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date: 20 June 2019

(p. xiii) List of Tables

(p. xiii) List of Tables

  1. 1.1 Levels of per capita GDP in late and early industrializing economies,1820–2006 (1990 international Geary-Khamis dollars) 3

  2. 2.1 Stylized characteristics of the three major categories of business groups 17

  3. 2.2 Stylized characteristics of comparable organization models 24

  4. 2.3 The largest economic players in late‐industrializing countries (except Japan), 2007 32

  5. 2.4 The largest private industrial economic agents in late‐industrializing countries (except Japan), 1987–2007 39

  6. 3.1 Multi‐regional business groups by 1914 71

  7. 3.2 Typology of the business groups around British trading companies, c.1870s–c.1970s 76

  8. 3.3 John Swire & Son group, c.1914 79

  9. 3.4 Harrisons & Crosfield group, c.1914 81

  10. 3.5 Jardine Matheson group, c.1938 83

  11. 4.1 Evolution of business groups in Japan 102

  12. 4.2 The proportion of group firms among the largest 100 industrial firms in Japan, 1921–42 105

  13. 4.3 Ownership structure and capital composition of business groups in Japan, 1921–37 109

  14. 4.4 Diversification of business groups in Japan, 1890–1937 112

  15. 4.5 Performance indexes and business groups in Japan, 1921–37 121

  16. 5.1 Member companies of presidents’ councils (shacho‐kai) of six major horizontal keiretsu groups in Japan, 1993 131

  17. 6.1 The top thirty business groups in Korea, 2006 160

  18. 6.2 Goals and achievements of the five‐year economic development plans, 1962–81 162

  19. 6.3 Leading Korean multinational firms, 2003 170

  20. (p. xiv) 7.1A Top thirty Taiwanese business groups, 1973 183

  21. 7.1B Top thirty Taiwanese business groups, 2006 187

  22. 7.2 Economic significance of the top 100 Taiwanese business groups, 1973–2006 188

  23. 7.3 Industrial diversification of the top 100 Taiwanese business groups, 1981–2004 191

  24. 7.4 Internationalization of the top 100 Taiwanese business groups, 1981–2002 193

  25. 7.5 Characteristics of the inner circle of the top 100 Taiwanese business groups, 1981–98 198

  26. 7.6 Top thirty most innovative Taiwanese groups based on domestic patent applications, 2005 201

  27. 7.7 Input, output, and capability of forty-eight listed group affiliates in Taiwan, 1990–8 205

  28. 8.1 Basic statistics of business groups in China, 1998–2007 212

  29. 8.2 Chinese firms in Fortune's Global 500, 2006 214

  30. 8.3 Largest business groups in China, 2006 215

  31. 8.4 China's top 500 business groups by sector, 2006 217

  32. 8.5 Distribution by the levels of state units in charge, 2007 221

  33. 8.6 Distribution by types of parent companies, 2007 223

  34. 8.7 Main economic indicators of top 500 groups by types of parent companies, 2005 225

  35. 8.8 Average size of top 500 groups by the ownership types, 2006 226

  36. 8.9 Research and development expenditure of business groups, 2001–5 228

  37. 8.10 Trends and degree of diversification 230

  38. 8.11 Growth performance of top 500 business groups (yearly growth in %),2002–6 232

  39. 8.12 Economic efficiency of China's top 500 business groups, 2002–6 232

  40. 8.13 Comparison of business groups with non‐business groups 233

  41. 9.1 Top 100 companies in Thailand by total sales and capital ownership, 1979–2004 239

  42. 9.2 Largest forty business groups in Thailand, 1979–2000 244

  43. (p. xv) 9.3 Largest forty business groups in Thailand and their business lines, 2000 248

  44. 9.4 Directorship of the Chirathivat family in the Central Department Store group, 2003 254

  45. 9.5 Ownership of commercial banks, 2008 262

  46. 10.1 Basic information on the largest business groups in Singapore, 2006 269

  47. 10.2 Principal activities of the Singaporean business groups, 2006 273

  48. 10.3 Percentage of subsidiaries of business groups that operated outside Asia out of the total number of subsidiaries, 1997 and 2006 278

  49. 10.4 Equity holding in the business group's core company by the largest block shareholder, 1997 and 2006 280

  50. 10.5 Percentage of outside directors on the board of the core companies of the business groups, 1997 and 2006 281

  51. 10.6 Identities of board chair/president, CEOs/managing directors in government‐linked corporations, 1997 and 2006 282

  52. 10.7 Relationships of board chair/president, CEOs/managing directors to the controling families of the private business groups, 1997 and 2006 287

