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date: 16 February 2020

(p. 773) Subject Index

(p. 773) Subject Index

Abu Ghraib prison 130, 434
Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS) 89
accountability:
and Bretton Woods institutions 252
and democratic governance 632
and international organizations 204–6
and nongovernmental organizations 261
and peacebuilding 422–3
and United Nations 261
Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC) 569
Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ) 691
Afghanistan 121
and International Security Assistance Force 124
and peace enforcement 372, 380
and peacebuilding 410–11, 416
and sanctions 128, 357, 429
monitoring and implementation 362
targeted sanctions 358, 359
and Soviet Union 393
and United States 410
Africa:
and electoral assistance to 626
and good governance 630–1
and HIV/AIDS 588
and peacekeeping operations 222, 228, 229
and regional organizations 125 see also individual countries
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (1981) 514
African Commission on Human Rights 451, 455
African Court of Human Rights 456
African National Congress (ANC) 435
African Standby Force 230
African Union (AU) 125, 227, 381
and capacity building 229
and children's rights 514
and Darfur 229, 377
and peacebuilding 407, 419
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
Agence France‐Presse 276
Agenda 21 552, 602
Al Jazeera 276
Al Qaeda 128, 410, 427
Alabama Claims arbitration (1872) 193
Albania 379
Algeria:
and electoral assistance to 628
and Non‐Aligned Movement 130
alliances, and United Nations 53
American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 514
Amnesty International 256
anarchy 4, 44
Anglo‐Iranian Oil Company 595
Angola 121, 122, 186
and electoral assistance to 627, 629
and natural resources 593, 602, 607
and peacebuilding 413, 415
and peacekeeping operations 405
and sanctions 124, 352, 357
commodity‐specific 359–60
monitoring of 362
targeted sanctions 358, 359
anti‐globalization movement 239
Aouzou Strip 119
apartheid 453
and Security Council 121
Arab Charter on Human Rights 455, 456
Arab League 218–19
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
Arab‐Israeli War (1967), and General Assembly 104
arbitration, and peaceful settlement of disputes 306
Argentina, and financial crisis 238
Armenia, and electoral assistance to 628
arms embargoes, and sanctions 359
Asian‐African Conference (Bandung, 1955) 108
Assembly of States Parties (ASP), and International Criminal Court 474
Associated Press 276
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 227
Atlantic Charter (1941) 593–4
Atlantic City Conference (1916) 266
Australia 380
(p. 774) autonomy 56 n19
and United Nations 53
avian flu 588
Azerbaijan, and electoral assistance to 628
Bangladesh 393
Baruch Plan 289
BBC 276
Berlin Blockade 120
Biafra war (1967–1970) 482, 483
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) 294, 588
bioterrorism 588–9
Bloomberg News 278
Bolivia, and International Court of Justice 195
Bonn International Center for Conversion 363
Bonn‐Berlin Process 363
Bosnia and Herzegovina 41, 122, 127, 332
and foreign administration 155
and Implementation Force 123
and institutional coordination 240
and ‘mixed’ courts 472
and peace enforcement 380, 406
and peacebuilding 415
and peacekeeping operations 184
and regional organizations 125
and Stabilisation Force 123
Bougainville 380
Brazil:
and financial crisis 238
and Global Compact 271
and International Court of Justice 195
Bretton Woods institutions 140, 233, 562
and coordination of economic and social affairs 570–1
assessment of 575
and Economic and Social Council 138, 139
and natural resources 594
British Committee on the Theory of International Politics 47
Brundtland Commission 552, 601, 607
Burundi 154
and Boutros‐Ghali 187
and peace enforcement 222
and peacebuilding 407, 411, 416
business, see private sector
Business Council for Sustainable Development (BCSD) 270
Businessman's Peace Movement 265
Cambodia 41, 122, 127, 393
and criminal tribunal 129
and electoral assistance to 627
and ‘mixed’ courts 472, 473
and peace enforcement 373
and peacebuilding 414, 627
and peacekeeping operations 327, 405
and UN administration 155
Cameroon 154
Cameroons 154
as Trust Territory 151
Canada:
and financing of United Nations 679, 683
and influence in United Nations 52–3
capital investment, and ‘soft’ intervention 399
capitalism, and United Nations 51–2
CARE 481
Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict 312, 314
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 88–9
Central African Republic 123
Chad 8, 119
change, and United Nations:
and qualitative changes 15–16
and quantitative changes 13–15
Charter of Child Welfare of the League of Nations 512
Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States (CERDS) 597–8
Charter of the United Nations:
and amendment process 654–5
and collective rights 527
and conflict prevention 300–1, 313
and disarmament 288–9
and Economic and Social Council 568
and economic and social development 562
and finance provisions 677–8
and General Assembly 58
and human rights 441–2, 541–2
and humanitarian action 481
and humanitarian intervention 391, 397, 401
and international criminal courts 465–6
and international law 59
and legal positivism 59
(p. 775)
and legal powers 58–9
and obligations under 58
and peace enforcement 332
and peaceful settlement of disputes 300, 301
Article 2 301–2
Article 2 (3) 302–3
Article 33 303–4
and provisions of 58–9
and sanctions 349
and Secretary‐General 176–8
and state sovereignty 8, 58, 389, 395
and use of force 394
Chechnya 381
Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) 569–70, 574
children:
and armed conflict 515
and child labor 520–1
and child mortality 12, 519–20
and child pornography 616
and child soldiers 521
and Committee on the Rights of the Child 513, 522
and Convention on the Rights of the Child 513–14, 516
implementation 522
and conventions relating to 514
and developing countries 511
and education 519
and gender equality 519
and HIV/AIDS 520
and human rights 512
and hunger 519
and immunization programs 520
and intergovernmental organizations 516–17
and international focus on 515–16
and international law 514
and malaria 520
and nongovernmental organizations 515, 517
and origins of international children's movement 512, 521
and poverty 519
as refugees 512, 517
and regional organizations 514, 518
and trafficking 521, 615
sexual exploitation 616
and United Nations agencies 517–18
and United Nations Children's Fund 517
and vulnerability of 511
and World Summit for Children (1990) 515
Chile 595
China 8, 599
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
and financing of United Nations 681, 683, 684–5
and International Court of Justice 196
and International Criminal Court 130, 473
and landmine convention 296
and North Vietnam 393
and responsibility to protect 398
and Security Council 120, 660, 661, 663
cholera, and International Health Regulations 585
cities, and international relations 707
civil society:
and definition of 256
and global civil society 6
nongovernmental organizations 256, 257–8, 261
robustness of 256
and nature of 255–6
and political relevance of 256
and the state 255–6
and United Nations 262, 711
attempts to influence 258–9
global deliberations 257–9
global partnerships 259–60
reciprocity 257
relationship between 254, 262
civilians, and deaths in wars 5, 129, 395
CNN 276
‘coalitions of the willing’:
and humanitarian intervention 400
and peace enforcement 123–4, 222, 371
Cold War:
and General Assembly 103–4, 107–9
and humanitarian action 483
and peacekeeping operations 405
and regional organizations 218–20
and Secretary‐General's role 179–82
under Hammarskjöld 180–1
under Lie 180
under Pérez de Cuéllar 182
under U Thant 181–2
under Waldheim 182
and Security Council 117, 120–1, 219
collective security, and peace enforcement 371–3
colonialism, and trusteeship 150
Columbia University, and oral history archive 87
commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) 616
(p. 776) Commission for Conventional Armaments (CCA) 289–90
Commission for Relief in Belgium 480
Commission for Social Development (CSD) 502
Commission on Global Governance 142, 566
and Our Global Neighbourhood 10
and security 553 see also global governance
Commission on Human Rights (CHR) 138, 439, 447–50, 531–2, 543, 667
and establishment of 441–2
and indigenous peoples 533–4
and international bill of human rights 442–3
and natural resource management 596, 604
and reform of 440–1
and responding to violations 453–4 see also Human Rights Council
Commission on International Development 565
Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) 615
Commission on Sustainable Development 258
Commission on the Private Sector and Development 271
Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) 497–8
Committee for Programme and Coordination 691
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 530–1
Common Country Assessment (CCA) 572, 577
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 227
and Georgia 125, 380
and human rights 456
conciliation commissions, and peaceful settlement of disputes 305–6
Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) 291
Conference on Disarmament (CD) 291–2, 550
Conference on Security and Co‐operation in Europe 360 see also Organization for Security and Co‐operation in Europe
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
conflict commodities, and organized crime 618
conflict prevention:
and An Agenda for Peace 311
and analysis of 301
and apprehension towards 313
and approaches to 314
operational prevention 314–15
structural prevention 315–16
and Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict 312, 314
and challenges of:
classification problems 317
invisibility of 317
systemic prevention 317
and Charter of the United Nations 300–1, 313
and Economic and Social Council 315–16
and General Assembly 315, 317–18
and impact of Rwandan genocide 312
and increased focus on 311
and International Criminal Court 312
and key principles 314
and mandate for:
development of 311–13
sources of 313–14
and Peacebuilding Commission 313
and Prevention of Armed Conflict 311
and preventive diplomacy 312, 406
and Secretary‐General 315, 316
and Security Council 312, 315, 318
Congo crisis 181, 310, 373
and financing of United Nations 683–4, 687–8
Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) 708
constructivism:
and international law 72
and role of United Nations 48–50, 51
autonomy 53
and study of United Nations 86
Convention against Genocide (1948) 443, 453, 455, 465, 543
Convention against Torture 454, 455, 543
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime 612
Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries 534
Convention Concerning the Protection and Integration of Indigenous and Other Tribal and Semi‐Tribal Populations in Independent Countries 532
Convention on Biological Diversity 601–2
Convention on Conventional Weapons 550
Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971) 614
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) 12, 454, 500–1, 512, 543, 645
(p. 777) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965) 443, 454, 455, 530–1, 543
Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (1980) 616
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (CWC) 293–4
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti‐Personnel Mines and Their Destruction (1997) 9, 296, 705
Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) 511, 513–14, 516, 543, 645
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 260
Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) 512, 543, 548
conventional weapons 550
and disarmament 289–90, 295–6 see also disarmament
coordination:
and humanitarian action 483, 484, 485–6, 488–9
and peacekeeping operations 335–6, 420–2
coordination of economic and social affairs 561–2, 578–9
and assessment of 572–3
Bretton Woods institutions 575
Economic and Social Council 573–4
executive heads 574–5
field coordination 577
Secretariat 575–6
and attempts to improve 564–7
Annan's reforms 566
Boutros‐Ghali's reforms 566
High‐level Panel on UN System‐wide Coherence 567
Millennium Development Goals 566–7
A New United Nations Structure for Global Economic Co‐operation (1975) 565
Partners in Development (1969) 565
Pérez de Cuéllar's reforms 565
A Study of the Capacity of the United Nations Development System (1969) 565
as divisive issue 579
and Economic and Social Council 563, 567–9, 578–9, 665
and machinery of 567
Bretton Woods institutions 570–1
Economic and Social Council 567–9
executive heads 569–70
field coordination 572
Secretariat 571–2
and outline of 562–4
autonomous agencies 563
Charter of the United Nations 562
complexity of 563–4
decentralized nature of 563
Economic and Social Council 563
General Assembly 562–3
United Nations Conference on International Organization (San Francisco, 1945) 562
corruption, and peacekeeping procurement 170
Côte d'Ivoire 125
and peace enforcement 222
and peacebuilding 411, 416
and sanctions 357, 358–9
monitoring and implementation 362
Cotonou Partnership Agreement 624
Council of Europe:
and Bosnia and Herzegovina 125
and children's rights 514, 518
and human rights 455, 456
and local authorities 708
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
counterfeiting, and organized crime 613–14
