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date: 22 September 2020

(p. xv) About the Contributors

(p. xv) About the Contributors

Heather D. Baker participated in numerous excavations in Britain, Cyprus, Jordan, Turkey, and (especially) Iraq after graduating in archaeology from Cambridge. At Oxford she gained an MPhil in cuneiform studies and a DPhil in Assyriology. She has subsequently worked as a researcher for projects based at the universities of Helsinki (1999–2002) and Vienna (2003–08) where she is currently leading a research project, ‘Royal Institutional Households in First-Millennium bc Mesopotamia’. Baker's research interests are in the social and economic history and material culture of Babylonia and Assyria. Publications include The Archive of the Nappahu Family (2004), The Urban Landscape in First Millennium bc Babylonia (forthcoming), and (as editor) The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Part 2/I (2000), Part 2/II (2001), Part 3/I (2002) and Approaching the Babylonian Economy (2005, with Michael Jursa).

Barbara Böck (PhD Freie Universität Berlin 1996, Habilitation Freie Universität Berlin 2002) is a Tenured Researcher at the Spanish Council of Scientific Research (CSIC) in Madrid. Her main field of research is the scholarly tradition of the first millennium bc, with a special focus on the medical knowledge of ancient Mesopotamia; she is currently working on medicinal plants. Other research interests are systems of religious and magical belief. Publications include the study and principal text edition of sources for the divinatory practice of physiognomy (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie, 2000) and incantations used in magical and medical therapies (Das Handbuch Muššu'u ‘Einreibung’, 2007).

Nicole Brisch (PhD University of Michigan 2003) is a University Lecturer in Assyriology at the University of Cambridge. Her research interests include Mesopotamian literature, the socio-economic history of the Ur III period, and Mesopotamian religion. She is the author of Tradition and the Poetics of Innovation: Sumerian Court Literature of the Larsa Dynasty (c. 2003–1763 bce) (2007) and the editor of Religion and Power: Divine Kingship in the Ancient World and Beyond (2008). Her current research concerns sacrifices to divine and royal statues in the Old Babylonian period.

Hagan Brunke studied physics (Diploma 1993, Technische Universität Munich) and Mathematics (PhD 1998, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich) as well as Assyriology with Egyptology as minor (PhD 2008, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich). At present he is working as a researcher at the Institut für Altorientalistik of (p. xvi) the Freie Universität Berlin and at the Institut für Mathematik of the Humboldt-Universität Berlin. He is particularly interested in Sumerian economy and in Mesopotamian mathematics.

Grégory Chambon is Maître de Conférences at Université de Bretagne Occidentale at Brest. His main research interests belong to the history of science and technology of the ancient Near East, with recent work focusing on the use of measures and numbers in their social context, and on the continuities and discontinuities in metrological and scribal practice in third and second millennium bc Syria. The author of a book on wine in Old Babylonian Mari (Les archives du vin à Mari, 2009), he is currently preparing the publication of his PhD thesis (Normes et pratiques: l'homme, la mesure et l'écriture en Mésopotamie) and an edition of texts from Mari documenting trade practices.

Dominique Charpin is Professor of Mesopotamian History at the École Pratique des Hautes Études (Sorbonne, Paris) and editor of the Revue d'Assyriologie. As the field epigrapher at Larsa (Iraq) and Mari (Syria), he has published numerous Old Babylonian texts from these sites and elsewhere. He has written extensively on this period's political, economic, social, and cultural history. Among his most recent publications are Writing, Law and Kingship in Old Babylonian Mesopotamia (2010), a collection of some of his most influential French articles, and the monograph Reading and Writing in Babylon (2010), a translation of his Lire et écrire à Babylone (2008). He directs the ARCHIBAB project (, which is devoted to the online publication of Old Babylonian archival texts.

Philippe Clancier is Maître de Conférences at Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. The author of a book on Late Babylonian libraries (Les bibliothèques en Babylonie dans la deuxième moitié du Ier millénaire av. J.-C., 2009) and a contributor to the online Corpus of Ancient Mesopotamian Scholarship (, his main research focuses on Hellenistic Babylonia, especially the sources from Babylon, Uruk, and Borsippa. He also works on the Middle Euphrates region during the first millennium bc and is in charge of the publication of the Middle Assyrian tablets from Khirbet ed-Diniyeh.

