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date: 20 June 2019

(p. 774) (p. 775) Index

(p. 774) (p. 775) Index

Aba'indasa491, 499, 500
Abi-ešuh of Babylon (r. 1711–1684)157
Abnu Šikinšu695
Absummu191, 742
Abu(m) (Month V)680
Abu Habbah, see Sippar-Yahrurum
Abu Qubur540
Abu Salabikh11, 18
Abydenus642
accounting
in Ebla60–4
in Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr texts19, 38–46
mentality and technique16, 194–6
in temples193–8
and time38–41, 471–3
Achaemenid period184–201, 474, 478, 514–15, 540, 546, 558, 565–9, 630, 639: see also Persian empire
acrobatic dancers301–2, 302
Adab35
Adad/Iškur410, 671, 675, 680–2
and extispicy315, 454–5, 461–2, 465, 569
wordplay on name486–7see also Enmeduranki; storm god of Aleppo
Adad-apla-iddina of Isin/Babylon (r. 1068–1047)513, 522
Adad-nerari II of Assyria (r. 911–891)391
Adad-nerari III of Assyria (r. 810–783)95
Adad-šumu-uṣur358, 479, 560
Adapa/Uanna315, 323, 510, 525, 671, 734–5: see also Oannes
Adapa, Story of590
Adarakalamma of the Sealand (r. 15th century)512
Addaru(m) (Month XII)460, 475–7, 478, 629
Addu–duri102, 296
Adia521–2
administrative documents
and envelopes19–20
as school exercises41, 85
in temples193–5, 763
Ur III16, 22, 72, 167–81, 413, 707–9
on writing boards195–6, 763–4see also accounting; archives
adoption237, 273, 300, 337, 360
Adramelos643
advice358–76
Advice to a Prince320, 361, 525
age124, 126, 240–1
agriculture665–8
and cosmology668–73
and cultic calendar679–82
and kingship663, 676, 680
and mythology142–3, 676–70
and society668, 676see also animal husbandry; arable farming
Ahiqar520
Ah'utu family565, 757, 759, 760, 766
Akbanu383
Akhetaten, see Amarna
Akkad409–10, 449, 666, 741
Akkadian language128
forms in astrological reports627
and royal hymns715
Šulgi's maternal tongue128
Akkullanu366, 513
Akšaya family148
Alalakh216, 296
Alamdimmû522
Ale383
Aleppo152, 219, 248, 257–60, 262, 295–6
Alexander Polyhistor642
(p. 776) Alexander the Great of Babylon (r. 330–323)637, 752
welcome in Babylon757, 758
Almagest (Mathematical Treatise, Ptolemy)619, 629
Alp Arslan526
Alulim/Aloros (antediluvian)645
Amageština410
Amar-Suen A716–17, 720
Amar-Suen of Ur (r. 2046–2038)173, 498, 716–17
Amarna, 7, 17, 233, 613
Ammi-ditana of Babylon (r. 1683–1647)159, 271, 347
and intercalation475
Ammi-ṣaduqa of Babylon (r. 1646–1626)140–62, 270–86, 405
Ammu-salam477
Amorite language511
Amorites128, 343, 347, 667, 676: see also Martu; nomads
Amud-pi-El of Qaṭna (r. 18th century)261
amulets420, 422, 427, 428, 431, 465, 521
Amurru218, 449
Ana Ittišu342
Anam of Uruk (r. c. 1800)210
Anatolia52, 71, 210, 218, 341, 366–9, 597–614, 672
ancestor worship, see memorial rites for the dead
Anchiale646
animal husbandry666–8
by temples185, 187, 195–6, 757, 761
animals46, 668
in deserted cities412–13
man defined against118–19, 671
medical substances from695–7
and mythology672, 675–6
noxious682
omens from behaviour255, 452, 465, 630
Annunitu(m)156, 270–86, 410, 545, 560
Anšan210
antediluvian era125, 644–5, 649–50, 517
inscribed stones315, 514see also apkallu-sages; Enmeduranki
Antiochis (f.)760
Antiochos I of Babylon (r. 281–261)515, 546, 637, 652, 759, 761
Antiochos II of Babylon (r. 260–246)759
Antiochos III of Babylon (r. 241–187)651, 759, 760, 761
Antiochos VII of Babylon (r. 139–129)752
Anu(m)454, 525, 561, 755
Anu-belšunu408, 565, 757, 765–6: see also Sin-leqe-unninni family
Anu-ikṣur423, 566, 568, 571, 739: see also Šangu-Ninurta family
Anu-uballiṭ Kephalon652, 759–60, 766: see also Reš
Anu-uballiṭ Nikarchos565, 759–60
Anuna (Anunnakku)411, 430, 670
Anzu679: see also Epic of Anzu
Apil-Sin of Babylon (r. 1830–1813)353
apkallu-sagesxxxi, 320, 323, 428, 517, 517, 591, 644, 652, 734–5: see also Adapa
apprentice scribe, terms for146, 605, 709: see also scribal education
apprenticeship83, 85, 129, 238–43, 565
Apsu155, 323, 734
Aqba-Hammu of Karana (r. c. 1760)265
Arabic173, 769
arable farming
field pests and agricultural rites682
by the palace262
by priests200, 275
by state dignitaries148, 264, 292
by temples185–7, 275, 757see also agriculture
Arad-Ea family92
Arahsamnu(m) (Month VIII)481, 680
Aramaeans289, 389, 393
Aramaic literature646: see also Ahiqar
arbitration343–4, 347–8, 353
archaic ductus, see palaeographic writing
archery317, 394–5
architecture533–48
archives
‘dead’193
household104, 170–1, 250–1
life cycle22–23
reconstruction141–2, 190
temple184–90, 193–8, 558, 607, 640, 725–47see also libraries
Arda-Mullissu643
Ardat-lili436, 571
Aristobulos646
armour382, 385, 393–4
army386–8: see also military service
Arraphe213, 216
Arrian646
Asalluhi156, 354, 424, 425–6
Asarre671
Ašgi489
Ašlakka214–15
Ašnan (Ezina)669, 678, 680, 683
Asqudum248–65, 518
Asqur-Addu of Karana (r. 18th century)265
Ašratu560
assembly217; 340: see also elders; local administration; Esangila
Assur (city)52, 94, 371, 414, 421, 559, 665, 674, 696
palace library523
Aššur (god)314, 326, 358, 365, 371, 381, 410, 514, 665, 683, 732–3
Aššur-bel-kala of Assyria (r. 1073–1056)122
Aššur-etel-ilani of Assyria (r. c. 630–627)375
Aššur-etel-ilani-mukinni324
Aššur-mukin-paleya324
Assurbanipal of Assyria (r. 668–c. 630)313
absence from the battlefield372
autobiographical inscription L4:314–18, 315, 320–3
coronation hymn328
as editor522–3, 692–3
education and literacy101, 314–23, 514
eponyms298, 361
family324
Garden Party relief325, 326
royal grants374
letter from Bel-ibni383
lion hunts325–7, 327
and Mullissu125
and his scholars362, 366, 472, 479, 513, 518–19, 627
Prism F317, 321
Rassam Prism320–1, 323, 326
Assurnasirpal II of Assyria (r. 883–859)95, 121–2, 130, 381, 391, 702: see also Northwest Palace, Kalhu
Assyrian Coronation Ritual732–3
Assyrian Eponym List361
Astrolabe B679, 680, 681–2
astrologers/astronomers198–200, 317, 358–76, 447–66, 478, 565, 619, 630, 640, 643, 757, 761: see also Balasi
astrological reports449, 629–9
astronomical almanacs470, 481–2
Astronomical Diaries472, 480–2, 554, 568, 618–9, 621–2, 627, 629–33, 641, 651, 763
and Babylonian Chronicles629–30
and Enūma Anu Enlil631
astronomy59, 198–200, 470–83, 618–34
Graeco-Roman619, 623
Athenaeus642, 647
Athens643, 650
Atram-hasis113–14, 140–62, 212, 570, 572, 588, 591
atrocities of war396–9
augurs366–8
authorship, see literature
autocracy205–22
Avaris613
Aya99, 198, 284, 462, 545
Ayyaru(m) (Month II)681, 765
Axial Age197, 526
Ba'al-malik236
Bab Nahlim292
(p. 778) Babylonxxxi, 389, 513, 533, 640
astronomical observation at199, 622, 630
city districts536, 542–3
and Eridu644
Greek theatre540, 640
Hanging Gardens646–7, 702
in the Hellenistic period637–52, 768–9
House of Succession320
houses538–42
liberation from labour service209
libraries198–99: see also Mušezib family; Nabu-ša-hare
and Nippur547, 669
in the Old Babylonian period148, 161, 272, 274, 284
street shrines545–6
temple of Ištar-of-Akkad539
Babyloniaca637–52
Babylonian Astronomical Diaries, see Astronomical Diaries
Babylonian Chronicles629–30, 641, 763, 770: see also Astronomical Diaries
Babylonian Theodicy96, 119, 522
Bactria630
Balasi313–28, 449–60, 477, 519, 628
Balawat Gates397
banquets, see meals and banquets
