Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses the Bretton Woods Institutions, which are often described as the ‘sister institutions’ of the United Nations. It explains how the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) generated heated debate and criticism, most especially over the past twenty years. It shows what the institutions do and determines why they have become controversial. The article also identifies the two key factors that limit the effectiveness of the institutions.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.