Yoram Cohen is Senior Lecturer of Assyriology at the Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Cultures, Tel Aviv University. He is the author of The Scribes and Scholars of the City of Emar in the Late Bronze Age (2009) and, with Lorenzo d'Alfonso and Dietrich Sürenhagen, the editor of The City of Emar among the Late Bronze Age Empires: History, Landscape, and Society (2008).

Geert De Breucker studied classics and ancient Near Eastern studies at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, and wrote his PhD thesis at the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen on the Babyloniaca of Berossos and its cultural setting. His main research interests are in Babylonia in the (p. xvii) Hellenistic period and the cultural interactions between the Greek world and Mesopotamia.

Sophie Démare-Lafont is Professor of the History of Law at Université Panthéon-Assas and at the École Pratique des Hautes Études in Paris. Her main research interests belong to legal documentation from Mesopotamia and the comparison between this and biblical sources. The editor of a volume exploring the political and legal implications of oath-taking (Jurer et maudire: pratiques politiques et usages juridiques du serment dans le Proche-Orient ancien, 1996) and author of a study on women and criminal law (Femmes, droit et justice dans l'antiquité orientale: contribution à l'étude du droit pénal au Proche-Orient ancien, 1999, based on her 1990 dissertation at the Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Paris-II), she recently edited a book, with A. Lemaire, tracing legal formulae in documents recorded in various Semitic languages (Trois millénaires de formulaires juridiques, 2010).

Robert K. Englund is Professor of Assyriology and Sumerology at the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures of the University of California, Los Angeles. He has conducted his major research on the proto-cuneiform texts from late fourth-millennium bc Mesopotamia as well as on administrative texts from the Ur III period, and, as principal investigator of the project Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative (, Los Angeles and Berlin, on the electronic documentation and edition of cuneiform generally. For his work on open access initiatives and the use of information technology in cuneiform studies, he was honoured by the National Humanities Center with the 2004 Richard W. Lyman Award.

Benjamin R. Foster is Laffan Professor of Assyriology and Babylonian Literature and Curator of the Babylonian Collection at Yale University. He is author of nine books, including three studies of the social and economic history of early Mesopotamia (Umma in the Sargonic Period, 1982), four studies of Akkadian literature (Before the Muses, 1993, 1996, 2005; From Distant Days, 1995; The Epic of Gilgamesh, 2001; Akkadian Literature of the Late Period, 2007), two historical surveys (Iraq Beyond the Headlines: History, Archaeology, and War, 2005; Civilizations of Ancient Iraq, 2009), and numerous studies and essays.

Eckart Frahm (PhD Göttingen 1996, Habilitation Heidelberg 2007) is Professor of Assyriology at Yale University. Primarily interested in the history and culture of Mesopotamia in the first millennium bc, he is the author of a book on the inscriptions of the Assyrian king Sennacherib (Einleitung in die Sanherib-Inschriften, 1997) and an edition of Assyrian historical and historical–literary texts from Assur (Historische und historisch-literarische Texte, 2009). His study of Babylonian and Assyrian text commentaries and the beginnings of ancient hermeneutics, and his edition (authored with Michael Jursa) of two hundred Late Babylonian letters from ancient Uruk now in the Yale Babylonian Collection are forthcoming.

(p. xviii) Andreas Fuchs is Professor of Ancient Near Eastern Studies at the Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen. His research focuses on the history, historiography, and historical geography of the ancient Near East in the Neo-Assyrian period. He has edited royal inscriptions of Sargon II and Assurbanipal and published several books and articles on Assyria's political and military history.

Fabienne Huber Vulliet is preparing her PhD thesis on cultic personnel during the Ur III period at the University of Geneva. She is a researcher on the ‘Sumerisches Glossar’ project at the Institute of Assyriology and Hittitology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich.

Michael Jursa is Professor of Assyriology at the University of Vienna. He currently directs a research project on Babylonian epistolography in the first millennium bc. His books include Aspects of the Economic History of Babylonia in the First Millennium bc (2010) and Letters and Documents from the Eanna Archive (2011).

Sivan Kedar is a PhD student at the School of Jewish Studies, University of Tel Aviv, researching craftsmen in the Neo-Assyrian Empire. She teaches Akkadian at several Israeli universities and participates in the online project Cuneiform Texts Mentioning Israelites, Judeans, and Related Population Groups (

Ulla Susanne Koch holds an MA and a PhD from the University of Copenhagen, where she acts as external examiner in Ancient Near Eastern Studies. She is also a special advisor of the Defence Command Denmark. Her main interests are Mesopotamian divination, religion, and literature. She is the author of Mesopotamian Astrology: A Survey of Babylonian and Assyrian Celestial Divination (1995), two volumes of editions of extispicy texts from the library of Assurbanipal, and a forthcoming study of Mesopotamian divination texts from the first millennium bc.