battering rams251, 261, 396, 397
battle, see warfare
Bau104
beads, inscribed94, 95
beard94, 321, 490
Bedouins261
Bel323, 365, 477, 649, 737–40: see also Marduk
Bel-Harran-belu-uṣur360
Bel-šalti-Nanna, Palace of540
Bel-ušezib368, 372–4, 384–5
Belet-ekallim301
Belet-ili313–4
Belet-ša-Reš766
Belet-ṣeri91–2, 672, 766
Belos637, 643, 648, 650
Berossos226, 554, 637–52, 671
biblical references642–4, 649, 526
Daniel520
Deuteronomy519
Genesis639, 644
2 Kings643
bilingualism553
Sumerian–Akkadian12, 68–86, 128, 306, 317, 422, 500, 503, 520, 577–94, 715
Hurrian–Hittite210, 219
birds18, 196, 644, 668, 677, 695
lists of75, 85, 277–8
birth, see childbirth
birth defects431, 452, 624: see also Šumma Izbu
Bisutun515
Bit-Dakkuri513
Bīt Mēseri421, 567, 571
Bīt Rimki421, 566–7, 571
body117–33
Boğazköy, see Hattusa
Borsippa189, 191–2, 238, 374, 523–4, 627, 725–47
Ezida temple515, 546, 727, 729–30, 738, 739, 743–4, 746, 761
bowls, inscribed94
bread118, 153, 167–81, 669, 670–2, 676
bricks, inscribed24, 94, 727
building inscriptions94, 546, 569, 758–9: see also royal inscriptions
built environment533–48
Bunene462, 545
Bur-Sin of Isin (r. 1895–1874)499
bureaucracy196–8: see also accounting
Byblos218
calendars38, 44, 443–4, 452–3, 470–83
agriculture and679–82
Egyptian619see also festivals; hemerologies
Cambyses II of Persia (r. 529–522)241
Canaan7, 218, 233
canonicity557–73
Carchemish232, 303, 613
Carians639
carrier substances690–703
castration300, 363: see also eunuchs
Catalogue of Texts and Authors96, 517, 590
cattle258, 338, 667–8, 677, 700, 695–6, 272
plough-oxen262, 282, 342, 668, 675, 680–1
of temples196, 757, 761
cavalry380–99
Chagar Bazar99
Chaldea739
Chaldaeans
Greek term for astrologers637–8, 645, 650, 758, 761
Greek term for notables of Uruk757–8, 767, 769
kingdoms389: see also Bit-Dakkuri
Neo-Babylonian dynasty514
Characene761
chariots216, 316–17, 382, 393–5, 458, 489, 553, 675, 713
chief cupbearer359
chief lamenter293, 299–301: see also Ur–Utu
chief musician257, 284, 290: see also Ibbi–Ilabrat; Rišiya
chief scribe364, 519, 521–2, 560: see also royal tutor
childbirth124, 143, 421, 431, 698–9: see also Lamaštu
childhood46, 124–5, 237–41, 306, 323–5, 630
Chronicle of Early Kings739
Chronicle of Seleucus III763
chronicles, see Babylonian Chronicles
Cicero (Marcus Tullius Cicero)455–6
Cilicia646
Cimmerians384
cities32–3, 114–15, 119–20, 132
urban landscape533–48see also citizenship; local administration
citizenship119, 205–22, 757
city laments404–5, 411–12, 583, 714, 719
class46–9, 205–22
clay objects, inscribed
barrels10, 15, 18, 24–5
bullae33–4, 34, 35, 610–11, 639
cylinders7, 24–5
cones24–5, 95, 717, 728, 729
nails24–5
prisms7, 10, 15, 25–6, 500, 580, 606
clay tablets5–27, 9–10, 577–94, 606, 762
re-use and recycling21–3, 275–6, 589
clothes118, 125, 127, 170, 274, 519, 642, 663
lists of277
mythical origins669–72
payment of241–2, 259, 296, 558
trade in102see also textile production
coded names, see names
Codex Hammurabi, see Laws of Hammurabi
colophons16–18, 80–1, 237, 406–8, 422, 490, 559, 563, 764
Assur513, 521
Babylon191, 198–9, 560, 563–4, 762
Emar81, 231, 234–7, 601
Hattusa603, 605–6, 611–12
Huzirina559–60, 564, 769
Old Babylonian100, 145–7, 406, 408
commentaries82, 449, 453, 458, 461, 514, 558, 567–8, 571, 629, 692
community117–33, 167–81, 533–48
contracts, see legal documents
cooking167–81
coronation, see kings
Corpus of Ancient Mesopotamian Scholarship755
correspondence358–76, 486–505
cosmogony668–72
counsel358–76
counting32–65: see also mathematics
court trials343, 345–53, 742, 766–7
magical defences431
material evidence348–50
supra-rational evidence350–2see also judges; justice; oaths; ordeal; witnesses
craftsmen130, 187
House of the (Hattusa)605–6
in Laws of Hammurabi237–8
master-craftsmen516, 709
shield manufacture316
skills taught by Oannes671
in temple households185, 186, 195see also apprenticeship
creation stories118–19
creation of humankind142–4, 313, 649see also cosmogony
crime and punishment335–54
divine sanction429
murder120, 209, 338, 348
theft209, 218, 274, 337, 338
theft of tablets591
Crimes and Sacrileges of Nabu-šuma-iškun, The739–40
crown prince226, 241, 313–28, 364, 370, 373, 392, 733
Ctesias of Cnidus646, 648
cult image409–10, 420, 735–5, 736, 737
abduction and restoration of314, 409, 411, 513, 729, 740
creation of426–7, 412, 570, 745
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative38
cuneiform writing system32–49, 68–86, 608–9
cursive script72–3
emergence of33–5
end of758
as instrument of institutional power72
notation of numbers38–46, 56–60
šakkanakku style60–61
styles, development of73
word dividers18see also palaeographic writing
cups, inscribed93: see also vases
curses130, 365, 429–30, 571
Cursing of Agade, The (ETCSL 2.1.5)300, 407, 410–12, 583, 707, 716–17, 719–20
Cutha566, 627, 739–40
Cuthean Legend of Naram–Sin520
cylinder seals33, 114, 156–7, 162, 168
inscription of156–9, 251, 282, 337, 501
Cyrus Cylinder515, 758
Cyrus II of Persia (r. 538–530)515, 645–6, 648
Dagan248, 292, 295
Damkina156
dancing231, 241, 293, 301–4, 302, 304, 398, 734
Darius I of Persia (r. 521–486)194, 515
death117–33, 143, 162, 335
as penalty212, 339–40, 365, 767
Death of Gilgameš, The (ECTSL 1.8.1.3)583, 590
Death of Ur-Namma, The (Ur-Namma A) (ETCSL 2.4.1.1)97, 716
Debate between Ewe and Wheat, The (ETCSL 5.3.2)118, 668, 669–70
Debate between Herdsman and Farmer, The (ETCSL 5.08.33)668
Debate between Hoe and Plough, The (ETCSL 5.3.1)84, 668, 680
Debate between Summer and Winter, The (ETCSL 5.3.3)668
debt remission208–11, 339, 718
Decad160, 582
decision-making335–54, 358–76
Demetrius II of Babylon (r. 145–139)752
demons118, 418–36, 519, 626, 669, 682: see also Ardat–lili
deportations261, 604
Der371, 477, 566, 569–70, 674, 677
descent, significance of119–20
for diviners455
for kings513
for priests and prebendaries737, 742, 744
in ritual recital153
for court scholars363
Dialogue between Two Friends147
Dilbat192, 627
Dingirmah301
Diodorus Siculus650–1
(p. 781) diplomacy248–65
dirge singers, see lamentation experts
Diri (lexical list)77, 146–7, 606
disc, inscribed94
divination102, 331, 350–2, 372–3, 444, 447–66, 519, 618–34
experts of455: see also astrologers/astronomers; divinersee also astrology; extispicy; omens
divinatory texts73–4, 572, 589, 767
Diviner's Manual456–8
divorce121, 215, 349–50
dogs307, 362, 428
of Ninkilim682
double names, see names
dragon (snake-dragon)677, 677, 694
drawings on clay tablets18–19, 448, 680
dreams121, 254–5, 335, 421, 431
Drehem, see Puzriš–Dagan
drink, see beer; food and drink
drinking straws174, 174
drugs690–703
Dukug669
Dumuzi97, 587, 663, 668, 675, 677–8, 680
Dur-Šarrukin364–5, 370, 560, 570
Dur-Yahdun-Lim254, 259, 262
Durum98
Du'uzu(m) (Month IV)680
dying gods676–8
Dynastic Chronicle645, 649
E-gidru-kalama-summu733
E-gišla-anki564
E-hursag-tilla185
E-ulmaš560
Ea (god), see Enki
Ea (sign list)74, 78–9
Ea-niša94
Eanna410, 481, 744, 757
archive194, 558, 725, 745
houses near541, 543
and Larsa545
in Late Uruk period33
leadership197, 744
restoration of Ištar409, 729
temple library198–9, 566
wool185, 187