counter‐terrorism, and sanctions 359
Counter‐Terrorism Committee (CTC) of the UN Security Council 128, 430
Counter‐Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) 431
crime, see organized crime
crimes against humanity 399
crisis management, and peace enforcement 373
Croatia 406, 407, 413
Cuba:
and Non‐Aligned Movement 130
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 293
Cuban Missile Crisis 120
cultural homogeneity, and statehood 526
custom, and international law 66
Cyprus 120, 373
Czechoslovakia 393
Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation 163
Dag Hammarskjöld Library 278–9
Dakar Framework for Action (2000) 519
Darfur 125, 490
and African Union 229, 377
and humanitarian action 491
and peacebuilding 416
(p. 778) Dayton Peace Accords 357, 413, 415, 472
Declaration of Geneva (1923) 512
Declaration of the Rights of the Child (1959) 512
Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 600–1
Declaration on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources 596, 600
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (DEVAW) 501
Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples (1960) 532–3
Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict 505
Declaration on the Right to Development 645
Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National, Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities (1992) 528, 530, 531, 532
decolonization 7, 12, 21, 22, 482
and General Assembly 108
and resource sovereignty 593
and United Nations 47
democratic deficit, and international law 75–6
democratic governance:
and donors' definition 624
and human rights 632
and international financial institutions 630–1
and meaning of democracy 622, 623
Pakistan 622
United Nations' definition 623
United States 622–3
and meaning of governance 623–4
and Millennium Development Goals 621, 631
and recent expansion of 620
and regional organizations 621
and requirements of 621–2
and restraints on 620
and semi‐authoritarian regimes 620–1
and threats to 621
and transnational corporations 621
and United Nations 624–7
electoral assistance 625–631
General Assembly 625 see also global governance; governance
Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) 120
and natural resources 593, 604
and peace enforcement 222, 377, 380
and peacebuilding 406, 407, 416
and sanctions 357, 607
monitoring and implementation 362
targeted sanctions 358–9
democratization:
and peacebuilding 418
and Security Council 127 see also democratic governance
Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD) 566
Department of Disarmament Affairs 427
Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) 566, 629
Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) 358, 486
and weaknesses of 489
Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) 165, 166, 220, 222, 226, 229
and peace enforcement 370–1
Department of Political Affairs (DPA) 221, 310
and conflict prevention 315
Department of Public Information (DPI) 83, 276–9
Department of Social and Economic Development 566
Department of Technical Co‐operation for Development (DTCD) 626
deputy secretary‐general (DSG) 576
developing countries:
and children in 511
and financing of United Nations 683–4
and human rights 440, 442, 444
and media 283
and resource sovereignty 595–600
marine resources 599
and right to development 456–7
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN) 499
Development Cooperation Forum 145
diamonds:
and natural resource management 607
and organized crime 618
and sanctions 359–60
disarmament 287–8
and achievements in:
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention 294, 588
Chemical Weapons Convention 293–4
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
land mines 296
Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 291–2
(p. 779)
Partial Test Ban Treaty 294–5
and Charter of the United Nations 288–9
and Conference of the Committee on Disarmament 291
and Conference on Disarmament 291–2
and conventional weapons 289–90, 295–6
and Disarmament Commission 290, 291
and great power consensus 297
and human security 550
and implementation 297
and joint Soviet‐American statement (1961) 290–1
and League of Nations failure 287, 288
and multilateral disarmament 290
and normative framework for 290, 296
and nuclear weapons 289
Baruch Plan 289
and postwar concern with 287
and role of 296
and weapons of mass destruction 289
Disarmament Commission 290, 291
disaster relief, see humanitarian action
discrimination, and definition of 446–7
Division for the Advancement of Women (UN Secretariat) 498
Dominican Republic 120
Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 533–4
drugs, and organized crime 612, 614–15
Dumbarton Oaks 139, 161, 562, 653
East Asian financial crisis 238
East Timor 122
and election monitoring 127
and humanitarian crisis 396
and International Force in East Timor 123–4
and ‘mixed’ courts 471
and peace enforcement 377, 380
and peacebuilding 406, 413
and UN Transitional Administration 118–19, 155
Eastern Slovenia:
and peacekeeping operations 327
and UN Transitional Administration 155
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations 704
and assessment of 141–3, 573–4, 665
and Bretton Woods institutions 138, 139, 570–1
and conflict prevention 315–16
and coordination of economic and social affairs 563, 567–9, 578–9, 665
and decline of 138, 564–5, 664
and expansion of 660, 661, 664
and functions of 136, 568
and future of 145–6
and General Assembly 98–9, 104, 105, 138, 140, 658
and history and development of 139–41
and human rights 138, 667
and International Court of Justice 138
and international financial institutions 138, 139
and membership of 138, 140
and natural resource management 593, 594, 596, 603
and nongovernmental organizations 136, 146, 257, 667
and reform efforts 143–5, 664–8
and Secretariat 138
and Security Council 118, 138, 146
and subsidiary bodies of 137–8
and transnational corporations 268
and Trusteeship Council 138
and United Nations conferences 138
and women's rights 498
and working methods 138–9, 568–9
and World Summit Outcome (2005) 145–6
economic and social development 644
and development objectives 644–5
and financial support 646–7
and monitoring and evaluation 647–8
and support for policymaking 646
and women and gender 645 see also human development
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 125
and Liberia 220, 380, 381, 414, 547
and Military Observer Group of 124
and peacebuilding 407
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
and Sierra Leone 547
economics, and international law 71
education 12
and children 519
and Human Development Index 637 see also human development
EFE (Spanish‐language news agency) 276
Egypt:
and Chemical Weapons Convention 293
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
and landmine convention 296
and Non‐Aligned Movement 131
El Salvador 41, 599
and electoral assistance to 627, 629
and human rights 126
and International Court of Justice 203
(p. 780) El Salvador (cont.)
and peacebuilding 413–14
and peacekeeping operations 327, 405
Elected Representative Liaison Unit 710–11
election assistance 127, 628–30 see also individual country cases
Electoral Assistance Division (EAD) 626, 627
and major electoral missions 629–30
and standard electoral assistance activities 628–29
emergency relief coordinator 486
English School, and role of United Nations 47–8
environmental degradation 4–5
and human security 552
and women and gender 502
environmental issues, and business 270
Equatorial Guinea 204
Eritrea:
and electoral assistance to 627, 629
and peace enforcement 222
and sanctions 357
arms embargoes 359
Ethics Office 170
Ethiopia:
and electoral assistance to 628
and peace enforcement 222
and sanctions 357
arms embargoes 359
European Convention on the Exercise of Children's Rights (1996) 514
European Convention on the Prevention of Torture 455
European Court of Human Rights 451, 456
European Union (EU) 4, 227
and Bosnia and Herzegovina 125
and children's rights 514, 518
and financing of United Nations 693
and peace enforcement 380
and peacebuilding 407
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
and peacekeeping operations 228, 229
and sanctions 360
and Security Council 125–6
and state sovereignty 7
European Union Force (EUFOR) 380
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and marine resources 599–600
Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs (ECHA) 489
Executive Outcomes 407
fact‐finding, and peaceful settlement of disputes 304–5
failed states:
and historical legacies 702
and state sovereignty 8
and terrorism 410
and trusteeship 155
family, and human rights 529
Federal Bureau of Investigation 162
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 372
feminism 497 see also women and gender
feminist theory, and international law 74
finances of United Nations:
and alternative financing 711–13
arms sales tax 712
aviation fuel tax 712
carbon energy tax 712
dedicated taxes 697, 712
Internet activity/e‐mail tax 712
natural resources extraction tax 712
private sector 696–7
Tobin Tax 697, 712
and assessed budgets 676
and assessment of contributions 678–81
and budget approval 690–4
and centrality of 675
and Charter of the United Nations 677–8
and conflicts over 676
and crises in:
Soviet Union 687–8
United States 688–90
and expenditure 14, 15
and late payments 681–3
and League of Nations precedent 676–7
and member state contributions 675
and peacekeeping operations 683–7, 693–4
assessment of contributions 684
developing countries 683–4
reform of assessment 685–7
regional organizations 685
United States 685, 687
voluntary contributions 685
and penalties for nonpayment 677–8
and precarious state of 676
and United States 676, 679, 681, 683, 684, 685, 693, 696, 713
and voluntary contributions 676, 684, 685, 693–6
First International Sanitary Conference (Paris, 1851) 583
flu pandemic 588
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 265, 481, 503, 517, 519, 563, 593, 634, 703
and natural resource management 594
food security, and human security 552
Ford Foundation 142, 163
foreign aid, and ‘soft’ intervention 399
Fourth UN World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) 498, 499–500, 519
France:
and financing of United Nations 679, 683, 684, 685, 688, 697
(p. 781)
and former Yugoslavia 375
and human rights 441, 443–4, 528
and International Court of Justice 196
and International Criminal Court 130
and Rwanda 375
and sanctions 364, 365
and Security Council 661
and Sudan 377
Freedom House 620
French Revolution 526
functionalism 704
and study of United Nations 85–6
Gates Foundation 272, 697
gender, see women and gender
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) 637
Gender‐related Development Index (GDI) 503, 637
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 139, 267
and control of infectious diseases 585
and natural resources 594
General Assembly of the United Nations:
and authority of:
appointments 102
colonial affairs 104–5
overshadowing of 105–6
peace and security issues 103–4, 118
powers of 103
relations with member states 103
resolution 377 (‘Uniting for Peace’, 1950) 104, 118, 309, 372
and basic character of 98–9
domination by weak states 98
multilateral traditions 98
parliamentary practices 98
relationship with other UN organs 98–9
sovereign equality of states 98
and budget approval 690–4
and Charter amendment 654–5
and children's rights 512, 513, 515, 516
and complexity of subsidiary machinery 659
and conflict prevention 315, 317–18
and democratic governance 625
major electoral missions 629
and disarmament 288, 289, 291
and Economic and Social Council 98–9, 104, 105, 138, 140, 658
and economic and social development 562–3
and expansion of 657
and finances 675
assessing contributions 678–81
and functions of 97, 656
and future of 112–13
and General Committee of 100
and HIV/AIDS 588
and human rights 453, 454
and humanitarian action 486
and inertia of 659
and institutional decline 97
and International Court of Justice 99, 197
and International Criminal Court 473
and legal powers 61
and natural resource management 593, 596, 604
marine resources 599
and natural resource sovereignty 597
and nongovernmental organizations 705
and Peacebuilding Commission 668
and peaceful settlement of disputes 302, 309, 317–18
and political balance within 106–10
Third World majority 105, 108–9
Third World/European ‘coalition’ 109–10
United States 107, 109
and reform of 656–9
and regional organizations 657
and Secretary‐General, appointment process 176
and Security Council 98, 103–4, 118, 656–7
reform of 661–2
and strengths and weaknesses of 657
and terrorism 428–9
Ad Hoc Committee on 429
definitional difficulties 428
resolutions and conventions 428–9
and Trusteeship Council 98–9, 104–5
and working methods 99–102, 657–8
agenda setting 100
assessing support for resolutions 102
committee system 100–1, 658
consensus decision‐making 658
deliberative process 100–1
gaining support for resolutions 101–2
informal consultations 101
regular sessions 99
resolution production 657–8
resolution quality 658
scope of discussions 99
special sessions 99
time pressures 99–100, 105
votes 102
and writings on 97
purposes 110
roll‐call analyses 112
scholarly 111–12
United States' foreign policy 110–11
Geneva Conventions 465, 480
and children 514
and humanitarian law 445
(p. 782) Geneva Conventions (cont.)