Frans van Koppen teaches at Birkbeck College, University of London. His research focuses on the Old Babylonian period, specifically its social and political history.

Brigitte Lion is Professor of Ancient Near Eastern History at the University of Tours. Much of her research concerns the cuneiform texts of the second millennium bc, especially from Nuzi; she has published, with Diana Stein, a monograph on a family archive from this site (The Pula-Hali Family Archives, 2001) and her work on Nuzi continues. Her research also focuses on gender issues, and she is the author of several articles on the relationship between women and literacy.

Anne Löhnert is a lecturer at the Institute of Assyriology and Hittitology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich. The author of a book on lamentations in the Old Babylonian period (‘Wie die Sonne tritt heraus!’ Eine Klage zum Auszug Enlils mit einer Untersuchung zu Komposition und Tradition sumerischer Klagelieder in altbabylonischer Zeit, 2010), her research so far has focused on Sumerian literature (especially cultic texts) as well as the transmission of literary works in the second and (p. xix) first millennia bc. More recently her research interests have started to focus on to the administrative archives of Nuzi.

Karen Radner (PhD Vienna 1997, Habilitation Munich 2004) is Reader in Ancient Near Eastern History in the History Department at University College London. Her main research interests are in Assyria, especially the period from the 9th to the 7th centuries bc, on whose political, social, economic, legal, and religious history she has published extensively. Her books include editions of Middle and Neo-Assyrian archives and a study on how the awareness of man's mortality shaped Mesopotamian culture (Die Macht des Namens: altorientalische Strategien zur Selbsterhaltung, 2005). She directs an AHRC-funded research project on the correspondence between the Assyrian kings and their magnates in the 8th century bc (

Eleanor Robson is Reader in Ancient Middle Eastern Science in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge. Her research focuses on the socio-political contexts of intellectual activity in ancient Mesopotamia and the online edition of cuneiform texts. She is the author of Mathematics in Ancient Iraq: A Social History (2008) and director of the AHRC-funded research project, The Geography of Knowledge in Assyria and Babylonia, 700–200 bc (

Francesca Rochberg is Catherine and William L. Magistretti Professor of Near Eastern Studies in the Department of Near Eastern Studies, the Office for the History of Science and Technology, and the Graduate Group in Ancient History and Mediterranean Archaeology at the University of California, Berkeley. She has edited cuneiform astrological and astronomical texts and written on the cultural history of the astral sciences in ancient Mesopotamia and the ancient Mediterranean worlds. She is series co-editor with Alan C. Bowen of Interpretatio: Sources and Studies in the History and Philosophy of Classical Science.

Daniel Schwemer (PhD Würzburg 2000, Habilitation Würzburg 2005) is Reader in Ancient Near Eastern Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. His main research interests are the religion, magic, and literature of ancient Mesopotamia and Anatolia; publications include Die Wettergottgestalten Mesopotamiens und Nordsyriens im Zeitalter der Keilschriftkulturen (2001), Rituale und Beschwörungen gegen Schadenzauber (2007), and Abwehrzauber und Behexung: Studien zum Schadenzauberglauben im alten Mesopotamien (2007).

John M. Steele is Associate Professor of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies at Brown University. His research focuses on the history of early astronomy, with particular reference to Babylonia. He is the author or editor of five books, including recently A Brief Introduction to Astronomy in the Middle East (2008), Calendars and Years: Astronomy and Time in the Ancient Near East (2007), and Calendars and Years, 2: Astronomy and Time in the Ancient and Medieval World (2011), and many articles on ancient astronomy.

(p. xx) Michel Tanret is Full Professor of Assyriology and Ancient Near Eastern History at Ghent University and coordinates the research cooperation between the Belgian university departments teaching ancient Near Eastern studies. His principal field of interest is the Old Babylonian period and its social and economic history. Recent books focus on scribal education (Per aspera ad astra: l'apprentissage du cunéiforme à Sippar-Amnanum pendant la période paléobabylonienne tardive, 2002) and on the seals of priests (The Seal of the Sanga: On the Old Babylonian sangas of Šamaš of Sippar-Jahrurum and Sippar-Amnanum, 2010). He is currently preparing an edition of the archive of Inana-mansum and Ur-Utu from Sippar-Amnanum.