ziggurat759
Eannatum I of Lagaš (r. c. 2450)121
Early Dynastic period34
literature592, 706
texts13, 18, 19, 59see also Fara period; Lagaš; Šuruppak
Ebabbar274, 545, 560,727
archives186, 194–5, 238, 725, 745
economy187
school texts191
temple library198, 560, 569–70see also Šamaš/Utu; Šangu-Šamaš family
Eber-nari239
Ebla60–4, 219–20, 690
palace archive60
Ebla Sign List76–7
eclipses256, 431, 453, 459–60, 470, 557, 623–7, 629, 631–2
economy184–201
editorial activity
Sumerian literary letters499–500
pharmacological texts692–3
under the Second Dynasty of Isin422, 513, 522
under Šulgi511see also canonicity
Edubba'a (scribal school)511, 589, 598–9, 604–6, 709
and terms for scribes146
in Hittite texts604–5
Edubba'a (text genre)146, 229–31, 234–5, 473, 598–9: see also Schooldays
education129, 225–6
of craftsmen237–8: see also apprenticeship
of diviners233–7
of exorcists422, 565, 590
of kings313–28, 512, 514, 516
of lamentation experts103, 407–9, 565
of musicians128, 305–7
of scribes, see scribal education
Egibi family238, 241, 547
(p. 782) Egibi/Nur-Sin family547
Egypt240–1, 294, 322, 359, 389–90, 546, 570, 640, 646, 651
scholars from366–8, 375, 519see also Amarna; Manetho; Sesostris
Ekallatum248, 252–3, 256, 516
Ekišnugal740
Ekur94, 99, 303, 410, 673, 718
Ekur-zakir family and archive/library191, 199, 560–1, 565, 567–9, 571, 757: see also Iqiša; Ištar-šuma-ereš; Šamaš-eṭir
Ekurduanna of the Sealand (r. 16th century)512
El-Hiba, see Lagaš
Elam383, 389, 391, 409–11, 495, 513, 677, 739
Elamite language425, 511, 693
Elulu(m) (Month VI)475, 477
Emar219, 259–60, 262, 351–2
cuneiform script81, 601, 613
diviners233–7
scribal education79, 231–7, 605
legal traditions350, 352
at war236
Emesal402–15, 577–94
emotions122–4, 132
empire358–76
Enanedu94, 95
Enbilulu671, 674, 679
Enheduana94, 96, 132, 708
Enki/Eaxxxi, 303, 674–7, 716, 739
in Atram–hasis113–14, 142–3
as author590
and Kronos649
and magic rituals422, 424–6
and revelation of lore of extispicy454
worship of103, 155–9, 161–2see also Adapa; apkallu-sages
Enki and Ninmah (ETCSL 1.1.2)294, 591, 593
Enki and the World Order (ETCSL 1.1.3)674, 676
Enki deities669
Enkidu132, 676
Enkimdu668, 675
Enlil237, 403, 669–82
in Atram-hasis142–4
and cultic laments412–13
see also Mullil
Enlil-bani of Isin (r. 1860–1837)212, 512
Enlil-bani A (ETCSL 2.5.8.1)582
Enlil diriše (ETCSL 2.5.4.01)591
Enmeduranki454–5, 510
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta (ETCSL 1.8.2.3)86, 119, 486–7, 502, 510
Enmešarra679
Enmetena of Lagaš (r. c. 2400)131
Enūma Anu Enlil317, 453–4, 458, 514, 525, 557–8, 602–1, 624–31, 767
Astronomical Diaries and631
and calendar474
commentaries82, 567–8
scribe of558, 630
stability of571–2
Enūma Eliš (Epic of Creation)130, 198, 513, 648, 665, 671–2, 730–1
and calendar473–4, 481, 679
and scribal training190see also Marduk
envelopes of clay tablets19–21, 20, 34, 36, 263, 362, 766
Epic of Anzu572, 588, 591
Epic of Erra96, 124, 127, 132, 644
Epic of Gilgameš123, 125, 512, 514
account of the Flood644
authorship of517, 520
and definition of human being118, 121, 126–7
and emotions123
and mortality130–1
Old Babylonian texts144, 588, 590–2
Standard Babylonian recension572, 570–2see also Enkidu; Gilgameš; Sin-leqe-unninni
epidemics272, 391, 422, 456, 630
eponym, see year eponym
Ereš92
Ereškigal92
Erib-Sin255, 256
Eridu103, 404, 410, 644, 674, 714, 734–5
Erimhuš (lexical list)601, 606
Erra124
Erṣetu672
Esangila406, 758, 630, 739–40
(p. 783) houses near543
and intercalation478
royal patronage727, 729–30, 746
scholars associated with198, 558, 640, 761
tablets from193–4, 199–200
temple assembly761, 763, 767
treasury651, 740see also New Year Festival
Esangila-kin-apli422, 522
Esarhaddon of Assyria (r. 680–669)317, 321, 339, 384–5, 513, 651
education101, 323–4
health322, 328
library523, 691
loyalty oaths14, 321, 373–4, 519
and his scholars319–23, 328, 358–76, 422, 460, 518–22, 560, 758
Ešgal544, 753, 761
prebends757
scholars associated with755
tablets from755
and writing-boards763
Ešnunna (Tell Asmar)35, 218, 248, 261, 296, 500, 677, 712
Eštar-of-Radan256
Etana131
Etana509, 525
Etemenanki560
eunuchs407, 610
music and lamenting298–300, 407
in Assyria359–61, 375
as scholars363
Eusebius of Caesarea642, 645
exorcists261, 316–17, 350, 406, 418–36, 558, 665, 755
and agriculture665
at court321, 366–7, 519
Exorcist's Manual421–3, 429, 522, 566
expansionism380–99
extispicy reports74, 283–4, 450, 524, 458
Ezida, see Borsippa; Kalhu; Nineveh
Ezina, see Ašnan
family history152, 153, 280–2
family names757
family religion
archaeology of547
patron deity155–9see also memorial rites for the dead
Fara, see Šuruppak
Fara period36, 44
Farmer's Instructions, The (ETCSL 5.6.3)668, 682
Fashioning of the Gala–Priest587
Father and his Perverse Son, A (ETCSL 5.1.2)237
feasting114, 167–81, 288–309: see also meals and banquets
finance minister, see treasurer
finger-nail impressions
in extispicy462
on tablets15, 16, 18
fish18, 180, 674, 677, 695
bile696, 697
sauce170see also apkallu-sages
Flood Story590, 644–5: see also Atram-hasis
food and drink114–15, 167–81: see also beer; bread; meals and banquets; rations
food production, see agriculture
foundation deposits24–5, 537–8, 717, 726, 729–30: see also building inscriptions
freedom205–22
funerary offerings, see memorial rites for the dead
Garden Party relief325, 326
gardens647, 701–2
Garšana170–81
Gatumdug410
gender
literacy and90–106
in public worship545–6
witches433
Geštinana91–2, 672, 766
ghosts114, 143, 335
angry420, 430
care of153: see also memorial rites for the dead
gift exchange128, 262
Gil671
Gilgameš92, 297–8, 517, 641, 678, 715
as author of Epic of Gilgameš520
and Šulgi710
and Ur–Namma716
Gilgameš and Agga (ETCSL 1.8.1.1)590
Gilgameš and Huwawa (ECTSL 1.8.1.5)590
Gilgameš and the Bull of Heaven (ECTSL 1.8.1.2)583, 590
Girsu (Tello)8, 104, 670
goats667, 668, 678, 695, 700
gods676–7
governance358–76
Graeco-Babyloniaca tablets14, 18, 639, 768–9, 768
grammatical texts501–2
Greece205, 207, 222, 331: see also Athens
Greek literature220, 419, 637–52, 672: see also astronomy
Greek warfare394, 461
Gudam298
Gudea of Lagaš (r. 22nd century)25, 210, 569, 622
Gula92, 412, 546, 691
Gulkišar of the Sealand (r. 16th century)512
Gutians649, 650
Habur region60, 248, 289, 665
Haft Tepe, see Kabnak
Halabit256
Halat–people383
Hali-hadun252, 262
Halys river611
Hammurabi of Babylon (r. 1792–1750)212, 218, 712, 718
and intercalation475
library523
and the kingdom of Mari261, 265, 289, 297
and medicine512, 521
texts from time of280, 341see also Laws of Hammurabi
Hamurnu672
Hana218: see also Bedouins
Hanat252, 261
Hand of Ištar24
Hanging Gardens, see Babylon
Harab672
Harbu248
Harran559, 726
Hatti, see Hittites
Hattic language604, 608, 613
Hattusa233, 597–614
archives607–8
palace607
plan of607
scribal education at160, 232, 495, 604–6
scribal school building605
Hattusili I of Hatti (r. 17th century)210, 219
Haya91
Hayyašu672
healing
medical astrology557, 630
medical decision–making331–2
medical recipes690–1
Hecataeus of Abdera650–1
Hellenistic period15, 474, 481, 514–5, 517, 546, 558, 565–9, 630, 630, 637–52, 740, 752–70