and laws of war 464, 545–6
and war crimes 399
Georgia 125
and peace enforcement 222, 380
Germany 683
Ghana 154
Ghana Aluminium Products 269
Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization 587
Global Campaign for Orphans and Children Made Vulnerable by HIV/AIDS 520
global civil society, see civil society
Global Compact 67, 256, 260, 264, 270–1, 708
Global Demobilization Fund 641
Global Environment Facility 605
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria 520, 697
global governance 10–11, 254
and challenges facing 713–14
and General Assembly 112–13
and ‘global ruling class’ 264–5, 272
and local authorities 706, 707–8
and multilateralism 701–2
and United Nations 41, 257
global deliberations 257–9
Global Governance (journal) 10
Global Movement for Children 515, 516
Global Partnership for Conflict Prevention 312
globalization:
and human development 642
and organized crime 619
and state sovereignty 7
Gold Coast 154
good offices, and peaceful settlement of disputes 305
governance:
and human rights 459
and international financial institutions 630–1
and meaning of 623–4
and United Nations, possible options 709–11 see also democratic governance; global governance
Grameen Bank 502
Grenada 393
Group of ‘77’, 105, 107, 130, 576
Group of 8, and health and security 588
Group of Experts on the Structure of the United Nations System 565
‘groups of friends,’ and Security Council 128–9
Guantánamo Bay 434
Guatemala:
and human rights 126
and International Court of Justice 195
and peace enforcement 406
and peacebuilding 413–14
Guinea‐Bissau 118
Gulf War (1991) 17
and peace enforcement 372
and Secretary‐General 183
and Security Council 123
Hague Conventions 193, 306, 464
and children 514
and Martens Clause 546
Hague Peace Conferences 546, 703
Haiti 118
and electoral assistance to 625, 629
and naval blockade 124
and Operation Uphold Democracy 123
and peace enforcement 222, 375–6
and sanctions 124, 352, 358, 544
commodity‐specific 359
Hamas 435
health:
and children 519–20
and public‐private partnerships 587
and security 587–90
health for all (HFA), and World Health Organization 584
Health Organization of the League of Nations 583
heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative, and Bretton Woods institutions 239–40
Helsinki Accords 67
Heritage Foundation 89
High‐level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (HLP) 18, 87, 118
and establishment of 145, 432
and HIV/AIDS 589
and A More Secure World 229, 709
and Peacebuilding Commission 157, 313
and responsibility to protect 398
and terrorism 432
High‐level Panel on UN System‐wide Coherence 567, 579
HIV/AIDS 5
and children 520
and human security 588
and Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS 503, 587
and Security Council 588
and women and gender 503
and World AIDS Day (2005) 516
and World Health Organization 584–5
(p. 783) hot pursuit, and military intervention 393
human development 5, 12
and centrality of 634–5, 648
and concepts of 636
origin of 636
and definition of 636
and gender 640–1
and Gender‐Empowerment Measure 637
and Gender‐Related Development Index 637
and globalization 642
and Human Development Index 636–9
and Human Development Reports 12, 142, 634–5, 639–42
and Human Poverty Index 637
and human rights 640
and human security 641
and Millennium Development Goals 456–7, 642–3
and misunderstandings of 643
and natural resource sovereignty 596
marine resources 598–600
and right to development 456–7
and security 301
and sustainable development 600–2
Human Poverty Index (HPI) 637
human rights:
and challenges facing:
preventing government violation of 439
upholding international protection 440
and Charter of the United Nations 441–2, 527–8
and children 512
and collective rights 527–30
and Commission on Human Rights 138, 439
establishment of 441–2
international bill of human rights 442–3
reform of 440–1
and definition of international human rights law 525
and democratic governance 632
and developing countries 440, 442
and development of international norms 12, 439, 443–4
and Economic and Social Council 138, 667
and enforcement of 543–6
international criminal tribunals 544–5
sanctions 544
shaming 543–4
strategies for dealing with 455–6
and human development 640
and human security 539–40
Charter of the United Nations 541–2
enforcement 543–5
historical background 540–1
treaty regimes 542–3
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 542
and humanitarian intervention 400
and implementation 453–4
apartheid 453
Commission on Human Rights 453–4
General Assembly 454
International Criminal Court 454
Security Council 454
treaty monitoring 454
and indigenous peoples 525–6, 532–6
Charter of the United Nations 528
definition of 533
Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 533–4
International Labour Organization conventions 532, 534
League of Nations 527
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues 534–5
self‐determination 532–4
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 528–9
and machinery of:
Commission on Human Rights 447–50
Human Rights Council 450–1
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights 452–3
treaty bodies 451–2
and market capitalism 440
and Millennium Development Goals 457
and minorities 525–6, 530–2, 535, 536, 540–1
Charter of the United Nations 528
League of Nations 526–7
Minorities Declaration (1992) 528, 530, 531, 532
Minority Treaties System 526–7
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 528–9
and natural resource management 595, 604
and nongovernmental organizations 544
and principles of international human rights law 444–7
humanitarian law 445
international public policy 445
and responsibility to protect 397–8, 401, 440, 458, 548
and right to development 456–7
and risk assessment 458–60
and United Nations Conference on International Organization (San Francisco, 1945) 441–2, 527
and Security Council 126–7
and sexual rights 503–4
and state sovereignty 8, 391
(p. 784) human rights (cont.)
