Abstract and Keywords
The corpus of research on developing countries of the last five to ten years shows that the design of regulatory systems has to address many goals under very tight institutional capacity constraints. These goals range from standard economic concerns such as efficiency, equity, or fiscal sustainability when the networks rely heavily on subsidies to more political concerns including notably the need to ensure more accountability of the providers of the services. This article provides a brief overview of the ownership structure and organisation of regulation in developing countries. It identifies the four key institutional limitations that are found in developing countries: capacity, commitment, accountability, and fiscal efficiency. Furthermore, this article discusses their implications and the regulatory policy options available to address them. It shows some of the trade-offs and inconsistencies due to conflicts in the optimal strategy to deal with different problems. Finally, it summarises the relevant empirical results.
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