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date: 18 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Good monitoring and verification of practices in international institutions are important in building trust between and among cooperating parties, and in strengthening wider societal confidence. This article investigates the increasing use of flexibility mechanisms and related challenges to monitoring and verification. There is a clear movement towards the use of flexible mechanisms, particularly emissions trading, as central environmental policy instruments, both at the domestic and international levels. This article examines global and regional regimes and institutions, as well as pollution and resource-management regimes. The data are drawn from ‘atmospheric’ regimes such as the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, the ozone layer regime, and the climate change regime. The article also considers examples from other regimes such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and the North Sea cooperation. In the field of international environmental politics, there are good reasons to look closely at the European Union.

Keywords: European Union, monitoring, verification, flexibility mechanisms, emissions trading, pollution, resource management, ozone layer, climate change, international environmental politics

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