hem impressions as seals15, 16
hemerologies425, 470, 513, 580, 590, 626, 629
hermeneutics447–66
Herodotus207, 222, 646, 648, 651
hieroglyphic writing in Anatolia, see Luwian
Hiritu, Battle of629
Hišamta253
historiography486–505, 637–52
Hittite language608–9: see also Luwian
Hittite Laws242, 339, 352
Hittites597–614
adaptation of cuneiform writing608–9
in Assyria289
literature210, 219–20, 420
in Syria219, 232–3, 236see also Hattusa; Luwian
Hoe and Plough (ETCSL 5.3.1)668
Home of the Fish,The (ETCSL 5.9.1)120
honey697
horoscopy/horoscopes11, 447–8, 557, 568, 618–34, 638
horses317, 321, 388–9, 393–5, 422, 668
House F, see Nippur
House of Succession320–1, 323–4
households213–14, 217, 337
palace101, 104, 251, 263–4
private152
temple184–90
houses233–4, 271, 279–80, 537, 539–43
rentals149, 537
house omens535–6, 541
human being117–33
Hunzu family565, 766
Hurrian language210, 213, 219, 305, 422, 511, 604–5, 608, 693
Hurrian gods672
Hurrian troops236
Huwawa624
Huzirina559
Hymnic Archive, from Nippur585, 587
hymns
in the third millennium706
Old Babylonian corpus585–6
hymnic phrases in letters193, 491, 498
with prayer for kings713–15see also Nabu; royal hymns; Šamaš
Hyspaosines of Characene (r. 127–124)761
Ibbi-Ilabrat257, 291, 307, 512
Ibbi-Suen of Ur (r. 2028–2004)179, 411, 490, 503
Ida672
ideology, see justice; kingship
Iddin-Dagan B582
Iddin-Dagan of Isin (r. 1974–1954)499, 713
Idrimi of Alalakh (r. 15th century)218–19
Igigi430
Igingalliš219–20
ikribu-prayers284, 450, 473–4
Ilab676
Ilaba489
Ilanṣura99
ilku, see labour
illness423, 427, 434–5
caused by demons427–8
caused by angry gods256, 406
caused by ghosts430
caused by witchcraft429, 432
divination and256, 451, 630
divine help97see also epidemics; healing
Ilšu-ibbišu291–4, 296, 306–7
Iltani265, 512, 519
immortality130–1
In the Desert by the Early Grass677
iNAMgišhurankia474
Inana91, 125, 271, 410–1, 489, 663, 664, 677–8
butter cake in Sumerian myth173
and children125
of the City171, 174
and Dumuzi97, 585, 587, 677–8
festivals171–5
hymns97, 586
of Zabala175see also Ištar; Nippur; sacred marriage; Venus
Inana-amamu100
Inana and Enki (ETCLS 1.3.1, C9)173
Inana and Bilulu (ETCSL 1.4.4)585, 587
Inana-mansum103, 271–4
castrated300
house in Sippar-Amnanum271–2
Inanaka97, 491
incantations424–5
for crying babies308
and healing418–36, 700
love579, 590–1
Old Babylonian corpus587–8
and scribal education235, 563
(p. 786) incipits, as composition names143,582, 693
individual117–33
inheritance273–4
and archives280–2
and cylinder seals156–7
and office236, 276, 295
and prebends742, 744
and right of redemption350
Innin šagurra (ETCSL 4.07.3)96–7
innkeeper307, 431
inscriptions92
copying94–5, 199, 501
funerary95
Instructions of Šuruppak, The (ETCSL 5.6.1)592
Instructions to Temple Personnel (Hittite)420
Ipiq-Aya113, 140–62
career148, 151–2, 161
education145–50, 160–1
family153–9
Ipiq-Ištar of Malgium (r. c. 1760)144
Ipqu-Annunitum148
archive150–3
and Atram-hasis161
household152
seal159
Iqiša423, 567–8, 571, 640: see also Ekur-zakir family
Iqqur Īpuš535
Irhan680
Iri-Sagrig180
Irikagina of Lagaš (r. 24th century)210
and lamentation402, 409–10
Reform Texts209, 338
Irnina303
irrigation663–84
Išbi-Erra of Isin (r. 2017–1985)101, 500, 586
Išhara546
Ishchali, see Nerebtum
Isimu159
Iškur, see Adad
Išme-Dagan of Assur/Ekallatum (r. 1775–?)102, 251, 253, 293, 516
Išme-Dagan of Isin (r. 1953–1935)303, 512, 516, 713–14
and Šulgi127, 713
Issar-šumu-ereš366, 628
Ištar96, 122, 129, 234, 300–3, 409, 413, 456, 729see also Inana; Venus
Ištar-of-Akkad539
Istar-šuma-ereš567, 571: see also Ekur–zakir family
Ištaran410
Ištar's Descent572
Išum96
Itur-Mer295
jars, see vessels
Jemdet Nasr35–7
grain texts41–6
Jerusalem, siege of391
jesters293, 299, 301, 307
jewels99, 127, 726
inscribed95
Josephus, Flavius642, 644, 649
judges217, 331, 342–3
and arbitrators336–7, 343–4
cylinder seals159
family150–5
title152, 336–7, 341–2
royal197, 342see also Ipqu-Annunitum
(p. 787) Judicial Chronicle767
judicial decision-making, see court trials
Jupiter454, 457, 459, 624–6, 631–2: see also Marduk
justice119, 208, 335
administration of335–54, 766–7
king and55, 208–11, 338–40
restoration of, see debt remission
scribe and562see also court trials; Šamaš/Utu
Kabnak19
Kabti-ilani-Marduk96, 131: see also Epic of Erra
Kalendertexte474
Kalhu560
Ezida temple library560–1, 570
Ninurta templexxxi
Rassam Obelisk54
state archives361
tablets found at81, 101, 572, 691, 693
Tiglath-pileser III's palace24
Kaman-Kalehöyük611–12
Kandalanu of Babylon (r. 647–627)194
Kaneš102, 218, 236–7, 341, 603
Kar-Kašši358
Karana265, 512
Kassite language693
Kassite period232, 512–13, 578, 581, 606, 700
Kassites289, 345
Kaštiliašu IV of Babylon (r. 1232–1225)410
kezertu-women293, 301–2, 307
Kidin-Gula236–7, 243, 601
Kindazi94
kings508–9
antediluvian, see antediluvian era
appeal to98, 212, 339–40
authority218–19, 717, 746
coronation328, 732–3, 745
and counsellors248–65, 358–76
creation of313, 730
cult of royal statue745, 760–1
descent513
learned318–20, 616, 520–4
and divine messages366–70, 372–3, 449–50, 716
and rituals421, 460
and scholars361–3, 516–20
and personal secretaries319, 341, 364, 521
and state-officials248–65, 359–61
and temples189, 718, 725–47, 759–62
kingship209, 313, 726
Babylonian vs Assyrian729, 737
criticism144, 525, 646, 716–18, 720, 740
development328, 715
divine710, 761
and the gods338, 641, 730–1
and literature509, 593, 706–21
origin of131, 714
Kiš35, 309, 299, 564, 730
library at559
scribal education at489, 499, 579, 591
Kiš Civilization60
Kiṣir-Aššur family and library421–3, 565
Kisurra580
Kιzιl Irmak611
knowledge130–1, 316, 419–20, 509, 620
diffusion of601–3, 612–14
divine origin459, 510, 671
monopolization328, 455, 519, 640
production and dissemination of557–73
Kronos649
Kudur-mabuk of Larsa (r. 19th century)94
kudurrus742–3
Kulaba486
Kulla676
Kültepe, see Kaneš
Kuri family567
(p. 788) Kurigalzu I of Babylon (r. 14th century)81, 513
Kuṣaklι, see Sarissa
Kush359
Kusu426
Kušu700
Kuyunjik523
Labaši766
labour
accounting44–6, 194, 664
deficit187, 545, 604
division of90, 119, 142, 597
hired179–80, 187, 212
obligation to perform labour service209, 212–13, 216–17, 345–7, 718
money salaries186–7
skilled216, 238–42
Lagaba599, 605, 611
Lahar669, 683
Lahmu156–9
Lamaštu427, 428, 567
Lament over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur, The (ETCSL 2.2.3)707, 719–20
lamentations412–4, 590, 677
genres404–5
Old Babylonian404, 578–80, 585–7
orally transmitted587
terminology403–4see also city laments
lamentation experts308, 367, 369, 406–9, 558, 640, 757
archive/library of199, 561, 757see also education; chief lamenter
lamenting288, 299–301, 317, 402–14
collective300, 410
cultic412–14
private405–6
language128: see also bilingualism; individual languages
Larsa35, 41, 302, 545
archival texts17, 181, 192, 301, 341–2, 481
Dynasty of94, 490, 504, 511, 588, 712, 714–20
excavations539, 580
merchants103, 539
Old Babylonian literary texts144, 580, 586, 588, 591
Lasqum260
law335–54
Laws of Ešnunna215, 339–40
Laws of Hammurabi73, 211–12, 214–15, 231, 237–8, 337, 341, 343, 345, 349, 351, 512
