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date: 30 March 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This article discusses the Bretton Woods Institutions, which are often described as the ‘sister institutions’ of the United Nations. It explains how the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) generated heated debate and criticism, most especially over the past twenty years. It shows what the institutions do and determines why they have become controversial. The article also identifies the two key factors that limit the effectiveness of the institutions.

Keywords: Bretton Woods Institutions, sister institutions, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, debate, criticism, controversy, effectiveness, key factors

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