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date: 27 October 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article discusses learning in the context of governance, and the two-way relationship between them. It explains the concept of four types of learning – reflexive social learning, instrumental learning, political learning, and symbolic learning – and identifies theoretical problems that emerge when learning is used in the context of governance. The article also mentions that while governance has influenced and rekindled the discussion on learning, there is also evidence that theoretical and empirical research on learning has potentially useful lessons for those working on governance and governments.

Keywords: learning, governance, reflexive social learning, instrumental learning, political learning, symbolic learning

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