and metrology55
stela335, 336, 338, 569, 591
and scribal education146, 160, 525
Laws of Ur-Namma55, 210, 349, 351
leather documentsxxvii, 2, 17–18, 23, 638–9, 752, 762–9
leather scribes752–3, 760, 762, 764–7
lecanomancy454, 455
legal documents
apprenticeship contracts239, 306
as evidence in court350
formality193
house rental contract149
judicial documents345–7, 353
medium and validity763
orthography71
prebend sale766
role of scribe140, 191, 536
storage105, 280–2, 560
drawn up by temples194–5see also model contracts; witnesses
legends131, 160: see also mythology; narû–literature
Letter Collection B (LCB)491–2, 494–501, 504, 584
letter-prayers92, 97–8, 285, 405, 490–1, 495, 498, 501, 588, 716–17
deposited in front of a statue97
Letter to Aššur289, 364, 521
letters
argument in private letters124
and envelopes19–20, 362
Hittite604–6, 613
language193
(p. 789) on leather763
and literacy71, 102–4, 516
Middle Babylonian700
Neo-Babylonian193, 197–8, 243, 478, 481, 545
Old Akkadian488–9
Old Babylonian148, 270–86, 307, 343, 519, 599
petitions500, 520, 588, 717
in scribal curriculum82, 495–501, 579, 584, 588
and social ideals129–30
Sumerian487–9
lexical lists74–80, 85, 597
development77–80, 591–3, 606
origin35, 75–6
as reference works608
Libbali-šarrat95, 324, 325, 514
liberation, see freedom
libraries
and archives141, 190–1, 755
at Emar233–7
at Hattusa607
of lamentation experts199, 561, 757
nature561
Old Babylonian577–94
reconstruction161, 199, 559
royal523: see also Library of Assurbanipal
temple198–9, 560: see also Eanna; Kalhu; Nabu-ša-hare; Ebabbar
Library of Assurbanipal523–4, 561
catalogues404, 517
colophons101, 318, 363, 404, 522–3, 561, 691–3, 769
inked colophon16, 769
commentaries514, 558
composition447, 523, 561, 623
creation324, 328, 515–16, 523–4, 561
discovery314
hostages at work235, 513
and the ‘stream of tradition’558–9
tablet excavated at Uruk524, 569
witchcraft and432
lineage, see descent
lion-dragon, see storm demon
lions19, 119, 294, 381, 486, 624, 739
lion costume398, 678
lion hunt325–7, 327
Lipit-Eštar of Isin (r. 1934–1924)713
letters494, 499
literacy97, 512
Lipit-Eštar hymn A (ETCSL 2.5.5.1)582, 714
Lipit-Eštar hymn B (ETCSL 2.5.5.2)91, 582–3, 714
literacy1–2, 130–1
acquisition, see scribal education
and career opportunities161, 236, 510
spread of functional70–3, 101–4, 140–1, 236–7, 278, 536, 717–18
and gender90–106
levels of70–82
and numeracy51, 65
of priests190–1, 278, 719
scholarly74–82, 612
literature
audience101, 144, 161–2, 710
authors96–8, 131–2, 520, 522, 557, 708
authored by a god590
development of35, 77, 142, 591–3
and kingship486–505, 508–26, 706–21
names of compositions421, 647
performance161–2, 303, 402–15, 422, 424, 710–11
(p. 790) liturgical texts300, 585–7
liver models24, 254, 518, 580, 589
liver omens, see extispicy
local administration217–19, 262, 340–1
logogramsxxv, 68–9, 71, 73–4, 608
in Hittite texts609
Lu A (list of professions)74–9, 78, 622, 673
Lu-Inana96
Lu-Nanna525
Lugal-e (ETCSL 1.6.2)570, 582
Lugal-gabagar297
Lugal-melim498
Lugal-nesage491, 497, 498–9
Lugalbanda509, 583, 593, 710, 715, 719
Lugalzagesi of Umma (r. 24th century)209, 402, 409–10
Luwian604
hieroglyphic writing604, 608, 611, 612–13
Madanu739
magic418–20, 450, 548
aggressive431–2
defensive427–31
and divination450–1, 462–3
for healing425–6, 427–30, 432–33, 434, 436, 694, 700
magic circle433–4, 547, 702
practitioners421–3: see also exorcists
space547
spells123, 425: see also incantations
techniques423–6
and warfare386see also witchcraft
magnates, see state dignitaries
Mahiranu383
Malikshah526
Mamu99
Manetho650
Mannea372–3, 384–5
Manuhatan261
map
ancient Near Eastxxviii
ancient Mesopotamiaxxix
Uruk754
world673–4
Maqlû429, 433–4, 435, 571
Mar-biti743–4, 743
Mar-Issar374, 477
Marduk671, 679–80, 682–3, 730–1
and Babylon718, 730
and Jupiter624
and king315–16, 624, 641, 731–2, 745
fifty names of82, 671, 674
and priesthood734
statue314, 409, 513, 731
and worshipper283–5, 406, 547see also Bel; Enūma Eliš; Esangila; New Year Festival
Marduk-apla-iddina II of Babylon (r. 721–710, 703)702, 744
Marduk-nadin-ahhe of Isin/Babylon (r. 1099–1082)513, 521
Marduk-šakin-šumi323, 422, 477
Mari248–65, 289–97, 351–2
cult300–1, 413
Early Dynastic period297–8
lyre305–6
metrology53–4, 63–4
palace archives218, 249, 518: see also letters
female palace population99, 289–90, 296–7, 512
production of clay tablets7–8, 17, 22–23
šakkanakku style of writing60–1
school texts580–1
marriage125–6
dynastic257–60
endogamy187, 308
and procreation131, 346
Marriage of Martu, The (ETCSL 1.7.1)585, 676
Martu (god)128, 676: see also Amurru
Martu (people)676: see also Amorites; nomads
Maşat Höyük604–5, 611–13
Mašiha255
Mašru-he235–6
master-craftsmen, see apprenticeship
mathematical texts71, 74, 569, 578–81, 591, 593
Mathematical Treatise (Almagest, Ptolemy)619, 629
(p. 791) mathematics51–65, 198, 277, 317, 498, 511, 600–1, 707, 711: see also astronomy
Me-Turan580, 589–92, 712
meals and banquets114, 167, 168, 169, 297, 429
royal99, 129, 176–7, 257, 263, 292, 297, 702
in honour of the dead114, 153, 177–9
in honour of a deity171–5, 663see also vases
measuring, see metrology; vessels
Medes/Media389–90, 392, 399, 524, 559, 645, 649
medical texts200–1, 421–2, 523, 566–8, 690–702
as booty513
with drawing18
logograms in74
Old Babylonian579, 588see also Sakkikû
medical substances695–702
and calendar dates474
of animal origin696–7
of plant origin695–6
preparation697–700
provenance700–2
Medimsa, see Šala
Megasthenes651
Megi219–20
Melamkurkurra of the Sealand (r. 16th century)512
Meluhha511
mementoes, see family history
memorial rites for the dead113–14, 153–4, 167–81, 303, 360, 430, 547, 680
Memphis368
merchants52, 55, 236, 250, 262, 340, 344
Enlil as413
family of150–9
houses539
literacy71, 102–3, 105–6, 236–7, 562
title152see also Murašu; Ur–DUN
Mercury448, 628, 632
Merkes539, 541–3, 545–6
Meslam566–7
Meslamtaea98
metal tablets, inscribed94
meteorological omens, see weather
Meton of Athens477
metrological lists and tables56–9, 56, 277–8, 563, 566, 591, 606
metrology51–65
at Ebla60–4
in Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr texts38–46
units of measure52–55
Middle Assyrian Laws337, 345, 348–51
midwife93
military intelligence380–99
military service212–14, 387
Mīs Pî426–7, 570, 745
Mišlan259
Mittani216, 232, 598, 604, 613, 672
mobility, of scholars236, 565, 569–70, 601–3
model contracts84–5, 278, 306
mongoose458, 682, 694
monumental inscriptions, see narû/narua; royal inscriptions
moon82, 669, 677
and calendar453, 471–5, 478–81, 679
omens453, 624–6
observation448, 457–60, 628–9, 631–3
Path of the Moon448, 568, 631
and rituals153, 413, 425see also eclipses; Nanna/Sin
mourning258–9, 402–15, 587
MUL.APIN474–5, 476, 620, 680
Mullil413: see also Enlil
Mullissu125, 314, 733: see also Ninlil
Mullissu-mukannisat-Ninua95
Murašu639
Mursili II of Hatti (r. 14th century)604
Musasir393
Mušdama676
Mušezib family and archive/library191, 199–200, 640
music288–308
Atram-hasis and144
cult and288, 299–301, 412–14, 734
royal hymns and303, 305, 718–19
literature and710–11