and states 391, 400
and terrorism 434
and violations of 5, 125, 439, 450, 453, 458, 483, 490
and women and gender 504–5
Human Rights Centre (Geneva) 532
Human Rights Committee 446–7, 529–30
and minorities and indigenous peoples 529–30, 531
Human Rights Council 138, 440, 447–8, 450–1, 531–2, 544, 604, 667
and creation of 146
and Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 534
human security 5, 539–40, 554–5
and broadening agenda of 552–4
and debate over 539
and definition of 555 n2
and freedom from fear 540
and freedom from want 540, 551
breadth of agenda 552–4
economic development 301, 551
environmental degradation 552
food security 552
historical background 551
inequality 552
sustainable development 552, 553
and human development 641
and human rights 539–40
Charter of the United Nations 541–2
enforcement of 543–5
historical background 540–1
treaty regimes 542–3
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 542
and humanitarian conception of 545
armaments regulation 550
Charter of the United Nations 546
historical background 545–6
legal norm development 550
peacebuilding 548–50
peacekeeping operations 547
responsibility to protect 548
use of force 547–8
victims of war 548
and the individual 539
and infectious diseases 587–90
surveillance and response mechanisms 588–9
and origin of concept 552–3
Human Security Commission 553–4
Human Security Report 2005 12
humanitarian action 492–3
and calls for reform 490–2
consolidation and centralization 492–3
system upgrade 491–2
and centrality of 479
and changing humanitarian landscape 487–9
and Charter of the United Nations 481
and collaborative approach 490, 491
and constraints on 481–2
and coordination problems 480, 483–6, 488–9
and criticisms of 479–80, 484, 491
and Darfur 491
and definition of 479
and Department of Humanitarian Affairs 486
and Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs 489
and gender awareness 506
and human security:
Charter of the United Nations 546
historical background 545–6
peacekeeping operations 547
use of force 547–8
victims of war 548
and internally displaced persons 490
Darfur 491
and nongovernmental organizations 481, 482, 483–4
and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 489
and post‐Cold War era 485–7
emergency relief coordinator 486
expectations 485
norms and principles 486–7
Persian Gulf crisis (1991) 485
reorganization of 486
and postwar development of 481–2
and pre‐1945 period 480–1
and refugees 482
growth of 483
and United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator 482–4
agency competition 483, 484
Cold War 483
humanitarian changes, and qualitative change 15–16
humanitarian intervention:
and abuse of 400
and anti‐colonialism 392
and authorizing agents for 394
and debate over 387, 388, 391, 396, 401
Kosovo 396
opposition to 397
rejected by Non‐Aligned Movement 396–7
Rwanda 396
and definition of 388
and end of Cold War 391
and history of 392
and human security 547–8
and illegality 392
(p. 785)
and impact of media 126
and International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty 397–8
and interpretation of phrase 397
and justifications for 388
civil war 394
human rights 400
self‐determination 394
and legitimacy of 387
criteria for 398, 399
and nonintervention 389, 390, 395
and paradox of 387
and peace enforcement 378
and responsibility to protect 397–8, 401, 458, 548
and Security Council 126, 391
and ‘soft’ intervention 399
Humanitarian Response Review (HRR) 491
Iceland 599
ideas:
and constructivism 49
and role of United Nations 49–50
impartiality:
and peace enforcement 381–2
and peacekeeping operations 325–6
Implementation Force (IFOR) 380
income levels, and Human Development Index (HDI) 637
Independent Commission on International Development Issues 552, 565
India:
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
and financing of United Nations 679
and International Court of Justice 196
and landmine convention 296
and military intervention 393, 395, 400
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 293
indigenous peoples:
and Charter of the United Nations 528
and definition of 533
and Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 533–4
and estimate of population size 532
and human rights 525–6, 532–6
and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 529–30
and International Labour Organization conventions 532, 534
and League of Nations 526–7
and Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues 534–5
and protection of 444
and self‐determination 528, 532–4
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights 528–9
and Working Group on Indigenous Populations 533 see also minorities
inequality 5
and conflict 317, 318, 549–50
and human security 552
infant formula campaign 268
infectious diseases 582
and bioterrorism 588–9
and growing problem of 585–6
and human security 588–9
and international cooperation on 583–7
and public‐private partnerships 587
and security 587–90
and Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases 587
and surveillance and response mechanisms 588–9
and United Nations Children's Fund 586–7
and World Health Organization 583–7
information about United Nations:
and Department of Public Information 276–9
and public accessibility 83–4
and use of 84 see also knowledge of United Nations
Institute of International Law 204, 463–4
institutionalism, and international law 72
intellectual property rights, and counterfeiting 613–14
Inter Press Service 276, 283
Inter‐African Mission to Monitor the Bangui Agreements (MISAB) 123
Inter‐Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality 570
Inter‐Agency Standing Committee (IASC) 486
Inter‐Agency Trust Fund on the Elimination of Violence against Women 501
Inter‐American Commission on Human Rights 451, 455, 518
Inter‐American Commission on Women 456
Inter‐American Convention on the International Return of Children (1989) 514
Inter‐American Convention on the Prevention of Violence against Women 455
Inter‐American Court of Human Rights 451, 456
interdependence, and study of United Nations 86
Intergovernmental Authority on Development 125
(p. 786) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 712
Interlaken process (1998‐9) 124, 363
internally displaced persons (IDPs) 490
and Darfur 491 see also refugees
International Association for Labor Legislation 703
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 297, 550, 563
and monitoring role of 46
and World Health Organization 586
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 139, 236, 247, 249, 563
International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) 705
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 67
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 265
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 63, 563
international civil service:
and League of Nations 160–1
and origins of concept 160 see also Secretariat of the United Nations
International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) 167
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 8, 126, 397–8, 446, 548 see also humanitarian action; humanitarian intervention
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 480, 514, 546
and children's issues 518
international community, meaning of term 6–7
International Conference on Financing for Development (Monterrey, 2002) 138, 566
International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994) 503
International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism 428, 618
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 206–7, 703
and advisory opinions 196–7
and appointments to 198–9
and cases/opinions:
Administrative Tribunal of the ILO 201
Cameroon v. Nigeria 203–4, 604
Case concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo 605
Corfu Channel 200
Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran 200
East Timor 196
El Salvador v. Honduras 203
Fisheries Jurisdiction Cases 604
Gabčíkovo‐Nagymaros 200
Gulf of Maine 201, 604
Interpretation of Peace Treaties 197
Jan Mayen Island 604
Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (Advisory Opinion) 197, 201, 316
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons (Advisory Opinion) 604
Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict (Advisory Opinion) 196–7, 201
Libya v. Chad 604
Libya v. Malta 604
Lockerbie 205
Monetary Gold 196, 204
Namibia v. Botswana 604
Nauru 203, 204
Nicaragua 200, 203, 204, 392, 394, 445
North Sea Continental Shelf Cases 604
Nuclear Tests 204
Qatar v. Bahrain 604
Reparations for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations 60–1, 204
South West Africa 200, 202
Western Sahara 197
and composition of 198–9
and contentious cases 195–6
and deliberations of 201–2
and dissenting opinions 201–2
and Economic and Social Council 138
and expansion of subject matter considered 203
and finance of 202
and financing of peacekeeping operations 687
and functions of 194
and General Assembly 99, 197
and humanitarian intervention 392
and inactivity of 202
and influence on international law 202
and international organizations 204–6
and international rule of law 205
and Iran's nationalization of oil companies 595
and Israel 119
and jurisdiction of 58–9, 195–6
and law applied by 197–8
and legal positivism 59
and location of 200
and Mandate System 150
and multilateral cases 203–4
and natural resource management 604–5
(p. 787)
and Nicaragua 119
and nonstate actors 206
and obligations of states 445
and origins and development of 193–4
and peaceful settlement of disputes 303–4, 306–7, 311, 316
and procedures of 199–201
and reform proposals 202–3
and role of 99
and Security Council 119, 194, 198
and standing before 198
and state sovereignty 389
and Statute of (1945) 194
and third‐state intervention 203–4
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 12, 444, 446, 447, 454, 455, 504, 512, 543
and collective rights 529–30
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 12, 443, 444, 512, 543, 551
International Criminal Court (ICC) 9, 312, 399, 446, 464, 473–6, 545, 703
and administrative body for 474
and appointments to 474
and Assembly of States Parties 474
and cases of:
referral by Central African Republic 475
referral by Democratic Republic of the Congo 475
referral by Uganda 474
Sudan/Darfur 475
and establishment of 473–4
and human rights 454
and jurisdiction of 474
and nongovernmental organizations 705
and opposition to 130
and relationship with states 475
and safeguards of 475–6
and sexual and gender crimes 505
and support for 476–7
and treaty negotiations 63
and United Nations 474
and United States 130, 454, 473, 475–6 see also international criminal tribunals
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 465–7, 505
and completion strategies 468–70
and successes and failures of 467–8
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 465–7, 505
and completion strategies 468, 469–70
and successes and failures of 467–8
international criminal tribunals 129–30, 465–7, 544–5
and completion strategies 468–70
and impact on peace and justice 476
and ‘mixed’ courts 470–3
Bosnia and Herzegovina 472
Cambodia 472, 473
East Timor 471
Kosovo 471–2
Sierra Leone 472–3
and ‘soft’ intervention 399
International Development Association (IDA) 236, 246, 248
and United States 248
International Finance Corporation (IFC) 236, 267
international financial institutions (IFIs):
and Economic and Social Council 138, 139
and good governance 630–1
International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) 123–4, 226
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 563
International Gay and Lesbian Association 257
International Health Regulations (IHR) 585, 586, 589–90
international humanitarian law:
and children 514
and development of 463–4
and international customary law 464 see also international law
International Labour Office 677
International Labour Organization (ILO) 63, 65, 265, 269, 455, 498, 517, 563, 634, 703, 704
and child labor 520
and indigenous peoples 532, 534
and Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention 514
international law:
and agents of 68
and children 514
and critical analyses of 73, 75
and custom 66
and democratic deficit 75–6
and economics 71
and feminist theory 74
and General Assembly 111
and general principles 66
(p. 788) international law (cont.)
and human rights 444–7
international public policy 445 and humanitarian law 445
and influence of International Court of Justice 202
and international legal processes school 70
and international organizations 59–60
legal personality 61
and international relations 72
and interstate cooperation 46
and legal positivism 41, 59
changes in 69
tenets of 59, 62–3
United Nations' challenges to 62–3
and nongovernmental organizations 68
and nonstate actors 68
and obligations of states 445
and Security Council 129–30
and ‘soft law’ 66–8
and United Nations 59
establishment of legal personality 60–1
as lawmaker 60–8
political organs 61–2
significance of interpretations by 62
treaties 63–6
and Yale School view of 69–70 see also international humanitarian law
International Law Commission (ILC) 63, 473, 599
and Rules of State Responsibility 67–8
international legal processes, and international law 70
International Management Institute 266
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 563
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 14, 42, 139, 563
and accountability of 252
and ‘Anglo‐Saxon’ character of 234
and autonomy of 235
and conditionality 237
and conflict sensitive adjustment policies 418
and criticisms of 235, 251
and debt crisis (1980s) 237–8
and effectiveness of 251
and finance of 234, 245–6
and financial crises (1990s) 238–9
and functions of 233
and good governance 624
and governance of 234, 242–5
United States' influence 243–5
and heavily indebted poor countries 239–40
and human rights 451
and Independent Evaluation Office 241
and information collection 46
and legitimacy of 251
and loan policy and practices 249–51
and measuring success/failure 241–2
and membership of 234
and natural resources 594
and origins and development of 235–7
and post‐conflict reconstruction 240–1
and realist view of 44
and resources of 246–7
and Special Drawing Right 236
and staff of 234
and transition economies 238
and United Nations 234
relationship with 235
and weighted voting 140, 234, 243
veto powers 243–4
International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) 615
International Opium Commission 614
International Opium Convention 614
International Organization for Migration (IOM) 486, 490, 517, 518
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 267–8
International Organization (journal) 84
international organizations (IOs):
and accountability of 204–6
and coordination problems 240, 241
and International Court of Justice 204–6
and international law 59–60
and intrastate wars, critical analyses of 73
and legal personality 61
and treaty negotiations 63–6
negotiation forums 65–6
International Peace Academy 89
International Police Task Force (IPTF) 380
International Refugee Organization 481
international relations:
and General Assembly 111–12
and international law 72
and research agendas on United Nations:
autonomy 53, 56 n19
influence of states 52–3
international civil service 53–4
social networks 54
voting blocs and alliance patterns 53
and role of United Nations 42–3
as agent of change 50
as constructor of social world 48–50
as facilitator of interstate cooperation 45–7
as governor of society of states 47–8
as structure of legitimation 50–2
as tool of great powers 43–5
(p. 789)
and theories of 41
constructivism 49–50, 51
English School 47–8
Gramscian perspectives 51–2
principal‐agent analysis 46
rationalist 45–7
realism 43–5, 51
International Relief Union (IRU) 480
International Rescue Committee 260, 481
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) 500
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 124, 226, 380
international society, and role of United Nations 48–50
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) 563, 703
International Trade Organization (ITO) 139
international treaties, see treaties
International Union for the Conservation of Nature 601
International Union of Local Authorities 707
International Women's Year (1975) 498
Inter‐Parliamentary Union 710, 711
Iran:
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
and landmine convention 296
and nationalization of oil companies 595
and nuclear weapons 293
Iran Khodro 269
Iran‐Iraq war 129
and Security Council 117, 121
Iraq:
and Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) 156
and invasion of Kuwait 123
and military intervention 395–6
and naval blockade 124
and Oil‐for‐Food Programme 351
and peacebuilding 411, 416
and sanctions 124, 349, 350–2
arms embargoes 359
commodity‐specific 359
humanitarian impact of 357
targeted sanctions 358
and United Nations Special Commission 288, 297
Iraq war (2003) 372
and humanitarian intervention 400
and Secretary‐General 183
and Security Council 124, 132, 133
and United Nations 17–18, 45
Irish Republican Army (IRA) 435
Israel 119
and Boutros‐Ghali 185
and International Court of Justice 196
and military intervention 393
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 293
Italy 683, 696
Ivory Coast, see Côte d'Ivoire
Japan 683
and financing of United Nations 680–1, 696
Johannesburg Declaration 602
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation 602
Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 503, 587
Jubilee 2000 239
Kellogg‐Briand Pact (1928) 392, 546
Kenya, and electoral assistance to 628
Kimberley Process 360, 618
knowledge of United Nations 82
and academic scholarship 84–5, 110–12
constructivism 86
functionalist approach 85–6
institutional approach 84–5
interdependence approach 86
network analysis 86–7
realist approach 85
regimes theory 86
and economic development publications 88
and historical studies 87
and memoirs 87
and oral history archives 87
and popular knowledge:
media coverage 90–1
opinion surveys 90, 94 n35
and publicly accessible information 83–4
and research institutions 88–90
and use of information 84
Korean War:
and General Assembly 104, 309
and peace enforcement 372
and release of American prisoners‐of‐war 180–1
and Secretary‐General 180
and Security Council 120
Kosovo 122
and humanitarian intervention 396, 400
and ‘mixed’ courts 471–2
and NATO campaign 131
and peace enforcement 222
(p. 790) Kosovo (cont.)