  53. 11.1 Top ten business groups in India, 2006 302

  54. 11.2 Evolution of top twenty business groups, 1969–2006 304

  55. 11.3 Promoter ownership by type in major group affiliates, March 2007 308

  56. 11.4 Board characteristics of 500 large Indian companies, 2003 310

  57. 11.5 Share of the industry accounting for the largest proportion of group assets in the top ten business groups, 1991–2006 (%) 313

  58. 12.1 Business groups in Argentina: Preliminary profile 327

  59. 12.2 Business groups in Argentina: Origins 330

  60. 12.3 Business groups in Argentina: Ownership 335

  61. 12.4 Business groups in Argentina: Publicly traded companies 335

  62. 12.5 Business groups in Argentina: Active family involvement 336

  63. 12.6 Business groups in Argentina: Overlapping generations in family businesses 336

  64. 12.7 Business groups in Argentina: Governance—board composition 337

  65. 12.8 Business groups in Argentina: Governance—interlocking directorates 337

  66. 12.9 Business groups in Argentina: Organizational structure 337

  67. (p. xvi) 12.10 Business groups in Argentina: Dynamics of business diversification 340

  68. 13.1 The largest economic units in Brazil, 2007 355

  69. 13.2 Brazilian business groups’ companies listed on Bovespa, 2007 364

  70. 13.3 Top twenty largest private business groups, 1978, 1988, 1998, and 2005 370

  71. 13.4 Identity of the largest ultimate shareholders, 1997–2002 376

  72. 13.5 Cash‐flow rights, voting rights, and discrepancies between rights, public companies, and listed firms, 1997–2002 376

  73. 13.6 Controlling shareholders’ participation in the management and boards of directors of business groups’ publicly traded companies, 2007 377

  74. 14.1 Main features of the twenty‐five largest business groups in Chile, 2007 393

  75. 14.2 Importance of Chilean conglomerates, 1990–2002 396

  76. 14.3 Pyramidal schemes, 1990–2004 399

  77. 14.4 Ownership and control structure of Chilean conglomerates, 2002 400

  78. 14.5 Board composition, 1994–2003 402

  79. 14.6 Independent board members, 2000–3 403

  80. 14.7 Control structure of Chilean conglomerates, 1990–2002 405

  81. 14.8 Capital structure of Chilean conglomerates, 1990–2002 406

  82. 14.9 Sectors of economic activity of main Chilean business groups 408

  83. 15.1 The twenty largest business groups in Mexico, 2006 427

  84. 15.2 Principal activities of the twenty largest Mexican business groups, 2006 430

  85. 15.3 Overseas activities of principal subsidiaries of business groups, 2006 440

  86. 15.4 Shareholding in principal listed companies of business groups by the largest block shareholder, 2006 447

  87. 15.5 Chairman and CEO of principal listed companies of business groups, 2006 450

  88. 16.1 Distribution of business groups affiliated firms by industry, 1966 465

  89. 16.2 History of the Israeli business groups 471

  90. 16.3 Sample statistics: Group‐affiliated vs. unaffiliated firms, 1995–2005 481

  91. 16.4 Group affiliation and performance regressions, quarterly data, 1995–2005 482

  92. (p. xvii) 17.1 The fifty largest economic players in Turkey, 2005 491

  93. 17.2 Significance levels of Turkish economic players, 2005 495

  94. 17.3 Competitive capabilities of the largest business groups, 2007 497

  95. 17.4 Direction of industry diversification of the fifty largesteconomic players, 2005 500

  96. 17.5 Internationalization of Turkish business groups, 2007 506

  97. 17.6 The Koç group's growth strategy from the 1920s to 2007 508

  98. 17.7 Interlocking directorates at Beko Elektronik, Arçelik, and Koç Holding, 2007 513

  99. 17.8 Composition of the board of directors in the largest holding companies in Turkey, 2007 517

  100. 17.9 Board composition at Koç Holding, 1981–2005 518

  101. 17.10 Top management composition at Koç Holding, 1981–2005 519

  102. 18.1 Russian oligarchs, 2003 529

  103. 18.2 Sectoral structure of selected Russian business groups, 2008 537

  104. 18.3 Sectoral structure of the Basic Element business group 538

  105. 19.1 South Africa's largest business groups in the 1980s 550

  106. 19.2 Summary of control of JSE market capitalization (% of total),1986–2006 554

  107. 19.3 The main “black oligarchs”, 2007 563

  108. 20.1 Group affiliation around the world 577

  109. 20.2 Group heterogeneity around the world 578

  110. 24.1 Research questions on the governance of business groups 685

  111. 26.1 Strategy and diversification in business groups 728

  112. 26.2 Capability development in business groups 734

  113. 28.1 Transition in electronics: From OEM to ODM to OBM 767