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date: 25 February 2020

(p. xxiii) Abbreviations

(p. xxiii) Abbreviations

AAU

assigned amount unit

AIA

advanced informed agreement

AOSIS

Alliance of Small Island States

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ATS

Antarctic Treaty System

BAN

Basel Action Network

BAT

best available technique/technology

BATNEEC

best available technology not entailing excessive costs

BEP

best environmental practices

BINGO

business and industry non-governmental organization

BNFL

British Nuclear Fuels Ltd

BSE

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

CalPERS

California Public Employees’ Retirement System

CASCO

(ISO) Committee on Conformity Assessment

CBD

Convention on Biological Diversity

CBDR

common but differentiated responsibilities

CCAMLR

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources

CCSBT

Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna

CDM

Clean Development Mechanism

CEC

(NAAEC) Commission for Environmental Cooperation

CEM

continuous emissions monitoring

CEN

Comité Européen de Normalisation/European Committee for Standardization

CENELEC

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

CER

certified emission reduction

CERES

Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies

CFC

chlorofluorocarbon

CIEL

Center for International Environmental Law

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species

CMS

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

COP/MOP

Conference of the Parties/Meeting of the Parties

Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era

DOE

designated operational entity

DSU

(WTO) Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement ofDisputes

EATS

emissions and allowance tracking system

EB

executive board

EBRD

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

EC

European Community

ECG

(OECD) Working Party on Export Credits and Credit Guarantees

ECJ

Court of Justice of the European Communities

ECOSOC

(UN) Economic and Social Council

ECtHR

European Court of Human Rights

EEZ

exclusive economic zone

EIA

environmental impact assessment

EICC

Electronic Industry Code of Conduct

EMAS

(EU) Eco-Management and Audit Scheme

EMEP

Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe

EMS

environmental management system

EPA

(US) Environmental Protection Agency

ERU

emission reduction unit

ETS

emissions trading system

EU

European Union

EURATOM

European Atomic Energy Community

FEI

Fédération Economique Internationale

FMD

foot and mouth disease

FSC

Forest Stewardship Council

GAD

gender and development

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GDP

gross domestic product

GEF

Global Environment Facility

GESAMP

Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution

GHG

greenhouse gas

GLP

good laboratory practice

GMO

genetically modified organism

GPA

Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities

GRI

Global Reporting Initiative

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IAF

International Accreditation Forum

invasive alien species

IBRD

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

ICAO

UN International Civil Aviation Organization

ICCAT

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas

ICCPR

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICJ

International Court of Justice

ICRW

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

IDA

International Development Association

IEC

International Electrotechnical Commission

IEL

international environmental law

IFAD

International Fund for Agricultural Development

IFC

International Finance Corporation

IFCS

(WHO) Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety

IFI

international financial institution

IGO

intergovernmental organisation

IL

international law

ILA

International Law Association

ILC

International Law Commission

ILO

International Labour Organization

IMCO

International Maritime Consultative Organisation (now the IMO)

IMF

International Monetary Fund

IMO

International Maritime Organization

INC

intergovernmental negotiating committee

IO

international organization

IOMC

Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPOA

international plan ofaction

IPR

intellectual property rights

IR

international relations

ISA

International Seabed Authority

ISEAL

International Social and Environmental Accrediting and Labelling Alliance

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ITL

international transactions log

ITLOS

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

ITPGRFA

International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

IUCN

World Conservation Union (formerly International Union for the Conservation of Nature)

illegal, unregulated and unreported

IWC

International Whaling Commission

JI

joint implementation

LBS

land-based sources and activities of marine pollution

LMO

living modified organism

LOSC

(UN) Convention on the Law of the Sea

LOT

load-on-top system (oil pollution)

LRTAP

Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Convention)

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

MEA

multilateral environmental agreement

MEPC

(IMO) Maritime Environment Protection Committee

MFMP

Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol

MSC

Marine Stewardship Council

MSY

maximum sustainable yield

NAAEC

North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation

NAFO

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

NAO

(US) National Audit Office

NASCO

North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization

NEPAD

New Partnership for Africa's Development

NGO

non-governmental organization

NIEO

New International Economic Order

NOW

(US) National Organization for Women

NPM

new public management

NTTAA

(US) National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act

OAS

Organization ofAmerican States

ODA

official development assistance

ODS

ozone-depleting substance

OECD

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

OHCHR

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

OIE

World Organisation for Animal Health (formerly Organisation International Epizootique)

OP/BP

operational policy / bank policy

OSHA

(US) Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSPAR

Convention for Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic

P&I

protection and indemnity club

PCB

polychlorinated biphenyl

PCF

Prototype Carbon Fund

PD

prisoner's dilemma

PEFC

Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes

(Code of Conduct for) Plant Germoplasm Collecting and Transfer

PIC

prior informed consent

POP

persistent organic pollutant

PP

precautionary principle

PPM

process and production method

PRAM

(OSPAR)Programs and Measures Committee

RAINS

(LRTAP)Regional Acidification Information and Simulation

REACH

(EU Framework for) Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals

RIA

regulatory impact analysis

RMU

removal unit

RTB

race to the bottom

SADC

Southern African Development Community

SAICM

Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management

SAP

structural adjustment programme

SBT

southern bluefin tuna

SDR

special drawing right

SEAFO

South-East Atlantic Fisheries Organisation

SEP

supplemental environmental project

SRI

socially responsible investment

TEAP

(Montreal Protocol) Technology and Economic Assessment Panel

TNC

transnational corporation

TRAFFIC

Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce

TRIPS

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

TWAIL

third world approaches to international law

UN

United Nations

UNCC

United Nations Compensation Commission

UNCED

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio Conference)

UNCERD

United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

UNCHE

United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)

UNCHR

United Nations Commission on Human Rights

UNCSD

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFAO

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNGA

United Nations General Assembly

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UNITAR

United Nations Institute for Training and Research

USAID

United States Agency for International Development

USSR

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

VOC

volatile organic compound

WAD

Women and Development

WBCSD

World Business Council for Sustainable Development

WCAR

World Conference against Racism

WCD

World Commission on Dams

WCED

World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission)

WCN

World Charter for Nature

WCS

World Conservation Strategy

WEDO

Women's Environment & Development Organization

WEO

World Environmental Organization

WESD

Women, Environment and Sustainable Development

WHO

World Health Organization

WID

Women in Development

WIPO

World Intellectual Property Organization

WRI

World Resources Institute

WSF

World Social Forum

WSSD

World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesberg Conference)

WTO

World Trade Organization

WWF

Worldwide Fund for Nature (formerly World Wildlife Fund)