and peacebuilding
and UN Transitional Administration 118–19, 155
Kurdistan 17
Kuwait 123
land mines, and Convention on (1997) 9, 296, 705
Latin America, and military intervention 394 see also individual countries
League of Nations 3, 82, 546
and Assembly of 98
and children 512, 521
and Covenant of 392
and disarmament 287, 288
and failure of 11
and financing of 676–7
and Health Organization of 583
and humanitarian action 480–1
and indigenous peoples 526–7
and international civil service 160–1
and Mandate System 150–1
administration 152
duration of 151–2
and minority protection 526–7, 541
and Permanent Court of International Justice 194
and refugees 481
Lebanon 120
legal positivism:
and Charter of the United Nations 59
and international law 41
changes in 69
and tenets of 59, 62–3 see also international law
legitimation, and role of United Nations 50–2
Lesotho 381
and electoral assistance to 628
liberalism, and international law 72
liberalization:
and conflict 317
and governance 630–1
and peacebuilding 418–19
and structural adjustment 646
Liberia 124, 125, 220
and electoral assistance to 629
and natural resources 602
and peace enforcement 222, 380, 381
and peacebuilding 411, 413, 414
and sanctions 357, 607
commodity‐specific 359, 360
monitoring and implementation 362
targeted sanctions 359
Libya 119
and sanctions 124, 128, 357, 429
targeted sanctions 358
Lieber Code 463
life expectancy 12
and Human Development Index 636, 637
literacy 12
local authorities, and global governance 706, 707–8
local groups, and international relations 706–7
Lomé Peace Accord 376
Lord's Resistance Army (LRA, Uganda) 467
Lutheran World Federation 481
Macedonia 380
malaria:
and children 520
and World Health Organization 584 see also infectious diseases
Malawi, and electoral assistance to 628
Mali, and electoral assistance to 628
malnutrition 12
Mandate System 150–1
and administration 152
and duration of 151–2
and UN Trusteeship System 151 see also Trusteeship Council of the United Nations
Manila Declaration on the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes 302
Mariana Islands 155
market capitalism, and human rights 440
Marshall Islands 155
Marshall Plan 236
Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) 483
media, and United Nations 6, 83, 84, 90–1, 275, 284
and attitudes towards 281
and broadcast media 276
and celebrity/human‐interest stories 282–3
and ‘CNN effect’ 126
and critical coverage 280
and Department of Public Information 276–9
and developing countries 283
and focus on Security Council 283
and humanitarian intervention 126
and nature of coverage by 275
and news agencies 276, 283
and newspapers 276
and nongovernmental organizations 278
and Office of the Spokesman of the Secretary‐General 280–1
and role of editors and producers 282
and Secretary‐General's influence 280–1
and United Nations Information Centres 278
and United Nations News Centre 277
and United Nations Radio 278
and United Nations TV 278
(p. 791) mediation, and peaceful settlement of disputes 305
Meetings of the Parties (MOPs), and multilateral treaties 64
Mekong Delta Treaty 607
memoirs, and knowledge of United Nations 87
Mexico:
and electoral assistance to 628
and financial crisis 238
and financing of United Nations 679, 683
Micronesia 155
Middle East, and General Assembly 118 see also individual countries
military expenditure 711
and global levels 297
and United States 9
military intervention, and justification of 392–5 see also humanitarian intervention
Military Professional Resources Incorporated, and peacebuilding 407
Millennium Declaration (2000) 574, 642, 709
and democratic governance 621, 631
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 42, 45, 145, 234, 574, 648, 709
and attitudes towards 566–7
and children's rights 516
and democratic governance 621, 631
and education 519
and human development 456–7, 642–3
and human rights 457
and human security 554
and monitoring and evaluation 647
and women and gender 503
Millennium Summit (2000) 503, 574
minorities:
and Charter of the United Nations 528
and human rights 525–6, 530–2, 535, 536, 540–1
and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 529–30
and League of Nations 526–7
and Minorities Declaration (1992) 528, 530, 531, 532
and Minority Treaties System 526–7
and protection of 444
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights 528–9 see also indigenous peoples
Minority Treaties System 526–7, 530, 541
Monterrey Consensus 138, 571
Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States (1934) 8, 389
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 258, 270
mortality rates 12
Mostar, and EU administration 155
Mozambique 122
and electoral assistance to 629
and peacebuilding 413
and peacekeeping operations 327, 405
Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) 648
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 236
multilateralism:
and challenges facing 713–14
and complexity of 701
and evolution of 701
and expanding participation in UN 704–8
and financing of United Nations 711–13
and popular perceptions of goal of 701–2
and possible governance options 709–11
and roots of 702–4
multinational corporations 268 see also transnational corporations
Namibia 41, 118, 121, 122
and electoral assistance to 625, 629
and peacebuilding 413
and peacekeeping operations 327, 405
and South Africa 153–4
narcotics, and organized crime 612, 614–15
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 124, 187, 349, 352, 357, 359, 360
nationalism 526
nationalization, and resource sovereignty 595, 597
natural resource management 607–8
and access 592–4
and Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States 597–8
and ‘common concern of humankind’ 606
and ‘common heritage of humankind’ 606
and early postwar thinking 593–4
and economic nationalism 593, 594–5
and human rights 595, 604
and main institutions:
Commission on Human Rights 604
Economic and Social Council 603
General Assembly 604
International Court of Justice 604–5
Security Council 604
Standing Committee on Natural Resources 603–4
United Nations Development Programme 605
World Bank 605
and organized crime 618
and resource sovereignty 593, 595–600, 606
marine resources 598–600
and security of supply 592–4
and self‐determination 595–6
(p. 792) natural resource management (cont.)
