economic crisis were things of the past. In mid-October 1973, however, a dramatic event ended European prosperity. The Arab oil-exporting countries made a political decision against the West by introducing an oil embargo, increasing prices. Six years later, a second oil crisis followed, and, between 1973 and 1980, led altogether to a tenfold increase in oil prices. It soon turned out that the politically ignited oil crisis simply made the crisis manifest. Most paradoxically, the postwar prosperity in Europe undermined itself, and paved the way for a deep economic crisis. This article examines the ideological consequences of the dual economic and political crises of the 1960s and 1970s, focusing on neoliberal revolution, de-statisation, and deregulation. It also discusses the financial crisis and the economic restructuring in Europe.
Ivan T. Berend is a Distinguished Professor at the Department of History, University of California, Los Angeles. Previously, he was professor of economic history at the Budapest University of Economics (1953-1985); President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1985-90); and President of the International Committee of Historical Sciences (1995-2000). He is a Member of the British Academy and five other European academies of sciences. His most recent book is Europe since 1980 (2010). Among his earlier works, he published a tetralogy on nineteenth- and twentieth-century Central and Eastern Europe, The European Periphery and Industrialization, 1780-1914 (1984), and An Economic History of 20th Century Europe (2006). He is currently working on an economic history of nineteenth-century Europe.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.