Jonathan Taylor is Curator of Cuneiform Collections in the Department of the Middle East at the British Museum. His research interests include literacy and education in the ancient Near East, as well as the non-textual features of clay documents. Currently he is investigating attitudes towards, and uses of, the past in the ancient Near East itself.

Steve Tinney is Clark Research Associate Professor of Assyriology at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Associate Curator-in-Charge of the Penn Museum's Babylonian Section, and Director of the Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary Project. He is active in a range of online projects and is the author of The Nippur Lament: Royal Rhetoric and Divine Legitimation in the Reign of Išme-Dagan of Isin (1953–1935 bc), 1996. His principal research interests are Sumerian language and literature and the emergence of the scholarly tradition.

Niek Veldhuis (PhD Groningen 1997) is Associate Professor of Assyriology at the University of California at Berkeley and Director of the Digital Corpus of Cuneiform Lexical Texts ( His main research interests focus on the history of education in Mesopotamia in its relationship with intellectual history and the uses of writing. He is currently working on a history of the lexical tradition from the late fourth millennium bc to the demise of cuneiform around the beginning of the common era.

Eva Von Dassow teaches the history and languages of the ancient Near East at the University of Minnesota. She is the author of State and Society in the Late Bronze Age: Alalaḫ under the Mittani Empire (2008), co-author of Cuneiform Texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. 3 (2000), and editor of The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day (1994; 2nd rev. edn 1998). Her recent research examines the conceptualization of citizenship and the constitution of publics in ancient Near Eastern polities, written records as artefacts of cultural practice and temporal process, and the nature of writing as an interface between reader and reality. Among her current projects is a study of the Hurrian Song of Liberation, exploring the political dimensions both of the poem's composition and of its later textualization in a bilingual Hurro-Hittite edition.

(p. xxi) Caroline Waerzeggers is Lecturer in Ancient Near Eastern History in the History Department of University College London. Her research focuses on the social and economic history of first-millennium bc Mesopotamia, and on the archival material from Neo-Babylonian and early Achaemenid Sippar and Borsippa in particular. She is the author of The Ezida Temple of Borsippa: Priesthood, Cult, Archives (2010) and directs an ERC-funded research project investigating new perspectives on Second Temple Judaism from cuneiform texts.

Mark Weeden concentrates his research on the written cultures of northern Syria and Anatolia. He is a British Academy post-doctoral research fellow at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London, with a research project on the Akkadian of Alalakh. His PhD thesis was completed at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, a revised version of which will be published under the title Hittite Logograms and Hittite Scholarship in 2011. He is jointly responsible (with D. Yoshida) for the publication of hieroglyphic-inscribed artefacts from the Japanese excavations at Kaman-Kalehöyük, Yassihöyük, and Büklükale, as well as being an epigrapher for the Turkish excavation at Ova Ören, all in central Anatolia.

F. A. M. Wiggermann (PhD Free University of Amsterdam 1986) is retired, but as epigrapher is still involved in the Dutch excavations at Tell Sabi Abyad in Syria. His present interests include the administration of the Assyrian state in the Late Bronze Age, religious iconography, and first-millennium library texts, subjects on which he has been publishing all his life.

Silvie Zamazalová studied ancient history and Egyptology at University College London, where she is now pursuing her PhD, researching geographical concepts in the Neo-Assyrian empire at the end of the 8th century bc.

Nele Ziegler has been a researcher at the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (UMR 7192, Paris, from 1999) and a member of the team of epigraphers working on the palace archives of Mari. Her editorial work on these texts is part of her wider interest in the history of the Old Babylonian period. The author of books on Mari's female palace inhabitants (La population féminine des palais d'après les archives royales de Mari, 1999) and on the musicians of Mari (Les musiciens et la musique d'après les archives de Mari, 2007), she collaborated with Dominique Charpin on a study of the political history and chronology emerging from the Mari sources (Mari et le Proche-Orient à l'époque amorrite: essai d'histoire politique, 2003). Her current research focuses on the archives from the time of Samsi-Addu and on the historical geography of northern Mesopotamia (with Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum, she has recently published an edited volume, Entre les fleuves: Untersuchungen zur historischen Geographie Obermesopotamiens im 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr., 2009). She teaches at the École du Louvre and at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, both in Paris.