and stability and development 593, 607
‘curse’ of natural resources 602–3
and sustainable development 593, 600–2, 606
Brundtland Commission 601
Johannesburg Declaration 602
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation 602
Rio Declaration 601
Stockholm Declaration 600–1
World Charter for Nature 601
and transboundary resources 606–7
Nature Conservancy 256
Nauru 154
as Trust Territory 151
naval blockades 372
and peace enforcement 124
negotiation, and peaceful settlement of disputes 304
neoconservatives, and United States' foreign policy 111
neoliberal institutionalism 45, 55 n4, 85
Nestlé 268
NetAid 517
Netherlands 679, 694–6
Network on Rural Development and Food Security 570
networks, and study of United Nations 86–7
neutrality, and peacekeeping operations 325–6
New Guinea 154
as Trust Territory 151
New International Economic Order (NIEO) 52, 65, 88, 108, 268, 597
New International Information Order 281
New Internationalist (magazine) 268
New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) 455
A New United Nations Structure for Global Economic Co‐operation (1975) 565
New Zealand, and Bougainville 380
news agencies, and United Nations 276, 283
newspapers, and United Nations 276
Nicaragua 119
and electoral assistance to 625, 629
and International Court of Justice 203
and peacebuilding 413–14
Niger, and electoral assistance to 628
Nigeria 154
Non‐Aligned Movement (NAM) 107
and humanitarian intervention 396–7
and Security Council 130–1
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 6
and accountability of 261
and children's rights 515, 517
and conference participation 705
and conflict prevention 312
and consultative role 258
and criticisms of 261
and Economic and Social Council 136, 146, 257, 667
and expansion of 256
and General Assembly 705
and global civil society 256, 261
and human rights 544
and humanitarian action 481, 482, 483–4
and influence on United Nations 258–9
and International Criminal Court 705
and international decision‐making 706
and international law 68
and interstate organizations 703–4
and partnerships with United Nations 259–60
and peacebuilding 407–10
and People's Millennium Forum 706
and Persian Gulf crisis (1991) 486
and Secretariat 705
and Security Council 130, 705
and treaty implementation 706
and treaty negotiations 63–4
and United Nations 704–6
and women and gender 501 see also nonstate actors
nonstate actors 701
and International Court of Justice 206
and international law 68
and interstate organizations 703–4
and Report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations‐Civil Society Relations (2004) 710
and treaty negotiations 63–4
and world politics 6–7 see also nongovernmental organizations
Nordic countries 142, 566
and influence in United Nations 52–3
norms, and role of United Nations:
and constructivist view of 48–50
and English School view of 47–8
as legitimator of 50–1
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 68
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):
and Afghanistan 380
and Bosnia and Herzegovina 125, 228
and former Yugoslavia 375, 378, 547–8
and humanitarian intervention 396, 400
and peacebuilding 407
and Response Force 230
and sanctions enforcement 361
and Security Council 125–6
and United Nations 219–20
North Korea:
and Chemical Weapons Convention 293
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
and landmine convention 296
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 293
(p. 793) Novum Nieuws 278
Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 291–2
nuclear weapons:
and Baruch Plan 289
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
and disarmament 289
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 291–2
and Partial Test Ban Treaty 294–5 see also disarmament
Nuremberg trials 464–5
Office for Emergency Operations in Africa (OEOA) 484
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) 358, 489
and Humanitarian Response Review 491
and internally displaced persons 490
Office international d'hygiène publique 583
Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) 168, 170
Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina 155
Office of the Special Adviser to the Secretary‐General on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI) 500
Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator (UNDRO) 482–4
Oil‐for‐Food Programme 351
and Volcker report 89–90, 124, 133, 169–70, 188–9, 351
opinion polls 94 n35
and knowledge of United Nations 90
oral history, and United Nations 87
Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) 67, 106, 423
and business regulation 268
and counterfeiting 614
and good governance 624
Organization for Security and Co‐operation in Europe (OSCE) 125, 155
and good governance 624
and human rights 455
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) 294
and World Health Organization 586
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 381, 514
and peacebuilding 407
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
and Security Council 125 see also African Union
Organization of American States (OAS) 70, 219
and children's rights 514
and Haiti 376
and peacebuilding 406
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
and Security Council 125
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States 393
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 108, 237, 597
organizational behavior, and United Nations 53–4
organized crime:
and concept of 612–13
and counterfeiting 613–14
and drugs 612, 614–15
and economics of crime 613
and globalization 619
and natural resources 618
timber 618
and people trafficking 615
sexual exploitation of children 616
and role of United Nations 611–12
and terrorism 613
and trafficking radioactive materials 616–18
Ottawa Convention 9, 296, 705
Oxfam 260, 481, 517
Packages Limited 269
Pakistan:
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
and democracy 622
and landmine convention 296
and Non‐Aligned Movement 131
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 293
Palau 118, 149, 155, 669
Palermo Protocol 505
Palestine, and Boutros‐Ghali 185
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) 435
Palestinian‐Israeli conflict, and General Assembly 104
Panama 599
Pan‐American Sanitary Bureau 583
Pan‐American Union 218
Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations‐Civil Society Relations 709, 710–11 see also Report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations‐Civil Society Relations
Papua 154
Papua New Guinea 154
Partners in Development: Report of the Commission on International Development (1969) 565
peace enforcement 370–1, 383–4, 405
and basis in interests 370
and bias 381–2
as blunt instrument 383
and ‘coalitions of the willing’ 123–4, 222, 371
and ideological framing of 384
and impartiality 381–2
and key developments:
Democratic Republic of the Congo 377
East Timor 377
former Yugoslavia 374–5
(p. 794) peace enforcement (cont.)
and key developments: (cont.)
Haiti 375–6
Rwanda 375
Sierra Leone 376–7
Somalia 374
Sudan 377
and meaning of 371
collective security 371–3
crisis management 373
and military doctrine 382
and ‘mission creep’ 379
and norms governing 383–4
and operational issues 382–3
and politics of 377–9
delegation and decentralization 379–81
humanitarian justification 378
norms governing 383–4
representation of 379
self‐interest 378–9
and regional organizations 380–1
and Security Council 123–4
and strategic function 370
and targets of 370
and third‐generation peacekeeping 327–33 see also peacebuilding; peaceful settlement of disputes; peacekeeping operations
peacebuilding 404–5, 423–4
and evaluating record of 411, 416
African 416
Angola 415
Cambodia 414, 627
Central America 413–14
Côte d'Ivoire 416
durable peace 413–14
former Yugoslavia 415
Liberia 414
methodological challenges 411–12
resumption of violence 412–13
Rwanda 415
Sierra Leone 415–16
and evolution of 405
defining 405–6
growth during 1990s 406–10
post‐9/11 period 410–11
and human security 548–50
and lessons learned:
building effective states 423
care in democratization 418
importance of security 417–18
legitimacy problem 422
need for accountability 422–3
need for local participation 422
need for long‐term commitment 416–17
sensitive liberalization policies 418–19
sensitivity to local/regional conditions 419–20
and mandate/trusteeship systems 410
and nongovernmental organizations 407–10
and regional organizations 406–7
and Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000) 420
Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) 157, 229, 313, 420, 422, 423–4, 549, 667–8
Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO) 229
peaceful settlement of disputes:
and challenges of 316
and Charter of the United Nations:
Article 2 301–2
Article 2 (3) 302–3
Article 33 303–4
and ‘Friendly Relations Declaration’ 302
and General Assembly resolutions 302
and International Court of Justice 303–4, 306–7, 311, 316
and international disputes 302–3
and literature on 301
and Manila Declaration on 302
and means of 303–4
arbitration 306
conciliation 305–6
inquiry/fact‐finding 304–5
international tribunals 306–7
mediation/good offices 305
negotiation 304
‘other peaceful means’ 307–8
regional agencies/arrangements 307
and need for 300
and responsibility for 302, 303, 308
General Assembly 309, 317–18
International Court of Justice 311
parties to the conflict 308
Secretary‐General 309–10, 316
Security Council 303, 308–9, 318
special envoys/representatives of Secretary‐General 310
peacekeeping operations:
and An Agenda for Peace 220–1, 323, 324
Supplement to 221, 333
and assessment of 226
and budget for 333
and capacity for 226–7
and Cold War period 405
and consent 326–7
and coordination problems 420–2
and cost of 226
and enforcement operations 327–33
Charter basis of 332
(p. 795)
and evolution of doctrine 324, 333–4
first‐generation peacekeeping 324–7
fourth‐generation peacekeeping 334
retrenchment 333–4
second‐generation peacekeeping 325, 327
strategic peacekeeping 334–8
third‐generation peacekeeping 325, 327–33
and expansion of 13–14, 41, 123, 220, 226, 333
and funding of 683–7, 693–4
and General Assembly 104
and Handbook on Multi‐dimensional Peace Operations 229
and human security 547
and impartiality 325–6
and increase in 12
and monitoring role of 46, 326
and multidimensional peacekeeping 327
and nature of contemporary 323
and neutrality 325–6
and No Exit Without Strategy 323, 334
and peacekeeping triangle:
hostility of factions 323, 338, 339–40, 341
international assistance 323–4, 338, 339–40, 341
local capacity 323, 338, 339, 340–1
modelling determinants of success 341–4
participatory peace 341–4
reconstruction 340
and peacemaking 326
and principles of 220
and regionalization of 217–18, 334
benefits and risks of 227–8
categories of operations 222–6
critical theory approach 217
expansion of 228
future of 228–30
managerialist approach 217
post‐Cold War era 220–7
and Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000) 221–2, 323, 334, 420
and Security Council 120, 222
difficulties faced by 122–3
expanded role of 122
internal conflicts 122
and strategic peacekeeping 334–8
cooperation problems 335–6
coordination problems 335–6
facilitative strategies 335–6
identifying conflict type 337
role of peace treaties 337
spoiler problems 336–8
transformative strategies 335–6
transitional strategy 338
types of conflict 334–5
and strategic reserve for 229–30
and sustainable peace 323
and troop‐contributing countries 128, 222, 333 see also Troop Contributing Nations
and United Nations' role 324
and use of force 326, 333 see also peace enforcement; peacebuilding
People's Millennium Forum 706
Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) 193, 306, 703
Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) 194, 541, 677, 703
and Eastern Carelia case 197
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (PF) 534–5
Persian Gulf crisis (1991), and humanitarian action 485–6
Pfizer 697
plague, and International Health Regulations 585 see also infectious diseases
polio 260
population growth 4–5
Porter Commission 604
post‐conflict peacebuilding, see peacebuilding
poverty 5
and children 519
and Human Poverty Index 637
poverty reduction, and Bretton Woods institutions 239–40
Prague Spring 120
precautionary principle 67
Preparatory Commission of the United Nations (London, 1945) 161
Press Trust of India 276
principal‐agent theory, and United Nations 46
and autonomy 53
and international civil service 53–4
principles, and role of United Nations 47–8
private sector:
and civil society 256
and financing of United Nations 696–7
and Global Compact 67, 256, 260, 264, 270–1
and international organization 265–6
and United Nations 6, 260, 708
