- The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History
- List of Illustrations
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- List of Contributors
- Editor's Introduction: Postwar Europe as History
- Corporatism and the Social Democratic Moment: The Postwar Settlement, 1945–1973
- Interwar, War, Postwar: Was there a Zero Hour in 1945?
- East, West, and the Return of ‘Central’: Borders Drawn and Redrawn
- Spectres of Europe: Europe's Past, Present, and Future
- Europe and its Others: Is there a European Identity?
- Ethnic Cleansing
- Responding to ‘Order Without Life’? Living Under Communism
- The Spectre of Americanization: Western Europe in the American Century
- Immigration and Asylum: Challenges to European Identities and Citizenship
- Gendering Europe, Europeanizing Gender: The Politics of Difference in a Global Era
- 1968: Europe in Technicolour
- Making Postwar Communism
- Europe's Cold War
- The Western European Welfare State Beyond Christian and Social Democratic Ideology
- The Truth About Friendship Treaties: Behind The Iron Curtain
- A Continent Bristling With Arms: Continuity and Change In Western European Security Policies After the Second World War
- <i>‘Les Trente Glorieuses’</i>: From the Marshall Plan to the Oil Crisis
- European Integration: The Rescue of the Nation State?
- A Restructured Economy: From the Oil Crisis to the Financial Crisis, 1973–2009
- Veblen Redivivus: Leisure and Excessin Europe
- ‘Gentlemen, you are Mad!’: Mutual Assured Destruction and Cold War Culture
- What was National Stalinism?
- Colonial Fantasies Shattered
- After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal
- What Comes After Communism?
- Brothers, Strangers and Enemies: Ethno-Nationalism and the Demise of Communist Yugoslavia
- The Countryside: Towards a Theme Park?
- Heritage and the Reconceptualization of the Postwar European City
- The Postcolonial Condition
- Postwar Art, Architecture, and Design
- Science and Technology in Postwar Europe
- Images of Europe, European Images: Postwar European Cinema and Television Culture
- Intellectuals and Nazism
- The Great Patriotic War in Soviet and Post-Soviet Collective Memory
- Memory Wars in the ‘New Europe’
Abstract and Keywords
Many Europeans today perceive immigration as a major problem for society. Some claim that asylum seekers and low-skilled migrants are an economic burden and that ethnic diversity undermines the solidarity necessary for strong welfare states. Above all, a widespread discourse portrays Europe's new found cultural and religious complexity as a challenge to historical models of national identity and citizenship. Such concerns are far from new, but they have grown sharply. The trigger for the perception of a ‘migration crisis’ was the end of the Cold War. This article examines the history of migration, ethnicity, and racism, which has always been closely interwoven with nation-state formation, colonialism, and modernity. The ‘migration crisis’ of the early 1990s reveals itself as just one of several crucial turning points in Europe's migration history. Before discussing such epochal shifts, the article summarises pre-1945 experiences, with emphasis on developments since World War II, and also examines multiculturalism and social cohesion in Europe.
Stephen Castles is Research Professor of Sociology at the University of Sydney and Associate Director of the International Migration Institute (IMI), University of Oxford. He works on international migration dynamics, global governance and migration and development. His recent books include: The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (4th edn, with Mark Miller, 2009); and Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South (edited with Rúal Delgado Wise, 2008).
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