textual sources for musical instruction305, 579
musical instruments128, 169, 260, 288, 291, 292, 297, 299, 305–6, 308, 403: see also Ninigizibara
(p. 792) musicians
blind240, 293–4, 306–8
female musicians at court99, 101, 289–97
mythology668–83, 734
and gender91–2, 683
and incantations425
Nabium, see Nabu
Nabokodrosoros, see Nebuchadnessar II of Babylon (r. 604–562)
Nabonassar (Nabonasaros) of Babylon (r. 747–734)629, 641, 643, 645
Nabonassar Era629, 641
Nabonidus of Babylon (r. 555–539)238, 478, 515, 645, 726, 733
condemnation of525, 739–40
as scholar514
Nabopolassar Epic375, 733
Nabopolassar of Babylon (r. 625–605)643, 645, 727–8
Nabu/Nabium92, 315–16, 321, 404, 477, 683, 691, 734, 739, 761
and coronation ceremony732–3
dedication of tablets to191, 560, 564
in epistolary greeting formula318, 365
hymns to15, 18
patron saint of scribes159, 234–5, 323, 514see also Ezida; Nabu-ša-hare
Nabu-apla-iddina of Babylon (r. 9th century), see Sun-god Tablet of Nabu-apla-iddina
Nabu-kudurri-uṣur, see Nebuchadnessar II of Babylon (r. 604–562)
Nabu-ša-hare191, 560, 563–4
Nabu-šallimšunu364, 521
Nabu-šuma-imbi743–4
Nabu-šuma-iškun of Babylon (r. c. 760–748)739–40, 743–4
Nabu-zeru-lišir560
Nabu-zuqup-kenu522–4, 560
nadītu-women99–100, 105–6, 153–4, 345–7
Nahal (river)383
namburbû rituals353–4, 431, 449, 455, 460, 465–6
names
bread names172–3
change of name300, 360
ceremonial535
coded names for medical substances694, 696, 700
of compositions, see incipits
double names759–60
family names757
and identity118–19
name-giving99, 122, 131, 151, 340, 512
name-giving and patron deity157
restrictions in name-giving318
plant names693–4
puns on495, 498
and remembrance113–14, 153, 281–2, 285
scribal exercises with84, 190, 277–8, 501, 563, 582
year names146, 249, 709
Nanaya301, 537, 734, 743, 743–4, 766
Nanna/Sin669, 677
anger256, 410
and astrological signs314–15, 454, 624–5
and calendar472–3, 679
cult173, 680, 715
literature496, 585
and Nabonidus525
in personal names157
priestesses94, 96, 708
private prayer to153see also moon; Šumma Sin ina Tāmartīšu
Nanše55, 569, 674, 682
Nappahu family536, 546
Naqia/Zakutu95, 101, 321
Naram-Sin and the Enemy Hordes147
Naram-Sin of Akkad (r. 2254–2218)121, 521, 730
legends about146, 148, 160, 209, 520, 606
narû-literature520, 583, 591
narû/narua, as word for inscription199, 520, 583
Naṣibina371
(p. 793) Nazi-Maruttaš of Babylon (r. 1307–1282)513
Nebuchadnezzar I of Isin/Babylon (r. 1125–1104)409, 513, 522
Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon (r. 604–562)520, 733
Berossos on641–3, 646–8, 651
building238, 533, 560, 646–8
inscriptions14, 537, 544, 646, 726, 729–31, 734
literary works338–9, 343, 730
memories of651, 729, 740
restoration of Ištar to Uruk729see also South Palace, Babylon
Nerebtum580, 588
Nergal315, 566
Nergal-ereš375
Nergal-eṭir460
Nergal-ušezib of Babylon (r. 693)643
netherworld125–6, 303, 412–13, 427, 677–8, 716: see also ghosts
New Year Festival371, 404, 414, 475, 544–5, 630, 680, 731–3, 737
Nidintu-Anu565, 757: see also Sin–leqe–unninni family
Nimrud, see Kalhu
Nimrud Letters, see Kalhu
Ninab676
Ninazimua91–2
Ninazu670, 677, 677
Nineveh524, 665
Ezida temple570
female scribes at court101
palace built by Naqia/Zakutu95
scholars at court366–8
Ningal490
Ningirsu94, 209–10, 338, 670, 680–2: see also Ninurta
Ningišzida677–8
Ninhursag489
Ninigizibara300
Ninimma585
Ninisina717
Ninkagina94
Ninki deities669
Ninkilim682
Ninlil55, 91–2, 305, 677, 713, 715: see also Mullissu
Ninmada670, 677–8
Ninmah546: see also Enki and Ninmah
Ninšatapada98, 102, 520
Ninsiana175, 284–5
Ninsumun92, 710
Nintinuga97, 491, 496–7, 499
Ninurta315, 570, 668, 691
and Ningirsu677, 680, 682
and kingship593, 680
templesxxxi, 185, 546
Nippur667, 718
astrological reports627
and Babylon547, 669
calendar679
as centre of the world669, 673–4
scribal education at57, 83–5, 90, 146, 277–8, 342, 562, 582–4, 598, 600, 606, 712–15, 720
festivals680
governor of241, 243, 498, 513, 759
Greek bullae639
history210, 515, 546–7, 578, 718
House F21, 579–60, 582, 584, 588, 606
Inana's temple22, 93
in lamentations412
neighbourhoods543
priestly families191–2, 200, 742
tablets found at8, 71, 94, 102, 141, 495–501, 505, 578–9, 585–8, 592, 606, 711–12
trials at340, 342, 349
writing-board from566see also Ekur; Enlil; Enmeduranki; Murašu; Šulgi, the Runner; Ur–Namma B
Nippur Lament, The (ETCSL 2.2.4)404, 411, 591, 714
Nisaba683
and metrology55, 675
and scribal art91–2, 234–5, 512, 709, 714
and vegetation677–8, 680, 682–3
Nisaba A582
Nisannu(m) (Month I)284–5, 625, 731–2, 759, 680
(p. 794) Nişantepe hoard610
Nitocris646
Nizam al-Mulk526
nomads118, 387, 389, 674, 676: see also Cimmerians; Amorites
North Palace, Nineveh325, 326–7, 327, 523, 561, 701
Northwest Palace, Kalhu22, 382, 397, 398, 462
numbers56–60
discrete counting system58–9
in Ebla texts63–4
metrological56–7
sexagesimal place value system58–60
numerical signs in Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr texts36–46
numeracy1–2, 51, 562, 714: see also literacy; scribal education
Nungal335, 352
Nur-Šamaš family559–60, 564–5
Nuska567, 585
Nuzi339, 349
tablets from6–7, 7, 10, 14
legal traditions339, 347, 349, 352
Oannes643–4, 649–50, 671: see also Adapa
oaths
broken429
in the court of law345, 348–51, 353
for the diviner apprentice455
of loyalty to the king218, 253, 255, 321, 384, 519
at Mari351
practicalities547
in rituals427, 430
oblates186, 240
observation
of celestial phenomena457–8, 618–34
in extispicy461–3
offerings to royal statues745, 760–1
offerings to the dead, see memorial rites for the dead
offerings to the gods40, 114–15, 171–5, 185–8, 680, 733, 760
and calendar472–3
by the king545, 727, 729, 733–4, 761
leftovers189, 745
by private worshipper545
for private ritual purposes421, 426, 547see also priests
office, see state dignitaries
oikos (household) model of economy186
Old Akkadian period24, 77, 351, 592, 717: see also Sargon of Akkad; Naram-Sin of Akkad
Old Assyrian period52, 105, 218, 539, 598, 639
legal traditions339, 341, 344
literacy71, 102–3, 236–7, 562
tablets14, 19, 18
Old Babylonian periodxxxi, 71, 712
Old Persian419, 515, 755, 755
cuneiform script515
oracle query, see tāmītu-texts
ordeal347, 350–2
river318, 338–9, 351–2
Ortaköy, see Šapinuwa
Outlines of Pyrrhonism (Sextus Empiricus)620, 623
owlmen423
Pahharu family570
palace
ants in255
building95, 99, 317, 702
and citizenship213
female population99, 101, 289–90, 296–7, 299, 302, 512
households250–1, 264
literacy of senior staff102
magic for going to431
reliefs123, 317, 326–7, 362, 372, 381, 385, 395, 668
security373, 387
service quarters538–9
wall painingsxxxisee also archives; Dur-Šarrukin; Kalhu; Nineveh; royal court
(p. 795) palace herald359, 360
palace scribe364
palaeographic sign lists74, 79, 80, 601
palaeographic writing18, 73, 81–2, 160
in colophons80–1, 601, 603
technique14, 19see also palaeographic sign lists
Palaic language604
Panigarra301
Papsukkal766
papyrusxxvii, 2, 20–1, 23, 570, 638–9, 646, 756
parchment, see leather documents
pastoral nomadism666–7
Path of the Moon, see moon
patronage120, 248
of musicians295