in Annan era 270–2
changed attitude of 269–70
early postwar period 266–7
regulation issues 267–9
relationship between 264–5, 272
public‐private partnerships, and health 587
(p. 796) racism, and Security Council 121
radioactive materials, and organized crime 616–18
rationalist theory, and role of United Nations 45–7
realism:
and role of United Nations 43–5, 51
and study of United Nations 85
Red Cross movement 445, 480, 482, 486
Red Cross Treaty (1864) 463
reform, and United Nations 669–70
and adaptation 655
and Charter amendment process 654–5
and Commission on Human Rights 440–1
as constant process 653
and coordination of economic and social affairs 565, 566
and Economic and Social Council 143–5, 664–8
and financing of United Nations 685–7
and General Assembly 656–9
and humanitarian action 490–3
and intergovernmental bodies 655
and International Court of Justice 202–3
and possible governance options 709–11
and proposed review conference 654
and sanctions 350, 362–3, 364–6
and Secretariat 165–7
and Security Council 131–2, 659–65
and Trusteeship Council 156, 668–9
and unlikelihood of radical reform 655
and veto power 654
refugees 260, 548
and children 512, 517
and growth of 483
and League of Nations 481
and postwar definition of 482
and Security Council 126 see also internally displaced persons
regimes theory, and study of United Nations 86
regional organizations:
and An Agenda for Peace 220–1
Supplement to 221
and children's rights 514, 518
and Cold War 218–20
and democratic governance 621
and financing of United Nations 685
and future relations with UN 228–30
and General Assembly 657
and human rights 455–6
and peace enforcement 380–1
and peacebuilding 406–7, 419
and peaceful settlement of disputes 307
and peacekeeping operations 217–18, 334
benefits and risks of involvement 227–8
categories of 222–6
critical theory approach 217
expanded role in 228
managerialist approach 217
post‐Cold War era 220–7
Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000) 221–2
and Security Council 119–20, 122, 125–6, 219
veto powers 219
regulation, and business 267–9
Report of the Panel of Eminent Persons on United Nations‐Civil Society Relations (2004) 257, 709, 710–11
Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000) 131, 221–2, 323, 334, 391, 420, 693
reproductive rights, and women and gender 503–4
reputation, and influence in United Nations 52–3
research institutions 88–90
Reuters 276
Revolutionary United Front (RUF, Sierra Leone) 360, 376
Rhodesia 121, 124, 391
and sanctions 349, 372, 544 see also Zimbabwe
Rio Declaration 601, 607
risk assessment, and human rights 458–60
Rome Statute (1998) 9, 63, 64, 130, 312, 464, 473–4, 505, 514, 544–5 see also International Criminal Court
Rotary International 260
Ruanda‐Urundi 154
as Trust Territory 151
Russia:
and Chechnya 381
and financial crisis 238
and financing of United Nations 681
and International Criminal Court 130
and landmine convention 296
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 292–3
and sanctions 365 see also Soviet Union
Rwanda 17, 41, 123, 185
and failure to intervene 396
and formation of 154
and genocide 312
and human rights 126–7
and humanitarian crisis 396
and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda 129, 465–7
successes and failures of 467–8
and peace enforcement 375
and peacebuilding 413, 415
and peacekeeping operations 373
and sanctions 357, 362
arms embargoes 359
(p. 797) Sahel, and famine 482–3
St. Petersburg Declaration (1868) 463
Samoa 154
sanctions:
and arms embargoes 359
and Bonn‐Berlin Process 363
and commodity‐specific 359–60, 607
and counter‐terrorism 359, 429
and decision‐making procedures 364–5
and enforcement of 360–1
independent expert panels 361–2
monitoring improvements 362
and former Yugoslavia 360–1
and human rights 544
and humanitarian impact of 357–8
and Interlaken process (1998‐9) 124, 363
and Iraq 349, 350–2
humanitarian impact of 357
and legal authority for 349
and purpose of 349
and reasons for using 349–50
and reform of 350, 362–3
and sanctions assistance missions 360–1
and Security Council 124
and Stockholm Process 363
and targeted sanctions 358–9
and time limits 364
and unanticipated consequences of 350
and use of (1990‐2005) 352–7
effectiveness 357
and working group on reform 364–6
SARS epidemic 586, 588
Save the Children 512, 517
Say Yes for Children Campaign 515
Secretariat of the United Nations:
and coordination of economic and social affairs 571–2
assessment of 575–6
and Deputy Secretary‐General 576
and Division for the Advancement of Women 498
and Economic and Social Council 138
and Ethics Office 170
and Focal Point for Women in the Secretariat 500
and future prospects of 171–2
and General Assembly 99
and human resources management 163–4
administrative justice 168–9
aims of reforms 167
geographical recruitment 166
Integrity Survey (2004) 165
International Civil Service Commission 167
management reform 165–6, 167
Office of Human Resources Management 165
permanent staff contracts 163–4
recruitment 165–6
salaries 167–8
staff secondments 164, 166–7
whistle‐blower program 167
and Management Committee 576
and nongovernmental organizations 705
and Office of the Ombudsman 169
and Oil‐for‐Food Programme 169–70
and origins and development of 160–3
Secretary‐General's role 161–3
and Panel on the Strengthening of the International Civil Service 164
and peacekeeping procurement 170
and Policy Committee 575–6
and role of 99
and Secretary‐General, appointment process 170–1
and Senior Management Group 575
and staff numbers 166
Secretary‐General of the United Nations
and annual reports of 177
and appointment process 170–1, 176–7
and budget requests 690–1
and conflict prevention 315, 316
and evolution of office:
under Annan 188–9
under Boutros‐Ghali 183, 184–8
Cold War era 179–82
under Hammarskjöld 180–1
under Lie 180
under Pérez de Cuéllar 182
post‐Cold War era 182–9
under U Thant 181–2
under Waldheim 182
and functions of 177–8
and Gulf War (1991) 183
and humanitarian action 479
and independence of 178
and Iraq war 183
and legal powers 61
and media 280–1
as mediator 305
and Office of the Spokesman of the Secretary‐General 280–1
and Oil‐for‐Food Programme 188–9
Volcker report 169–70
and peace and security issues 119, 177–8
and peaceful settlement of disputes 309–10, 316
and role of 177–8, 189–90
constraints on 175–6, 179, 189
impact of personality 178–9
potential influence of 175, 190
and Secretariat:
disciplinary powers 169
historical development of 161–3
(p. 798) Secretary‐General of the United Nations (cont.)
and Security Council 119
impact on 129
referral of issues to (Article 99) 177–8
and terrorism 432–3
Policy Working Group 432
strategy for combating 433 see also individual Secretaries‐General
Security Council of the United Nations:
and authorization of force 124
and children in armed conflict 521
and coercive measures 122
and Cold War 117, 120–1, 219
and conflict prevention 312, 313, 315, 318
and Counter‐Terrorism Committee 128
and decision‐making:
changes in drivers of 126–8
changes in nature of 122–6
and democratization 127
and disarmament 288
and Economic and Social Council 118, 138, 146
and electoral assistance 629
and enlargement of 660–3
and General Assembly 98, 118, 656–7
peace and security issues 103–4
reform attempts 661–2
and Gulf War (1991) 123
and HIV/AIDS 588
and human rights 126–7, 454, 544
and human security 554
and humanitarian action 479
and humanitarian intervention 126, 391, 547–8
and increased activism of 121–2
and institutional developments:
activist Secretaries‐General 129
‘groups of friends’ 128–9
International Criminal Court 130
international criminal law 129–30
Non‐Aligned Movement 130–1
nongovernmental organizations 130, 705
North‐South divisions 130–1
transparency 128
and International Court of Justice 119, 194, 198
and international criminal tribunals 465–6
and international financial institutions 120
and Iraq war 124, 132, 133
and legal powers 61
and membership of 117, 128
and natural resource management 603, 604
and peace enforcement 123–4, 332
and peacebuilding 406
and Peacebuilding Commission 668
and peaceful settlement of disputes 303, 308–9, 318
and peacekeeping operations 120, 222
difficulties faced in 122–3
expansion of 122, 123
internal conflicts 122
and post‐Cold War era 117, 121–2, 123
and preventive diplomacy 406
and reform of 131–2, 659–65
and regional organizations 119–20, 122, 125–6, 219
veto powers 219
and resolutions passed by 14
and responsibilities of 117
and sanctions 124
arms embargoes 359
Bonn‐Berlin Process 363
commodity‐specific 359–60
counter‐terrorism 359
decision‐making procedures 364–5
effectiveness 357
former Yugoslavia 360–1
humanitarian impact of 357–8
Interlaken process (1998‐9) 124, 363
Iraq 349, 350–2
monitoring and implementation 361–3
reasons for using 349–50
reform of 350, 362–3
Stockholm Process 363
targeted sanctions 358–9
time limits 364
unanticipated consequences of 350
use of (1990‐2005) 352–7
working group on reform 364–6
and Secretary‐General 119
appointment process 170–1, 176
and state sovereignty 117
and terrorism 127–8, 429–31
condemnation of 430
Counter‐Terrorism Committee 430–1
nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons 431
reports from member states 431
requirements of states 430, 431
resolution 1269 430
resolution 1373 430
resolution 1540 431
sanctions 429–30
and Trusteeship Council 118–19
and United States 132
and use of force 59, 547–8
and vetoes 14, 654
and Women, Peace and Security resolution 506, 645
and working methods 663–4
and World Health Organization 589
self‐defense:
and military intervention 393, 400
and terrorism 433–4
self‐determination 5, 22, 526
and Charter of the United Nations 7, 441
(p. 799)
and indigenous peoples 528, 532–4
and intervention 394
and natural resource management 595–6
and Trusteeship System 154
and United Nations 47
self‐interest, and peace enforcement 378–9
September 11 terrorist attacks 128, 410, 430
sex tourism, and sexual exploitation of children 616
sexual rights, and women and gender 503–4
shaming, and human rights enforcement 543–4
Sierra Leone 124, 125
and electoral assistance to 628
and human rights 127
and ‘mixed’ courts 472–3
and natural resources 593, 602, 607
and peace enforcement 376–7
and peacebuilding 406, 407, 415–16
and sanctions:
commodity‐specific 359, 360
monitoring and implementation 362
targeted sanctions 359
and Special Court 129
and Truth and Reconciliation Commission 473
Singapore 266
Single Convention of Narcotic Drugs (1961) 614
smallpox 12
and World Health Organization 584 see also infectious diseases
society of states, and role of United Nations 47–8
Somalia 8, 122, 123, 185, 332, 513
and deaths of US soldiers 123, 132
and formation of 154
and humanitarian crisis 396
and peace enforcement 373, 374, 390, 406
and peacekeeping operations 184, 185
and sanctions 359
and UN administration 155
Somaliland 154
as Trust Territory 151
Soros Foundation 272
South Africa 121, 391
and electoral assistance to 629
and International Court of Justice 196
and Lesotho 381
and military intervention 393, 394
and Namibia 153–4
and sanctions 349, 544
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 227
South Centre 142–3
South West Africa, and South African Mandate 153 see also Namibia
Southern African Development Community 125
sovereignty, see state sovereignty
Soviet Union:
and Afghanistan 393
and collapse of 109
and Czechoslovakia 393
and disarmament 290–1
and financing of United Nations 679, 685, 687–8
and human rights 441, 528
and North Vietnam 393
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 292–3
and radioactive materials 617
and Secretariat 161, 162, 163
and Secretary‐General 181
and Security Council 660, 661 see also Russia
Spain 683
Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases 587
special representative of the Secretary‐General (SRSG) 119
and peacekeeping operations 122
Srebrenica 44, 375
and humanitarian crisis 396
Stabilization Force (SFOR) 123, 380
Stanley Foundation 89
state sovereignty 389–90
and centrality of 4
and challenges to 390–1
and changing conception of 378, 389–90
and Charter of the United Nations 58
and human rights 391
and humanitarian intervention 126
and the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty 8, 126, 312, 397, 446, 548
and international legal processes school 70
and natural resource management 595–6
and nonintervention 389, 390, 395
and reformulation of 7–9
failed states 8
human rights 8
impact of globalization 7
and resource sovereignty 595–600, 606
marine resources 598–600
and responsibility to protect 440
and Security Council 117
and Trusteeship System 152
and United Nations 47 see also states
states:
and centrality of 3, 4
(p. 800) states: (cont.)