of scholars363–6, 519–20
Pazuzu427, 428
percussionists, see kezertu-women
Persian Empire132, 207
Persian Gulf391, 512, 671
personal god, see family religion
personhood117–32
Pešgaldaramaš of the Sealand (r. c. 1500)512
pharmacological texts422, 690, 692–3, 696
pharmacology690–702
Phoenicians391, 639
Phrygians639
physicians423, 558
correspondence362, 369–70, 519, 558
at court251, 294, 367
as general170
mobility555
royal565see also healing
piety725–47
pigs46, 307, 668, 695–6
Pilsu-Dagan of Emar (r. 13th century)236
Pizigarra of Nineveh219
plants
cultivated667–8
as medicine692–7, 700–2see also food and drink
plaques94, 302, 307
Plough Myth (The Theogony of Dunnu)672
plough-oxen, see cattle
Poem of the Righteous Sufferer, The121, 131, 570
portraiture131–2
praise poetry, see hymns
prayers123–4, 405–6
inscribed on cylinder seals157–9
of the diviner, see ikribu-prayers
improvised424
of the king745
and royal hymns713–15
during rituals424–5
of Sin-naṣir153
of Ur-Utu284–5
prebends186, 271, 307, 735
administration195
contracts187, 641, 760, 762–6
economic benefit189–90
and the king742–4
participation in procession545see also Šangu-Šamaš family
prediction618–34
priests734–5, 737
archives and libraries192–3, 199–201
as authors718
body363, 737
chief priest186, 200, 274, 637, 731–3, 737, 740
corrupt741
families103–4, 186–7, 197, 742, 744
induction426, 544–5, 737, 745
king as737
literacy103–4, 191, 278, 605, 610, 719
origin myths734
residence543–4
temple-enterer200, 284, 640, 735, 736, 740
priestesses77, 94, 98, 105, 263, 297
and childlessness143, 273, 300
and literacy104, 605see also Enheduana; nadītu-women; qadištu-women
prince, see crown prince
printing and stamping24, 727
(p. 796) prisoners of war209, 211–2, 253, 383
incorporated into the army387
female296–7
prisons352–3
prostitution126, 307–8: see also kezertu-women
proto-cuneiform texts32–49, 37
Proto-Ea (sign list)582
proto-Elamite writing system35
proverbs and sayings126, 130, 212, 294, 299–300, 308, 351, 519
as curricular material190, 278, 496, 563, 583–4, 593
among oldest literature665
Ptolemy of Alexandria619, 629
Pu-abi106
purification425–6, 693
Puzriš-Dagan104, 176–8
Puzur-Eštar of Mari (r. 1980–1950)250
qadištu-women104, 272–3, 300, 423
Qala'at Sherqat, see Assur
Qaṭna257
Qaṭṭara251, 512
Qaṭṭunan212, 262
quay (collegial body)341, 344–5
queens94–5, 324, 460, 518, 711
dynastic marriage257–60
households101, 104, 250
queen mother101, 296, 711
Qurdi-Nergal559–60, 564–5
Rapiqum291
Raṣappa375
Rassam Obelisk54
rations41–4, 62, 186
reading, see literacy
redemption207, 211–12, 214, 216
relief sculptures, see palace
religion419–20, 450–6
and the urban environment544–7see also divination; family religion; magic; rituals; temple cult
Reš544, 565, 755, 759–61
administrative texts763
leather scribes765
prebends757, 766
private library from199, 561, 640, 755
restoration by Anu-uballiṭ Kephalon652, 759
scholars associated with565, 640–1
and writing-boards763
Rib-Hadda of Byblos (r. 14th century)218
Ribi–Dagan235
rights (political, legal)205–22
Rim-Sin I of Larsa (r. 1822–1763)342, 712
literary compositions472, 715see also Ninšatapada
Rimut-Anu566, 569: see also Šangu-Ninurta family
Rišiya226, 252, 257–9, 302
as chief musician290–4
rivalry with Ilšu-ibbišu293–4
rituals
and agriculture665, 679–82
apotropaic, see namburbû rituals
building421, 537–8
consecration of divine image426–7, 745
coronation ceremony732–3
experts from Egypt366, 368
kettle drum426, 630
for ‘releasing’283–4
royal purification421, 571
Royal Cemetery of Ur168, 169, 291, 297
Royal Chronicle514
Royal Chronicle of Lagaš (ETCSL 2.1.2)670, 683
Royal Correspondence of Ur98, 490–505, 584, 716
royal court
decision-making358–76
entertainment128, 144, 289–97, 302–3
protocol129, 258, 292, 373
scholars at366–7see also palace; meals and banquets
royal decision-making, see kings
royal hymns210, 328, 510–12, 706–15, 730
(p. 797) audience710
authorship97, 708–9, 713
hymns to gods with prayer for kings713–15
intertextuality713
love songs97, 711
performance710–1
purpose303–4, 562
in the scribal curriculum582–3, 707, 713–14
royal ideology, see justice; kingship
royal inscriptions24, 94, 121, 535
Assyrian, character of318, 358, 374, 381–3, 389
authorship92, 364, 521–2
Babylonian, character of726–30, 732, 734, 737
copies94, 501, 505, 569, 583, 726
and divination514, 622
and justice208, 338
language81, 514, 522, 715
rock inscriptions515, 726, 729
royal tutor319–20, 364, 516–18, 521, 525: see also chief scribe
rubrics and subscripts583, 672
liturgical403–5, 413, 585, 587
magical431see also colophons
Rusa I of Urartu (r. 8th century)392
Sa Vocabulary235see also Syllabary A
Šabaṭu(m) (Month XI)321, 739
Sabium of Babylon (r. 1844–1831)156
Sacaea642, 643, 647
sacred marriage588, 663, 713, 715
sacrifices, see extispicy; offerings
Sadarnuna585
Šaduppum (Tell Harmal)580–1, 588
SAG (lexical list)235
sages, see apkallu-sages
Šaggar-abu81, 236
Saggaratum253–4, 256, 259–60, 340
Saggil-kinam-ubbib96, 522
Saglugalbizu493, 495
Sagub410
Sakikkû421, 522, 558, 568, 571, 767
Šakka296
Šakkan672, 675, 683
Šala/Medimsa571, 675, 680–1, 681
Samanum259
Šamaš/Utu335, 336, 669, 677, 736
devotees, see nadītu–women
divine symbol346, 353
and extispicy315, 358, 454–5, 461–2, 465, 569
Hymn342–3
and justice55, 335, 338, 353–4, 675
in letters283–4, 292, 365, 545, 569, 599
and metrology53, 55
in magic rituals353–4, 425, 430–1, 433–4
partnerships152, 160
Šamaš-eṭir565, 640–1: see also Ekur-zakir family
Šamaš-iddin566, 568, 569, 571: see also Šangu-Ninurta family
Šamaš-in-matim255, 256–7
Šamaš-šumu-ukin of Babylon (r. 667–648)313, 523–4, 646, 738
as ritual client422see also Hiritu, Battle of; House of Succession
Sammetar259, 262, 296
Sammu-ramat95: see also Semiramis
Šamnu Šikinšu694
Šamši-Adad V of Assyria (r. 823–811)95
Samsi-Addu of Ekallatum (r. c. 1808–1776)212, 248, 251, 256, 289, 293, 295
patron of Asqudum248, 252–3, 255, 265
patron of Ibbi–Ilabrat257, 291–2, 294
Šamši-ilu375
Samsu-iluna of Babylon (r. 1749–1712)131, 144, 156, 712
apocryphal letter of741
cylinder seal style under159
restoration of justice act339
texts from time of100, 152, 272, 281, 344
Šangu-Ninurta family and library560, 566, 568–9, 571, 740: see also Anu-ikṣur; Rimut-Anu; Šamaš-iddin
(p. 798) Šangu-Šamaš family and archive/library191, 200–1
Šapinuwa605
Šara94
Sarakos645–6
Sardanapalos643, 646
Sardis629–30
Sargon Legend520
Sargon II of Assyria (r. 721–705)360–1, 375, 570, 646
correspondence361, 362, 364–5, 371–2
in discussion with magnates370–1, 370
inscriptions of323, 388
Sargon of Akkad (r. 2334–2279)209, 588: see also Enheduana; Sargon Legend; Sippar
Sarissa613
Šarrahitu766
Saturn449, 457, 459–60, 632
scholars361–3
correspondence362–3, 368–70, 472, 518–19
at court366–7
foreign367–8, 519
School Dialogues, see Edubba'a (text genre)
school tablets, see scribal training
Schooldays (ETCSL 5.1.1)90, 583
Schøyen Collection581, 588
scribal education191–2, 233–7, 562–65, 598–601
description of229–31, 234, 598–9
donation/dedication of finished tablets161, 191, 560, 563–4
of girls99–100
institutional598–9, 604–6