and conflict prevention 318
and construction of modern state 526
and human rights 391
and humanitarian intervention 401
and influence in United Nations 52–3
and international organizations 68
and obligations of 445
and peaceful settlement of disputes 318
and responsibilities of 390, 397, 398–9
and responsibility to protect 397–8, 401, 458, 548
and role of United Nations:
constructivist view of 48–50, 51
English School view of 47–8
rationalist view of 45–7
realist view of 43–5, 51
Statistical Commission 647
Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment (1972) 259
Stockholm Declaration:
and natural resource management 600–1
and precautionary principle 67
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 412
Stockholm Process, and sanctions 363
Strategic Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 151, 154–5
structural adjustment programs:
and Bretton Woods institutions 646
and governance 630–1
A Study of the Capacity of the United Nations Development System (1969) 565
Sudan:
and peace enforcement 222, 377
and peacebuilding 411, 416
and sanctions 124, 128, 357, 429
monitoring and implementation 362
targeted sanctions 359
Suez crisis (1956) 325, 683
and General Assembly 104, 118
and Security Council 120
Summit of the Americas 455
Suriname, and International Court of Justice 196
sustainable development 552
and human security 553
and natural resource management 593, 600–2, 606 see also Bruntland Commission
Syria, and Chemical Weapons Convention 293
Taiwan, and Security Council 120
Tajikistan 380
Tanganyika 154
as Trust Territory 151
Tanzania 154, 393, 400
and electoral assistance to 628
terrorism 5, 427
and bioterrorism 588–9
and definitional difficulties 428, 432, 433, 434
motivation issues 434–5
and dilemma posed by 427
and failed states 410
and General Assembly 428–9
Ad Hoc Committee on 429
definitional difficulties 428
resolutions and conventions 428–9
and human rights 434
and multidimensional nature of 427
and organized crime 613
and Secretary‐General 432–3
Policy Working Group 432
strategy for combating 433
and Security Council 127–8, 429–31
condemnation by 430
Counter‐Terrorism Committee 430–1
nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons 431
reports from member states 431
requirements of states 430, 431
resolution 1269 430
resolution 1373 430
resolution 1540 431
sanctions 429–30
and self‐defense 433–4
and threat of 427, 435
and use of force 433–4
Thailand, and International Court of Justice 195
Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) 73
Third World countries, and General Assembly 105, 108–9
timber, and organized crime 618
Tobacco Framework Convention 64
Tobin Tax 697, 712
Togo 154
Togoland 154
as Trust Territory 151
torture, and United Nations 62
trafficking of people:
and children 521
and organized crime 615
sexual exploitation of children 616
and women and gender 504–5 see also organized crime
transition economies, and Bretton Woods institutions 234, 238
transnational corporations 268
and state autonomy 621
and world affairs 708
(p. 801) transparency:
and Security Council 128
and United Nations 83–4
treaties:
and increase in 14
and international law 63–6
and legal positivism 59
and negotiation forums 65–6
and nongovernmental organizations 706
Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) 295
Tribune (NGO) 499
Troop Contributing Nations (TCNs) 128, 222, 333 see also troop‐contributing countries
Truman Proclamation (1945) 599
trust, and concept of 150
trusteeship 150
and failed states 155
and Peacebuilding Commission 157
and revival of idea 155–6
Trusteeship Council of the United Nations:
and abolition of 156–7
and concept of ‘trust’ 150
and dormancy of 156
and Economic and Social Council 138
and functions of 149
and General Assembly 98–9, 104–5
and League of Nations Mandate System 150–1
administration 152
duration of 151–2
and reform proposals 156, 668–9
and Security Council 118–19
and self‐determination 154
and South West Africa/Namibia controversy 153–4
and suspension of 149, 155
and Trusteeship System 149, 151
administration of territories 153
legal status 152
objectives of 152
territories covered 151 see also trusteeship
Trusteeship System, see Trusteeship Council
tuberculosis, and World Health Organization 584
Turkey:
and financial crisis 238
and International Court of Justice 195
Uganda 393, 400
and Lord's Resistance Army 467
Ukraine 272
Unified Task Force (UNITAF) 226, 374
unilateralism, and United States 9
Union of International Associations 6
United Kingdom:
and Afghanistan 380
and Bretton Woods conference 235
and financing of United Nations 679, 683, 684, 685, 694–6
and former Yugoslavia 375
and human rights 441, 443–4, 528
and International Court of Justice 196, 208 n17
and International Criminal Court 130
and Iran's nationalization of oil companies 595
and Iraq:
military intervention 396
sanctions 364
and Rwanda 375
and sanctions 364–5
and Security Council 661
and Sierra Leone 376, 415
and Sudan 377
United Nations Advisory Committee on Local Authorities 707
United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG) 119
United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) 375
United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) 226
United Nations Association of the United States of America 90, 141–2
United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) 289
United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS, Habitat) 563, 566, 634
United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations 65
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 260, 268, 479, 481, 503, 512, 548, 563, 634
and control of infectious diseases 586–7
and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 648
and origins and work of 517
United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice 612
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) 63
United Nations Commission on Transnational Corporations 268
United Nations Communications Group 570
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) 258, 259, 264, 270, 502, 515, 552, 566, 593, 601, 707
United Nations Conference on Human Rights (Teheran, 1968) 503
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) 566, 593, 600
(p. 802) United Nations Conference on International Organization (San Francisco, 1945) 11, 562
and amendment process 654
and disagreements at 654
and Economic and Social Council 139, 664, 665
and General Assembly 656
and historical roots of 702–3
and human rights 441–2, 527
and international bill of human rights 442
and international disputes 302
and open deliberations 83
and proposed review conference 654
and Secretariat 161
and women 496
United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 598, 599
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 65, 88, 105, 139, 562, 596
and commodity policy 598
and New International Economic Order 52
and transnational corporations 268
United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice 427
United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (1975) 612
United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 612, 614
United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime 505, 514
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 600
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) 706
United Nations Crime Commission 505
United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child 511
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 572
United Nations Development Decade 108
United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) 500, 518, 634
United Nations Development Group 576, 577
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 266, 479, 548, 562
and business 269–70
and children 517–18
and democratic governance 626
and field coordination 572
assessment of 577
and Global Compact 271
and governance 10
and Human Development Reports 12, 142, 634–5, 639–42
and human security 551, 552–3
and humanitarian action 483
and Millennium Development Goals 643
and monitoring and evaluation 647
and natural resource management 605
and nongovernmental organizations 260
and World Health Organization 587
and establishment of 482
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 68, 281, 455, 498, 517, 519, 563, 634
and American withdrawal from 688
United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) 120, 325
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 712
and human security 554
and World Health Organization 586
United Nations Focal Point for Electoral Assistance Activities 626
United Nations Foundation 89
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 258, 601–2
United Nations Girls' Education Initiative 519
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights 452–3, 455
and children 517
and gender integration 504
and human rights violations 543
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 155, 260, 479, 481, 482, 548, 562–3
and children 517
and Department of Humanitarian Affairs 489
and humanitarian action 485
and Persian Gulf crisis (1991) 485
United Nations Implementation Force (IFOR) 123, 226, 333
United Nations Independent Commission of Inquiry (UNICOI) 362
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 563, 598
United Nations Information Centre (UNIC) 278
United Nations Information Organization (UNIO) 276–7
United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) 89
United Nations Intellectual History Project (UNIHP) 635
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) 226, 471
United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) 563, 694
United Nations Legal Office, and peaceful settlement of disputes (p. 803)
and inquiry/fact‐finding 305
and mediation/good offices 305
and negotiation 304
United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 120
United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) 226
United Nations Mission in Kosovo 380
United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 376
United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) 377
United Nations News Centre 277
United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) 226
United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) 629–30
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 427, 612
United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) 123, 226, 374
United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC) 333
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) 503, 634, 696
United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) 185, 226, 333, 374–5
United Nations Radio 278
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) 481, 548
United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) 548, 563, 694
United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) 288, 297
United Nations Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations 378
United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) 376
United Nations Staff Council 169
United Nations Statistical Office 647, 679
United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) 154, 629
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) 226, 377, 471
United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 627, 629
United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slovenia (UNTAES) 333, 629
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) 120
United Nations TV 278
United Nations University (UNU) 89, 696
United Nations Volunteers Programme (UNV) 630
United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) 563
United Somali Congress 374
United States:
and Afghanistan 410–11
and blocks Boutros‐Ghali's reappointment 184–5
and Bosnia and Herzegovina 240
and Bretton Woods conference 235
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 295
and Convention on the Rights of the Child 513
and democracy 622–3
and development assistance 696
and disarmament 290–1
and financing of United Nations 676, 679, 681, 683, 684, 685, 687, 688–90, 693, 696, 713
and former Yugoslavia 375, 379
and General Assembly 107, 109
and Gulf War (1991) 123
and Haiti 376
and human rights 441, 444, 459, 528
and humanitarian intervention:
opposition to 397
responsibility to protect 398
and International Court of Justice 196
and International Criminal Court 130, 454, 473, 475–6
and international criminal tribunals 129
and International Development Association 248
and International Monetary Fund:
capital subscriptions to 246
influence on 243–5
quota increase debates 247
and landmine convention 296
and Marshall Plan 236
and military expenditure 9
and military intervention 393, 394
Iraq 45, 396
Kosovo 396
and National Security Strategy (2002) 410
and natural resource management 595
and Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty 292–3
and peace enforcement 382, 383
and peacebuilding 410–11
Afghanistan 410–11
Iraq 411, 416
and pre‐eminence of 9
and Rwanda 375
and sanctions:
decision‐making procedures 364–5
Iraq 351, 352, 364
and Security Council 132, 660, 661, 663
and Somalia 374
and Sudan 377
and terrorism 410
and unilateralism 9
(p. 804) United States (cont.)
and United Nations 132
debates over 110–11
foreign policy debates over 110–11
realist view of 44
and World Bank:
capital subscriptions to 248
influence on 243–5, 248
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) 244
United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 260
United States Federal Reserve 237
Uniting for Peace (1950) 104, 118, 309, 372
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 12, 67, 443, 444, 446, 447, 453, 459, 465, 496, 512, 542
Universal Postal Union (UPU) 563, 703
University for Peace 89
Uruguay 595
values, and role of United Nations 47–8
Vanuatu 8
Venezuela 8
Versailles conference (1919) 541
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) 306
Vietnam, and military intervention 393, 394, 395, 400
Vietnam War 120
violence against women (VAW) 501, 504, 505
Voice of America 276
voting blocs, and United Nations 53
war:
and deaths from 11
civilians