legal training342: see also model contracts
making tablets22–3
non-professional275–8
numeracy and mathematics56–7, 277, 498, 600–1
on writing-boards611
scribal profession140, 145–50, 145–6, 157–9, 609–12, 665: see also leather scribes; legal documents
scribe, terms forxxv, 146, 605, 610, 764–5: see also scribal profession
as scholar455
‘scribe of Enūma Anu Enlil558, 630: see also astrologers/astronomers
Sealand383, 512
sealings15: see also cylinder seals; stamp seal
secretaries, see kings
Seed of Kingship, The513
Seleucid state637–52, 752–70
Seleukos I of Babylon (r. 305–281), see Megasthenes
Seleukos II of Babylon (r. 246–226)759
Seleukos III of Babylon (r. 225–223)760: see also Chronicle of Seleucus III
Semiramis95, 646, 648
senate205–22
Sennacherib of Assyria (r. 704–681)122, 314, 372, 373, 374–5, 391
in Berossos' Babyloniaca642–3, 645–6
as crown prince322, 370, 370, 392
inscriptions323, 381, 387, 522
murdered by son373, 643
sepīru, see leather scribes
Šerua-eṭirat102, 324, 513
servitude, see slavery
Sesostris651
sexagesimal place value system, see numbers
Sextus Empiricus620, 623
Shalmaneser III of Assyria (r. 858–824)95, 381, 390: see also Balawat Gates
Shalmaneser V (Ululayu) of Assyria (r. 726–722)322
(p. 799) sheep257, 667
offerings187, 179, 473, 545see also extispicy; soup; Ewe and Wheat
Shemshara19
Šibtu102, 255, 297
marriage257–60
sieges261, 391, 395–6, 397
instruments261, 396
signs and their interpretation447–66, 618–34
silver
paid to Babylonian scholars523
not used in late Uruk period33
as means of payment187
paid for tuition fees241–2
taxes paid in262, 718
Sim'alites253, 295
Šimurrum353
Sin, see Nanna
sin, see transgression
Sin-iddinam of Larsa (r. 1849–1843)512, 716–17, 720
letter to Utu490, 520, 717
Sin-išmeanni152, 154, 347
Sin-kašid of Uruk (r. c. 1865–c.1833)98
Sin-leqe-unninni96, 517, 520, 757
Sin-leqe-unninni family561, 565, 757: see also Anu-belšunu; Nidintu-Anu
Sin-muballiṭ of Babylon (r. 1812–1793)154
Sin-nadin-apli313, 158
Sin-naṣir150–5, 161
cylinder seals158, 159
in Ur-Utu's house160
Sin-šarru-iškun of Assyria (r. 626–612)645: see also Sarakos
Sin-šumu-lešir375
Sipparxxxi, 141
Berossos and644, 646
scribal education at103–4, 146, 160, 275–8, 600, 719
cult of Enki/Ea155–6
houses at541
iconography of cylinder seals from105, 156
Old Babylonian literary texts140–62, 580–1, 586–8
Šamaš angry with410
cult of Sargon of Akkad761
Sippar-Amnanum105, 140–62, 270–86: see also Sippar
Sippar-Yahrurum105, 141, 155–6, 271–4, 280: see also Sippar
Sirsir671, 674
Siyāsatnāma (the Book of Government)526
slavery205, 207
creation207–8, 337, 340
flight340, 431–2
rights340, 347
termination209, 211–2, 340
terminology46–7, 213
slaves
as apprentices239–41, 306
in families126, 153, 201, 236, 238, 241, 273
in Late Uruk and Jemdet Nasr texts46–9
literate243
as master-craftsmen241
sale contracts264, 337
taking an oath547
in temple households187see also oblates; prisoners of war; Sacaea
snake-dragon, see dragon
snake-charmers301, 418, 423, 433: see also Ninmada
snake-deities677–8: see also Irhan; Irnina
snakes303, 521
incantations to cure snake bites421, 428
Song of Agušaya, The303, 304, 587
Song of Liberation, The210, 219–20
Song of the Ploughing Oxen, The (ETCSL 5.5.5)668
soup170, 174–80
South Palace, Babylon538–9
Southwest Palace, Nineveh373, 523, 561
spirits, see ghosts
sport127–8
stamp seals, inscribed610
Standard of Ur168, 169, 297
(p. 800) stars618–34
ritual exposure to351, 698
rules of identification459
invocation to433–4
lists of277–8
observation and agriculture682see also MUL.APIN; astronomical almanacs
state dignitaries
in Assyria322, 359–61
at coronation ceremony371, 733
eunuchs359–60
as judge341
relationship with king365, 371, 373–4
in Mari262, 296
marriages252
omen pertaining to454–5
usurping power375
and warfare261, 371–2, 381–3, 387see also Asqudum
statues
of Berossos643
commemorative132
inscriptions81, 92, 94, 591
letters deposited in front97
naked122
in temples92, 94, 296–7, 745
royal81, 130, 296, 646, 745, 760
of Ur-Nanše298, 298see also cult image; portraiture
stelae
of Assurbanipal314, 738
of Bel-Harran-belu-uṣur360
commemorative, in honour of a priest188
Egyptian546
inscriptions95, 314, 591, 726
of Nabonidus515, 726
funerary stela of Tarhunpiyas369see also Laws of Hammurabi; narû/narua
stone tablets, inscribed94, 742
stones
amulets422, 521
contamination in clay tablets6–7
lists277–8
as medical substance695
precious127
storm demon (lion-dragon)675, 680
storm-god, see Adad/Iškur
storm-god of Aleppo296, 338
strategy358–76, 380–99
‘stream of tradition’558–9, 562, 572, 638, 659, 690
stylus13, 15–16, 38, 58, 91, 277–8, 326–7, 455, 605
Šu-ilišu of Isin (r. 1874–1975)713
Šu-Suen of Ur (r. 2037–2029)97, 179, 503, 505, 711, 719
Šuanna district, Babylon546
Šub-Andu of Canaan (r. 14th century)7
Šubartu/Subir411, 449, 511
Subir, see Šubartu
subjecthood205–22
Šubria358, 371
substitute king431, 460
Sudan359
Suhu236, 248, 255, 261
deportation of population261, 265
Šukabta170, 177–9
Šul-šagana94
Šulgi A = Šulgi, the Runner (ETCSL 2.4.2.01)709–10, 713
Šulgi B (ETCSL 2.4.2.2)128, 511, 582, 708
Šulgi E (ETCSL 2.4.2.05)708
Šulgi G (ETCSL 2.4.2.07)586
Šulgi R (ECTSL 2.4.2.18)713
Šulgi V (ETCSL 2.4.2.22)713
Šulgi of Ur (r. 2094–2047)127–8, 569
as diviner511
and Edubba'a511, 599
and Gilgameš710
and Išme-Dagan127, 713
literacy97, 101, 510–1
memorial festival179
royal hymns303–4, 708, 711, 719
letters496
as musician288, 305–6, 511
in personal names122
queens93–4, 104
in Royal Correspondence of Ur491, 500, 503
in later tradition521, 525, 740
Šulgi-simti104
Šulgi, the Runner, see Šulgi A
Sultantepe, see Huzirina
(p. 801) Šum-tabni-uṣur565
Šumaya321
Sumer666
Sumerian King List (ETCSL 2.1.1)650, 707, 714, 719–20
Sumerian language128
as cultural capital85, 600
end of489, 708
written representation11
Šumma Αlu525, 535–6, 541, 567–8, 571–2, 618, 623, 626, 762, 767
Šumma Izbu319, 455, 519, 567–8, 571, 623, 762, 767
Šumma Sin ina Tāmartīšu453, 628–9
Summer and Winter (ETCSL 5.3.3)668
Sumu-Dabi, Yaminite king (r. 18th century)257, 295
Sumu-hadu252
Sumu-la'el of Babylon (r. 1880–1845)496
Šumum-liṣi276
sun
and calendar471–3
observation449, 453, 625
and Saturn459see also Šamaš/Utu
Sun-god Tablet of Nabu-apla-iddina736, 737, 744
Suppiluliuma I of Hatti (r. 1344–1322)232, 613
Ṣuprum256, 260
Šuqurtum93
Šurpu429
Šuruppak
map of world673, 673–4
tablets11, 75–6
Susa77, 630
construction and recycling of clay tablets6, 22–3
in Late Uruk period34
Stela of Hammurabi at569
school texts495, 500, 503, 581, 585see also proto-Elamite script
Šušarra19
sweets167–81
syllabaries79, 582
Syllabary A (Sa)79, 277, 563–4see also (Sa) vocabulary
Syllabary B (Sb)79, 563–4
Syllable Alphabet A100, 277
Syllable Alphabet B83
syllabograms68–9, 71
Synchronistic King List516
taboo352, 739–40: see also transgression
Tabqa Dam231
tabular accounts71–2, 472–3
Takil–ilissu of Malgium (r. 18th century)301
Takkatap (river)383
talio, penalty of215
tāmītu-texts450, 463, 524, 572
Tamtu, see Tiamat
Tarbiṣu317
Tarsus646
Tašmetu(m)98, 691, 739
Tašritu(m) (Month VII)669
festivals during477, 680
Tayma726
taxes <